Health Care Data in a Country Presentation
Health Care Data in a Country Presentation
We want to examine social determinants of health and/or health inequalities.
We are going to explore the health of Floridians using maps and social determinants of health, such as age, gender, ethnicity, or income levels.
1) Navigate to Florida Charts.
2) Select a county or counties of interest.
3) Gather health care data on your county (Palm Beach County) . You can look at a variety of factors such as income, causes of death, and/or health insurance coverage.
4) You can either compare the differences among people in your county on the social determinants of health, or you can compare two counties.
5) Using Florida charts, download charts and maps to show your comparison. What patterns did find?
6) Summarize your results in a powerpoint
Link (Links to an external site.) to Florida Charts
Link (Links to an external site.) to Florida Charts mapper
Health data is any data “related to health conditions, reproductive outcomes, causes of death, and quality of life” for an individual or population. Health data includes clinical metrics along with environmental, socioeconomic, and behavioral information pertinent to health and wellness. A plurality of health data are collected and used when individuals interact with health care systems. This data, collected by health care providers, typically includes a record of services received, conditions of those services, and clinical outcomes or information concerning those services. Historically, most health data has been sourced from this framework. The advent of eHealth and advances in health information technology, however, have expanded the collection and use of health data—but have also engendered new security, privacy, and ethical concerns. The increasing collection and use of health data by patients is a major component of digital health.
Health data are classified as either structured or unstructured. Structured health data is standardized and easily transferable between health information systems. For example, a patient’s name, date of birth, or a blood-test result can be recorded in a structured data format. Unstructured health data, unlike structured data, is not standardized. Emails, audio recordings, or physician notes about a patient are examples of unstructured health data. While advances in health information technology have expanded collection and use, the complexity of health data has hindered standardization in the health care industry. As of 2013, it was estimated that approximately 60% of health data in the United States were unstructured.
Health informatics, a field of health data management, superseded medical informatics in the 1970s. Health informatics, which is broadly defined as the collection, storage, distribution, and use of health data, differs from medical informatics in its use of information technology.
Individuals are the origin of all health data, yet the most direct if often overlooked is the informal personal collection of data. Examples include an individual checking off that they’ve taken their medication on a personal calendar, or an individual tallying the amount sleep they’ve gotten over the last week.
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Sources of health data
Prior to recent technological advances, most health data were collected within health care systems. As individuals move through health care systems, they interact with health care providers and this interaction produces health information. These touch points include, clinics/physician offices, pharmacies, payers/insurance companies, hospitals, laboratories, and senior homes. Information is also collected through participation in clinical trials, health agency surveys, medical devices, and genomic testing. This information, once recorded, becomes health data. This data typically includes a record of services received, conditions of those services, and clinical outcomes consequent of those services. For example, a blood draw may be a service received, a white blood cell count may be a condition of that service, and a reported measurement of white blood cells may be an outcome of that service. Information also frequently collected and found in medical records includes, administrative and billing data, patient demographic information, progress notes, vital signs, medications diagnoses, immunization dates, allergies, and lab results.
Recent advances in health information technology have expanded the scope of health data. Advances in health information technology have fostered the eHealth paradigm, which has expanded the collection, use, and philosophy of health data. EHealth, a term coined in the health information technology industry, has been described in academia as
an emerging field [at] the intersection of medical informatics, public health and business, referring to health services and information delivered or enhanced through the Internet and related technologies. In a broader sense, the term characterizes not only a technical development, but also a state-of-mind, a way of thinking, an attitude, and a commitment for networked, global thinking, to improve health care … using information and communication technology.
From the confluence of eHealth and mobile technology emerged mHealth, which is considered a subsector of eHealth. mHealth has been defined as
medical and public health practice supported by mobile devices … . mHealth involves the use and capitalization on a mobile phone’s core utility of voice and short messaging service (SMS) as well as more complex functionalities and applications including general packet radio service (GPRS), third and fourth generation mobile telecommunications (3G and 4G systems), global positioning system (GPS), and Bluetooth technology.
The emergence of eHealth and mHealth have expanded the definition of health data by creating new opportunities for patient-generated health data (PGHD). PGHD has been defined as “health-related data—including health history, symptoms, biometric data, treatment history, lifestyle choices, and other information—created, recorded, gathered, or inferred by or from patients or their designees … to help address a health concern.” MHealth allows patients to monitor and report PGHD outside of a clinical setting. For example, a patient could use a blood monitor interfaced with her or his smartphone to track and distribute PGHD.
PGHD, mHealth, eHealth, and other technological development such as telemedicine, constitute a new digital health paradigm. Digital health describes a patient-centric health care system in which patients manage their own health and wellness with new technologies that will gather and assess their data.
Data has become increasingly valuable in the 21st century and new economies have been shaped by who controls it—health data and the health care industry are unlikely to be an exception. An increase in PGHD has led some experts to envision a future in which patients have greater influence over the health care system. Patients may use their leverage as data producers to demand more transparency, open science, clearer data use consent, more patient engagement in research, development, and delivery, and greater access to research outcomes. Put another way, it is foreseeable that “health care will be owned, operated, and driven by consumers.” Moreover, some large technology companies have entered the PGHD space. One example is Apple’s ResearchKit. These companies may use their newfound PGHD leverage to enter and disrupt the health care market.