NUR 2058 DQ Comparing and Contrasting Theories
NUR 2058 DQ Comparing and Contrasting Theories
For this discussion, in three to four paragraphs, contrast two nursing models and theories found in your reading. Discuss how they are similar or different in the way the define/discuss health and wellness, illness, the client, the environment, and nursing. Summarize by selecting the one model or theory that aligns best with your beliefs and then describe how this would affect the way in which you would practice nursing.
Nursing as a practice has evolved over time from men being the main care providers to a time when early nurses were considered witches to today where a nurse practitioner is a primary care provider working alongside physicians to offer care to diverse patients and health populations (Silva & Ferreira, 2021). From the Christianity era when men were caregivers and nursing was a religious vocation, to a time when women doing nursing for the ill and aged had to overcome the speculation of nursing being evil. The entry of Florence Nightingale christened as the lady with the lamp demonstrated the emergence of nursing as a profession where one needed to get trained to practice. Nightingale illustrated this approach by compiling her thoughts and published “Notes on Nursing in 1859 (McMenamin et al., 2019). Nightingale also illustrated the importance of nursing during the Crimean War leading to more women participating in caring for their husbands, brothers, and fathers hurt in the American Civil War. Nursing earned a respected position as profession with the successful opening of The Nightingale Training School for Nurses in England in 1860. By 1798, physicians who had recognized the role played by nurses initiated courses for those interested in nursing in the United States. For instance, the Nurse Society of Philadelphia trained women in caring for mothers during childbirth and postpartum period.
In the early part of nursing’s history, there was little formal nursing knowledge. As nursing education developed, the need to categorize knowledge led to development of nursing theory to help nurses evaluate increasingly complex client care situations.
Nursing theories give a plan for reflection in which to examine a certain direction in where the plan needs to head. As new situations are encountered, this framework provides an arrangement for management, investigation and decision-making. Nursing theories also administer a structure for communicating with other nurses and with other representatives and members of the health care team.
Nursing theories assist the development of nursing in formulating beliefs, values and goals. They help to define the different particular contribution of nursing with the care of clients. Nursing theory guides research and practice.
Not all theories in nursing are unique nursing theories; many are borrowed or shared with other disciplines. Theories developed by Neuman, Watson, Parse, Orlando and Peplau are considered unique nursing theories. Theories and concepts that originated in related sciences have been borrowed by nurses to explain and explore phenomena specific to nursing.
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Grand nursing theories
Grand nursing theories have the broadest scope and present general concepts and propositions. Theories at this level may both reflect and provide insights useful for practice but are not designed for empirical testing. This limits the use of grand nursing theories for directing, explaining, and predicting nursing in particular situations. However, these theories may contain concepts that can lend themselves to empirical testing. Theories at this level are intended to be pertinent to all instances of nursing. Grand theories consist of conceptual frameworks defining broad perspectives for practice and ways of looking at nursing phenomena based on the perspectives.
Mid-range nursing theories
Middle-range nursing theories are narrower in scope than grand nursing theories and offer an effective bridge between grand nursing theories and nursing practice. They present concepts and a lower level of abstraction and guide theory-based research and nursing practice strategies. One of the hallmarks of mid-range theory compared to grand theories is that mid-range theories are more tangible and verifiable through testing. The functions of middle-range theories includes to describe, explain, or predict phenomenon. Middle-range theories are simple, straightforward, general, and consider a limited number of variables and limited aspect of reality.
Nursing practice theories
Nursing practice theories have the most limited scope and level of abstraction and are developed for use within a specific range of nursing situations. Nursing practice theories provide frameworks for nursing interventions, and predict outcomes and the impact of nursing practice. The capacity of these theories is limited, and analyzes a narrow aspect of a phenomenon. Nursing practice theories are usually defined to an exact community or discipline.
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