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Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents

Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents

Walden University Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents-Step-By-Step Guide

This guide will demonstrate how to complete the Walden University Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents  assignment based on general principles of academic writing. Here, we will show you the A, B, Cs of completing an academic paper, irrespective of the instructions. After guiding you through what to do, the guide will leave one or two sample essays at the end to highlight the various sections discussed below.

How to Research and Prepare for Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents

Whether one passes or fails an academic assignment such as the Walden University Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents depends on the preparation done beforehand. The first thing to do once you receive an assignment is to quickly skim through the requirements. Once that is done, start going through the instructions one by one to clearly understand what the instructor wants. The most important thing here is to understand the required format—whether it is APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.

After understanding the requirements of the paper, the next phase is to gather relevant materials. The first place to start the research process is the weekly resources. Go through the resources provided in the instructions to determine which ones fit the assignment. After reviewing the provided resources, use the university library to search for additional resources. After gathering sufficient and necessary resources, you are now ready to start drafting your paper.

How to Write the Introduction for Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents

The introduction for the Walden University Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents is where you tell the instructor what your paper will encompass. In three to four statements, highlight the important points that will form the basis of your paper. Here, you can include statistics to show the importance of the topic you will be discussing. At the end of the introduction, write a clear purpose statement outlining what exactly will be contained in the paper. This statement will start with “The purpose of this paper…” and then proceed to outline the various sections of the instructions.

How to Write the Body for Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents

After the introduction, move into the main part of the Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents assignment, which is the body. Given that the paper you will be writing is not experimental, the way you organize the headings and subheadings of your paper is critically important. In some cases, you might have to use more subheadings to properly organize the assignment. The organization will depend on the rubric provided. Carefully examine the rubric, as it will contain all the detailed requirements of the assignment. Sometimes, the rubric will have information that the normal instructions lack.

Another important factor to consider at this point is how to do citations. In-text citations are fundamental as they support the arguments and points you make in the paper. At this point, the resources gathered at the beginning will come in handy. Integrating the ideas of the authors with your own will ensure that you produce a comprehensive paper. Also, follow the given citation format. In most cases, APA 7 is the preferred format for nursing assignments.

How to Write the Conclusion for Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents

After completing the main sections, write the conclusion of your paper. The conclusion is a summary of the main points you made in your paper. However, you need to rewrite the points and not simply copy and paste them. By restating the points from each subheading, you will provide a nuanced overview of the assignment to the reader.

How to Format the References List for Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents

The very last part of your paper involves listing the sources used in your paper. These sources should be listed in alphabetical order and double-spaced. Additionally, use a hanging indent for each source that appears in this list. Lastly, only the sources cited within the body of the paper should appear here.

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NRNP 6665 Assignment 1: Prescribing for Children and Adolescents

Childhood-onset schizophrenia is a type of psychotic disorder that develops at 12 years or younger. It is mostly chronic and persistently incapacitating, with adverse outcomes than in individuals who develop the disorder later in life. Childhood-onset schizophrenia is diagnosed based on the presence of at least two of the following features: Hallucinations, Delusions, Disorganized speech, Disorganized or catatonic behavior, and Negative symptoms (Driver et al., 2020). The purpose of this paper is to discuss pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions used to treat childhood-onset schizophrenia and explore clinical practice guidelines for managing the disorder.

Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Intervention

Second-generation antipsychotics are the recommended first-line antipsychotic agents for treating schizophrenia in

Assignment 1 Prescribing for Children and Adolescents
Assignment 1 Prescribing for Children and Adolescents

adolescents. Aripiprazole is one of the FDA-approved second-generation antipsychotics for treating schizophrenia in adolescents (Coustals et al., 2021). It was approved by the FDA in 2007 to treat schizophrenia in children from 13 years. Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic used off-label to treat childhood-onset schizophrenia. Double-blind studies have found Clozapine to be effective in treating childhood-onset schizophrenia and superior to haloperidol (Rachamallu et al., 2019). Clozapine should only be initiated after the failure of other treatment trials using 2-3 antipsychotics from various classes.

Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is my recommended non-pharmacological intervention for managing childhood-onset schizophrenia. Grover and Avasthi (2019) explain that CRT seeks to enhance cognitive processes, including memory, executive function, attention, and social cognition, through repeated practice of a range of cognitive tasks. CRT in adolescents with schizophrenia has been established to enhance their ability to plan and cognitive flexibility.

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The Risk Assessment to Use to Inform Treatment Decision Making

Assignment 1 Prescribing for Children and Adolescents
Assignment 1 Prescribing for Children and Adolescents

The risk assessment that would guide the treatment decision-making involves evaluating a patient’s blood pressure, weight, glucose, and lipids levels. Second-generation antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and increased total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Thus, I would evaluate if the benefit of the treatment intervention outweighs the risk. Aripiprazole is associated with severe adverse effects such as neuroleptic malignant syndrome, leukopenia, QT prolongation, and suicide attempts, which must be considered when prescribing (Coustals et al., 2021). Nonetheless, its benefits include efficacy as a maintenance antipsychotic therapy in adolescents since it delays time to exacerbations of psychotic symptoms. Clozapine is not approved for pediatric populations due to its major adverse effects. Rachamallu et al. (2019) explain that children and adolescents with psychotic pathology normally recover with Clozapine but achieve this with a potential risk of chronic and incapacitating side effects like metabolic syndrome and a greater side effect profile compared with the adult population.

Clinical Practice Guidelines

The current clinical practice guidelines for childhood-onset schizophrenia identify antipsychotic agents as the first-line treatment for schizophrenia in pediatric populations and must be used alongside psychosocial management. Among the different antipsychotics, the guidelines recommend second-generation antipsychotics, other than Clozapine, as first-line agents (Grover & Avasthi, 2019). The guidelines further recommend psychosocial interventions such as CRT, CBT, psychoeducation, and family intervention for childhood-onset schizophrenia.

Conclusion

Aripiprazole is my recommended FDA-approved antipsychotic agent for treating childhood-onset schizophrenia, while Clozapine is the recommended off-label drug. Besides, I would recommend cognitive remediation therapy as a non-pharmacological intervention. Both Aripiprazole and Clozapine have associated benefits and risks, which should be considered during the treatment decision-making.

References

Coustals, N., Ménard, M. L., & Cohen, D. (2021). Aripiprazole in children and adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology31(1), 4-32. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2020.0014

Driver, D. I., Thomas, S., Gogtay, N., & Rapoport, J. L. (2020). Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia and Early-onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: An Update. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America29(1), 71–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2019.08.017

Grover, S., & Avasthi, A. (2019). Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Schizophrenia in Children and Adolescents. Indian journal of psychiatry61(Suppl 2), 277–293. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_556_18

Rachamallu, V., Elberson, B. W., Vutam, E., & Aligeti, M. (2019). Off-Label Use of Clozapine in Children and Adolescents-A Literature Review. American journal of therapeutics26(3), e406–e416. https://doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0000000000000894