PSY 201 Discussion Piaget’s Theory

PSY 201 Discussion Piaget’s Theory

PSY 201 Discussion Piaget’s Theory

Compare and contrast Piaget’s theory of cognitive development with the theories proposed by Vygotsky and Bandura. Use the following scenario: you are a second grade teacher and are writing a lesson plan to teach math facts (addition and subtraction).

Based on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, what materials would you incorporate into your lesson plan? Be specific and explain how your plan is driven by Piaget’s theory.

How would you change your lesson plan based on Vygotsky’s theory? Based on Bandura’s theory?

DQ2 IQ and Genetics

It used to be thought that IQ was strictly determined by genetics. After reading After the Bell Curve, do you believe that IQ is solely influenced by genetics? Based on your readings, what advice would you offer to parents/caregivers/and educators in order to maximize IQ?

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PSY 201 Discussion Piaget's Theory
PSY 201 Discussion Piaget’s Theory

Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget took the intellectual functioning of adults as the central phenomenon to be explained and wanted to know how an adult acquired the ability to think logically and to draw valid conclusions about the world from evidence. Piaget’s theory rests on the fundamental notion that the child develops through stages until arriving at a stage of thinking that resembles that of an adult. The four stages given by Piaget are: (1) the sensorimotor stage from birth to 2 years, (2) the preoperational stage from 2 to 7 years, (3) the concrete-operational stage from 7 to 12 years, and (4) the stage of formal operations that characterizes the adolescent and the adult. One of Piaget’s fundamental assumptions is that early intellectual growth arises primarily out of the child’s interactions with objects in the environment. For example, Piaget believed that a two-year-old child who repeatedly builds and knocks down a tower of blocks is learning that the arrangement of objects in the world can be reversed. According to Piaget, children organize and adapt their experiences with objects into increasingly sophisticated cognitive models that enable them to deal with future situations in more effective ways. The older child, for instance, who has learned the concept of reversibility, will be able to execute an intelligent and logical search for a missing object, retracing steps, for example, in order to determine where he or she may have dropped a set of keys. As children pass through successive stages of cognitive development, their knowledge of the world assumes different forms, with each stage building on the models and concepts acquired in the preceding stage. Adolescents in the final developmental stage, that of formal operations, are able to think in a rational and systematic manner about hypothetical problems that are not necessarily in accord with their experience. Piaget’s theory is treated in greater detail below in the sections on cognitive development in infancy and childhood.

Learning theory
A more distinctively American theoretical view focuses primarily on the child’s actions, rather than on his emotions or thinking. This point of view, called learning theory, is concerned with identifying those mechanisms that can be offered to explain differences in behaviour, motives, and values among children. Its major principles stress the effects of reward and punishment (administered by parents, teachers, and peers) on the child’s tendency to adopt the behaviour and values of others. Learning theory is thus directed to the overt actions of the child, rather than to inner psychological states or mechanisms.

Every individual has their own beliefs and aspects regarding their life. the way of living depends on their culture and traditions. The worldview is a point of view to understanding someone’s personal experience, traditions, and the events of societies and history (Vidal, 2008). The other example of a worldview is the person who has ideas related to reality and knows the way how to interpret the experience of how the world is operating out is called a worldview (Taves, et al., 2018).

The concept of spirituality is a very wide experience of personal beliefs. Every person has their own perception related to spirituality. Spirituality may depend on religious traditions or the belief in a higher power (Elizabeth, S., 2022). It is also depending on the historic belief in an individual connection to others. It may be related to the thinking and experience of the world as a whole as it is felt by a person in their life on the level of physical and sensory perception. Spirituality is a way to find comfort and relieve stress for people. Some research shows that it is a different path to search for God or a higher power, and it also supports the reality of those persons who are more spiritual or religious are able to cope with challenges and stress. You can check for connections of spirituality by asking deep questions related to illness, emotions, or what happens after death, the experience of compassion and empathy for others, connection to others, and the feeling of happiness beyond the material possessions checking for meaning and purpose of life, and the looking for the chance to make the world a better place.

There are so many different types of spirituality that the person can get connected with their own ways such as breath work, meditation, prayer, serving their community, spending time with nature, yoga, spiritual retreats, etc. As the question asked related to spirituality and the way I can influence the way of care of my patients, I can apply this in my profession while finding the purpose and meaning of my job and responsibilities for my patient to relieve their stress, worries, and to provide comfort by releasing their stress. I will make myself capable to deal with depression, anxiety, and stressful situation, and promote my skills to support my patients. I will respect their feelings, religion, and beliefs related to their culture and history. I will try to find the cause of their stress, try to measure the power of God and the hope for healing, and also try to build positive thinking for life.


Elizabeth, S. (2022, August 19). What Is Spirituality? How Spirituality Can Benefit Your Health and Well-Being. Verywellmind. Retrieved October 4, 2022, from,others%20and%20to%20the%20world%20as%20a%20whole.

Taves, A., Asprem, E., Ihm, E. (2018). Psychology, meaning-making, and the study of worldviews: Beyond religion and non-religion. American Psychological Association. Retrieved October 5, 2022, from

Vidal, C. (2008). Wat is een wereldbeeld? In H. Van Belle, & J. Van der Veken (Eds.) Nieuwheid denken: De wetenschappen en het creatieve aspect van de werkelijkheid (pp. 71-83). Acco, Leuven: Belgium.