Etiology and Risk Factors
Etiology and Risk Factors
One of the goals of Healthy People 2020 is to reduce health disparities among populations.
Select one of the leading health indicators as identified by Healthy People
2020 and write a research paper of 750-1,000 words on the health disparities
related to that condition. For the health indicator selected, the paper should
include a discussion on the following:
Definition of the problem
Descriptive epidemiology (person, place, time)
Etiology (causes, risk factors)
What disparities do we know exist for this disease?
Why do these disparities exist?
What explanations have been offered or supported?
What research questions have not been studied that may provide new, insightful information regarding this health problem?
Why is it an important public health problem?
What are some social, political, or economic barriers in our current health care system that impede disease prevention and health promotion for this health problem?
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How would you educate/disseminate information about this health problem to the public? (target group, financial constraints)
How could one of a health administrator/manager’s general policies or policies specific
to this health condition impact the health status of the target population?
You are required to use a minimum of three scholarly resources.
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide,
located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade
the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning
the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations
for successful completion of the assignment.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the directions in
the Student Success Center. Only Word documents can be submitted to LopesWrite.
Despite important new research findings and improvements in the science of obstetrics, our understanding of the basic causes of preterm labor and intrauterine growth retardation is limited. In the absence of adequate knowledge about etiology, a large body of information has developed about factors associated with low birthweight, often termed “risk factors,” because their presence in an individual woman indicates an increased chance, or risk, of bearing a low birthweight infant. This chapter outlines data both on the etiology of prematurity and IUGR and on the risk factors associated with these outcomes of pregnancy. It also describes the process of risk assessment and analyzes several risk assessment systems.
As described in the previous chapter, the term low birth weight can refer to three often intertwined outcomes of pregnancy: preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal growth retardation (IUGR), and a combination of both. Although little is known about the various mechanisms that produce these conditions, several theoretical models have been developed as a basis for further research and are outlined in this section.
The mechanism for the initiation and maintenance of normal human labor is not known, but substantial progress has been made in understanding some of the important associated physiologic and biochemical events.1 Information about the onset of preterm labor is more fragmentary and speculative.2
Endocrine changes in the uteroplacental environment appear to be the principal factors leading to the development of uterine contractions.3 These endocrine changes involve hormones from both the mother and the fetus; cortisol, estrogen, and progesterone appear to play major roles. Much of this information is based on studies of sheep in which the process starts about 10 days before labor.
Topic 1 DQ 1
Oct 3-5, 2022
What would spirituality be according to your own worldview? How do you believe that your conception of spirituality would influence the way in which you care for patients?
According to Hart (1994, p. 23), spirituality is the way a person lives out their beliefs in daily life and the way they “respond to the end conditions of individual existence” (Bożek, Nowak, , & Blukacz, 2020).A sense of peace and well-being are generated by spirituality, which is defined by faith, a search for life’s meaning and purpose and a feeling of belonging with one another. Through spiritual connection life satisfaction may increase or make it easier to accommodate illness or disability. Although, the idea of spirituality encompasses a huge range of personal experiences and convictions. Every individual has a unique perspective on spirituality. We may develop more comprehensive and compassionate healthcare systems by addressing the spiritual needs of our patients.
Nurses are being required more and more to recognize and respond to spiritual issues because of the emphasis on holistic care and meeting the requirements of each individual patient. Physical healing, pain relief, and personal development might result from attending to the patient’s spiritual needs. The nurse must attend to the patient’s emotional as well as physical demands in order to meet their total needs.The way in which we provide patient care would be influenced by our personal understanding of spirituality. For example, my spiritual beliefs consist of treating everyone with respect, compassion, care and equality regardless of their health status, race, spiritual view, gender, etc. I can take that into consideration into my practice by providing culturally competent, holistic care so I can better understand what I can do to assist the patient’s physical, spiritual, and mental wellbeing. Further, hospitals are held liable by The Joint Commission (TJC) for upholding patient rights, which includes making accommodations for cultural, religious, and spiritual values. The bodies, minds, and spirits of patients must all be taken into consideration by healthcare practitioners and systems (Swihart, Yarrarapu, & Martin, 2021).
Bożek, A., Nowak, P. F., & Blukacz, M. (2020). The Relationship Between Spirituality, Health-Related Behavior, and Psychological Well-Being. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01997
Swihart, D.L., Yarrarapu ,S.N.S & Martin R.L. (2021). Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice. StatPearls Publishing https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK493216/