ABAB Design Sociology

ABAB Design Sociology

ABAB Design Sociology

A reversal design aims to establish the reversibility of the manipulation of the independent variable. The form of a reversal design is: A (baseline period) B (treatment period) A (baseline period). Hence the sequence, this is also called an ABA design (or a withdrawal design). In this type of design, the researchers must observe the participants’ behavior during the baseline control period (A), then again in the treatment phase (B), and once more in the second baseline period (A) when the treatment has been removed.
An ABAB design is superior to an ABA design because it shows two problems with the reversal design; one that the treatment may not be efficiently powerful evidence for the effectiveness of treatment. For example, the observed reversal could be due to a random fluctuation in a participant’s behavior that is due to a unique event in the participant’s life, not related to the experiment. If the treatment is repeated a second or even a third time, it is less likely to have a random fluctuation in the participant’s life. The second problem with the reversal design that ABAB fixes is that it is not ethical to completely cut a participant off of a drug (withdrawal) if it may be beneficial to the participant. ABAB allows the participant to re-experience the treatment rather than be cut off from it.

Spirituality is very individualized. The meaning comes from the idea of having a connection or relationship to god or a higher power through our own human soul as opposed to a physical being. I see spirituality through my own christian worldview, as a positive outlook on the present world. Spirituality can be expressed in many ways and does not necessarily need to be based in religion (Sartori, 2010). However, I personally do identify with spirituality through religion and I think it has a positive influence on my nursing care. The values within the christian faith carry into the nursing profession in a thoughtful, compassionate, and respectful way.  “When addressing spiritual needs it is essential to take a genuine interest in the patient as a person, show concern, kindness, have empathy with them, take the time to listen and respect their point of view. Some patients may find it difficult to express spiritual concerns” (Sartori, 2010). As nurses it is our job to advocate for the patient and provide them with a safe space to heal. We must do that in a way that the patient is comfortable with, we need to listen to the patient and respect their needs and their wishes in regards to spirituality. 

Part 3: Description of Variables and A-B-A-B design
·For this section of your Course Project, Assessment of Student Learning: Utilizing Single-subject Design, you apply your knowledge to your own work.  To prepare to complete this section of Course Project, carefully watch the videos by Dr. Falcomata, and read the required articles and sections of the O’Neill text in the Module 3 Learning Resources.  Pay particular attention to the behaviors addressed through specific A-B-A-B designs and Table 6.1 in your O’Neill text.

·Write 2–3 pages describing your A-B-A-B design by identify the following:

oOperationally define the dependent and independent variables that align with the problem statement and research questions.

oOperationally define the intervention.

oDiscuss the baseline (A), how you will collect baseline data, and provide a rationale for how these methods align with your study.

oDescribe the intervention (B) you will implement until stable performance has been established and how you will collect this data.

oDiscuss your plan to withdraw the intervention and reinstate baseline (A).

oDescribe how you will reintroduce the intervention (B) and collect this data.

oInclude research to support each component.

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Required Readings

Florian, L. (Ed.). (2014). The SAGE handbook of special education (2nd ed.). London, England: Sage.

Chapter 22, “The Applied Science of Special Education: Quantitative Approaches, the Questions They Address, and How They Inform Practice”(pp. 369–388)

Focus on quantitative designs and why they are key for research in the field of SPED
Rumrill, P. D., Cook, B. G., & Stevenson, N. A. (2020). Research in special education: Designs, methods, and applications (3rd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, LTD.

Chapter 6, “Quantitative Research Designs” (pp. 113–147)

Focus on the spectrum of relationship and descriptive studies. Note correlational designs and causal comparative studies. Develop an understanding of surveys, case studies, program evaluation, archival research, longitudinal studies, empirical literature reviews, and meta-analysis.
Consult the following readings for work on your Course Project Component Assignment during this module:

O’Neill, R. E., McDonnell, J. J., Billingsley, F. F., & Jenson, W. R. (2011). Single case research designs in educational and community settings. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Chapter 6, “Withdrawal and Reversal Designs” (pp. 79–98)

Focus on the range of designs, beginning with the A-B and progressing to reversal designs. Pay particular to the various adaptations to reversal designs. Review approaches when comparing two or more interventions, or two or more groups.
Chapter 7, “Multiple Baseline and Multiple Probe Designs” (pp. 99–116)

Focus on approaches to design that support measuring the acquisition of new skills. Reflect on options when returning to a baseline rate may be unethical. Consider the characteristics of multiple baseline and multiple probe designs.

The scientific analysis of behavior seeks to demonstrate a functional relationship between an independent variable (IV, i.e., the intervention) and the behavior or dependent variable (DV; Baer, Wolf, & Risely, 1968; Skinner, 1953). Experimentation is designed to demonstrate how the IV impacts or changes the DV; in other words, how does an intervention change behavior.  In order to accomplish this goal of determining the relationship between the IV and the DV, single-case research designs (SCD) are most often utilized.  One basic, but powerful SCD is the withdrawal or ABAB design.

Withdrawal designs, also known as ABAB designs, rely on the comparisons between conditions when an intervention is in place and conditions when that intervention is not being implemented. This comparison demonstrates the impact of the IV on the DV (Ledford & Gast, 2018 p. 217).  Within these designs, typically an initial baseline condition (A1) is first implemented in which the IV is not in place.  Usually baseline recording continues until a stable trend is established.  Then the IV or intervention (B1) is put into place, with data again being recorded until a stable trend is displayed.  The next condition withdraws the IV and returns to the baseline condition (A2), which if successful in establishing a functional relationship, should show a data pattern similar to the first baseline (A1).  The last condition is reinstating the IV (B2), which should be similar to the data in (B1) if a functional relationship is to be demonstrated.

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A traditional withdrawal design allows for comparisons over time between two baseline and two intervention conditions, though variations with additional A or B conditions can be utilized (e.g., ABABAB).  The power of these comparisons is that if responding (i.e., the dependent variable) shows consistent levels during both baseline conditions that are different than consistent responding in the two intervention conditions, then a strong case for the IV being the change of behavior can be made.  For example, if the behavior of calling out in class follows the pattern in figure 1 in which baseline responding in A1 and A2 is significantly higher than responding during intervention phases B1 and B2, then we have strong evidence that a functional relationship exists.  When the intervention is first put into place (B1) it shows a change in the frequency of the behavior. However, there is the possibility that other changes in the environment occurring at the same time are what caused the decrease in frequency.  The withdrawal of the IV (A2) and resulting increase in responding makes the case that the other variables which may or may not still be in place become less likely to be a cause of the change in rate.  The second implementation of the IV (B2) and resulting decrease of responding provides further evidence that changes in the DV are primarily due to the implementation of the IV.  Due to the consistency of these changes over time, the research design presents a strong case for ruling out the impact of other variables besides the IV.  Thus, the withdrawal design can be a highly effective tool to demonstrate that the IV is the variable that is causing the change in frequency and provides evidence that the intervention is effective.

In my own worldview, spirituality is acknowledging that even if people have their own deity, the common ground is knowing that there may be a higher being that exists in the world. For me, this higher being is good and that we are created quite similarly for a reason. I like to think that we are all connected somehow as our layers are so similar and we are made out of similar things, biologically speaking. I like to think that there is something good in humankind and so I meditate about this almost daily. It seems as if my culture that is heavy on Christianity plays a role, but I have a lot of love toward differences. 

I feel that this has influenced my patient care because not only is individualized care important, it is important to accept the person’s beliefs and care for them without any judgment. My spirituality, which also is influenced heavily by Christianity, has taught me that having faith through a higher being includes all of life’s good existence in all that humans experience (Bogue and Hogan, 2018). This is what exists in ordinary life while doing things such as traveling, forming relationships, and as our text stated, also in the nursing field to name a few (Bogue and Hogan, 2018). For me, I find satisfaction whenever I care for my patients even if the nursing field is one of the craziest decisions I’ve ever done in my life. However, serving others gave me purpose as a human being which I am willing to do.


Bogue, D.W, Hogan, M. (2018). Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics. In An Introduction to Christian Values and Decision Making in Health Care. (Chapter 1). Grand Canyon University. https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/1