Assignment: Ethical Dimensions of Research Studies

Assignment: Ethical Dimensions of Research Studies

Assignment: Ethical Dimensions of Research Studies

The literature review is a critical piece in the research process because it helps a researcher determine what is currently known about a topic and identify gaps or further questions. Conducting a thorough literature review can be a time-consuming process, but the effort helps establish the foundation for everything that will follow. For this part of your Course Project, you will conduct a brief literature review to find information on the question you developed in Week 2. This will provide you with experience in searching databases and identifying applicable resources.

To prepare for Ethical Dimensions of Research Studies Assignment:

Review the information in Chapter 5 of the course text, focusing on the steps for conducting a literature review and for compiling your findings.
Using the question you selected in your Week 2 Project (Part 1 of the Course Project), locate 5 or more full-text research articles that are relevant to your PICOT question. Include at least 1 systematic review and 1 integrative review if possible. Use the search tools and techniques mentioned  in your readings this week to enhance the comprehensiveness and objectivity of your review. You may gather these articles from any appropriate source, but make sure at least 3 of these articles are available as full-text versions through Walden Library’s databases.
Read through the articles carefully. Eliminate studies that are not appropriate and add others to your list as needed. Although you may include more, you are expected to include a minimum of five articles. Complete a literature review summary table using the Literature Review Summary Table Template located in this week’s Learning Resources.
Prepare to summarize and synthesize the literature using the information on writing a literature review found in Chapter 5 of the course text.
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To complete Ethical Dimensions of Research Studies Assignment:
Write a 3- to 4-page literature review that includes the following:

A synthesis of what the studies reveal about the current state of knowledge on the question that you developedPoint out inconsistencies and contradictions in the literature and offer possible explanations for inconsistencies.
Preliminary conclusions on whether the evidence provides strong support for a change in practice or whether further research is needed to adequately address your inquiry
Your literature review summary table with all references formatted in correct APA style

Controlled Variable: Results Evidence Level Hierarchy NURS 6052 Literature Review Summary Table Running title: THE EFFECT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP IN THE MIDDLE-AGED 1 The Influence of Lifestyle on the Prevalence of Hypertension in Middle-Aged People

Assignment Ethical Dimensions of Research Studies
Assignment Ethical Dimensions of Research Studies

Walden University NURS 6052 Essentials of Evidence-Based Practice 7th of December, 2017 Cooke, Antwan THE EFFECT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP IN THE MIDDLE-AGED 2 The Effects of High Blood Pressure on Middle-Aged Living Cardiovascular diseases have become a common problem in recent years. High blood pressure, on the other hand, is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases. As blood is pumped from the heart through the arteries to other body organs, a specific level of pressure must be maintained to sustain the flow while also aligning with the capacity of the blood vessels. When this pressure exceeds the pressure that the blood vessels can withstand, both the blood vessels and the organs that receive this blood are at risk. As a result, the distribution of vital body requirements such as oxygen and nutrients is affected. There are numerous studies that focus on this issue, particularly given its importance in the healthcare sector. While many of these studies focus on specific at-risk groups, very few investigate the broader issues surrounding the problem, such as causes, risk factors, interventions, prevention, and secondary illnesses. At the same time, the disease’s prevalence and risk factors may change over time, necessitating a continuous update of the studies in order to identify the problem’s current location.

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This has an impact on long-established roles in nursing practice centered on patient education for hypertension management. “The role of nurses in public and professional education to improve hypertension control has been recognized for nearly 50 years, as promoted by the US National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee reports and other publications” (Himmelfarb, Mensah, & Hill 2016, para. 4). In order to gain a better understanding of the problem, this paper will devise a strategy for investigating various recent studies on various aspects of high blood pressure and consolidating the discussions into a single comprehensive document. The Problem’s Importance High blood pressure has become a widespread issue, particularly among the young and middle-aged. In this case, high blood pressure accounts for at least 12% of the total IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONG THE MIDDLE-AGED 3 annual mortalities worldwide (Bromfield & Muntner, 2013). However, the disease’s prevalence can vary from place to place and from population to population. According to Joffres, Falaschetti, Gillespie, Robitaille, and Campbell (2013), more than 75 million Americans suffer from high blood pressure, accounting for 29 percent of the total US population. While this is a major issue in the general population, races such as non-Hispanic whites are at a higher risk of developing high blood pressure (Lackland, 2014). Unfortunately, some of these studies take a long time to complete before their findings are made public. Simultaneously, the causes and risk factors may change from time to time. According to Lindsay, Connor, Joffres, Birtwhistle, and Cloutier (2013), people’s lifestyles have changed dramatically in the last decade or so compared to lifestyles a decade or two ago. High blood pressure happens to be one of the most common lifestyle diseases (Diaz & Shimbo, 2013). As a result, the prevalence, causes, risk factors, and available treatments for the disease must be constantly updated. This will then assist the public in understanding how to address the issue. Comprehensive results detailing every aspect of high blood pressure are required. Researchers have clearly given high blood pressure the attention it deserves.

In this case, a simple search on various catalogs avails a large number of articles and books discussing various issues regarding the disease. Unfortunately, a simple analysis of the results indicates that most of these studies focus on a particular area rather than the whole problem. This leaves a lot of gaps in the results. While it may be important to generate the specific results as a way of creating a more meaningful understanding of that particular area, it is equally necessary to consolidate all the aspects of the disease. For instance, it is necessary to avail information regarding both the risk factors and the prevention at the same time in order to create the best impact. If this study is accomplished, it will thus be of high IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED 4 significance to the healthy population, patients with high blood pressure, health practitioners and caregivers, and the wider health sector. Research questions A number of research questions have been developed in order to help in exploring the problem. However, some of the most significant questions and a description of their feasibility will be discussed in this section. 1. What are the risk factors for high blood pressure? This is an important research question for this paper. In this case, it helps in identifying the things that make people susceptible to high blood pressure. As discussed by Tespaye, Byass & Wall (2009), for example, being middle-aged puts one at a higher risk of getting high blood pressure than it is the case for the elderly. At the same time, a group such as the non-Hispanic Whites in the US is at a relatively higher risk than the African Americans (Lackland, 2014). There is a lot of data regarding the risk factors, which means that this will be important while studying the problem. 2. What are the causes of high blood pressure? There are various causes of high blood pressure. While many studies have developed a set of causes regarding the disease, it is difficult to identify one that explores all the possible causes. As such, this area may need more focus as a way of developing a better understanding. 3. How prevalent is high blood pressure and how does it vary? High blood pressure is highly prevalent. As discussed earlier, however, this prevalence may vary from place to place as well as from one group to another.

As such, exploring the IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED 5 prevalence from various regions may be important in order to generate results that best represent the general population. 4. What interventions are available for high blood pressure and which are the most appropriate? Various interventions exist regarding the disease. However, they may work differently for different groups. While most of these interventions are often generalized, it may be important to illustrate how well each of them works and to which group. 5. How does one know when they have high blood pressure? It is important to discuss the diagnosis of the disease. Similar to other diseases, high blood pressure has a number of signs and symptoms that one can evaluate to determine its existence as well as other laboratory tests that could be done to generate a better conclusion. Pico question This study will focus on the middle-aged as the population of the study. At the same time, the paper will also focus on a change of lifestyle as the intervention of the disease. The expected outcome revolves around a decline or rise in the risk factors of high blood pressure. In this paper, this will be represented by the chances of the disease. The following PICO question will thus guide this study. Does a change of lifestyle determine the chances of high blood pressure amongst the middle-aged population? Keywords It is important to develop a set of keywords that will guide the process of research. In order to generate good results, the following keywords have been developed after narrowing down the PICO question. IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED • High blood pressure • Prevalence of high blood pressure • Risk factors of high blood pressure • High blood pressure amongst the middle-aged • Impact of age on prevalence of high blood pressure • Interventions of high blood pressure • Causes of high blood pressure • How to prevent high blood pressure • Impact of lifestyle on high blood pressure • Lifestyles that contribute to high blood pressure 6 IMPACT OF LIFESTYLE ON HBP AMONGST THE MIDDLE-AGED References Bromfield, S., & Muntner, P. (2013). High Blood Pressure: The Leading Global Burden of Disease Risk Factor and the Need for Worldwide Prevention Programs. Current Hypertension Reports, 15(3), 134–136. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-013-0340-9 Diaz, K. M., & Shimbo, D. (2013). Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension. Current Hypertension Reports, 15(6), 659–668. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-013-0386-8 Himmelfarb, C., Mensh, Y., & Hill, M. (2016). Expanding the Role of Nurses to Improve Hypertension Care and Control Globally.

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.