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Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan: Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

NRS 428 Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan: Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan: Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

Use the “Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal” resource to complete this assignment. This will help you organize your plan and create an outline for the written assignment.

  1. After completing the teaching proposal, review the teaching plan proposal with a community health and public health provider in your local community.
  2. Request feedback (strengths and opportunities for improvement) from the provider.
  3. Complete the “Community Teaching Experience” form with the provider. You will submit this form in Topic 5.

You will find important health information regarding minority groups by exploring the following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) links:

  1. Minority Health: http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealt/index.html
  2. Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealt/populations/remp.html

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Planning and Topic

Directions: Develop an educational series proposal for your community using one of the following four topics:

  1. Bioterrorism/Disaster
  2. Environmental Issues
  3. Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
  4. Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population

Planning Before Teaching:

Name and Credentials of Teacher:

 

Estimated Time Teaching Will Last: 45 minutes Location of Teaching: Long Term Care Nursing Home

 

Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed: Projectors, educational brochures, writing materials Estimated Cost: $1000

 

Community and Target Aggregate: Elderly patients affected and those at risk of osteoporosis admitted to the long term nursing care homes.

 

Topic: Secondary prevention of osteoporosis among elderly patients in long term nursing homes

 

 

Identification of Focus for Community Teaching (Topic Selection):

The topic of focus for community teaching is secondary prevention of osteoporosis in elderly patients admitted to long-term nursing

Benchmark - Community Teaching Plan Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

homes. Osteoporosis is a public health concern among elderly patients, which predisposes them to adverse events such as fractures. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, osteoporosis occurs due to loss of bone density, which leads to the weakening of the bone structure, tissue, and strength. The changes increase the risk of fractures. Factors such as low bone mass, inadequate intake of dietary calcium, age, gender, body frame size, and having a family history predispose patients to osteoporosis (Shi et al., 2019).

A wealth of evidence on issues facing elderly patients in long-term nursing facilities has focused on the prevention of fractures and their associated morbidities. The studies largely ignore the fact that osteoporosis could be the leading factor contributing to fractures due to changes in bone density, structure, and tissue with the advancing age. As a result, implementing interventions that aim at improving bone health in elderly patients could reduce the risk and rate of fractures among them in long-term facilities. Secondary prevention is an effective approach to preventing fractures among this population since they are already affected or at risk of developing osteoporosis and its associated adverse effects. Secondary prevention promotes lifestyle and behavioral modification in the elderly population. It also increases their awareness of the causes, risks, effects, and prevention of osteoporosis in the elderly populations (Pflimlin et al., 2019). Therefore, it is anticipated that outcomes that include patient empowerment and sustained improvement in outcomes related to osteoporosis prevention will be achieved in the proposed educational plan.

Epidemiological Rationale for Topic (Statistics Related to Topic):

Osteoporosis is a common problem among the elderly population in the USA. According to CDC, more than 10.2 million people aged above 50 years and above had osteoporosis while 43.3 million people had low bone density in 2010 in the USA. The age-adjusted prevalence for osteoporosis in 2017-2018 showed that its prevalence was higher in adults aged 65 years and above (17.7%) compared to 12.6% seen in those aged 50 years and above. Osteoporosis affects women more than men. For example, the observed prevalence in women aged 65 years and above was 27.1% versus 5.7% in men. Women also have a high low bone mass prevalence compared to men. The increased prevalence of osteoporosis in women is attributed to hormonal changes that occur during the post-menopausal period. The analysis of data on osteoporosis trends shows that the age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis in adults aged 50 years and above increased from 9.4% (2007-2008) to 12.6% (2017-2018) in women with no significant change in men 3.7%-4.4% in the same period. Osteoporosis predisposes elderly patients to adverse health outcomes. Its effects include fractures and perioperative complications in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery (CDC, 2021). In addition, its complications increase healthcare costs due to prolonged hospital stay for the affected populations.

Teaching Plan Criteria

Your teaching plan will be graded based on its effectiveness and relevance to the population selected. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

Nursing Diagnosis: Deficient knowledge related to osteoporosis prevention as evidenced by the low utilization of osteoporosis prevention interventions by elderly patients in long-term nursing care homes.

The priority nursing diagnosis that guides the proposed teaching plan is deficient knowledge among the elderly patients affected and at risk of osteoporosis. Patients should be aware of the lifestyle and behavioral interventions that reduce the risk of osteoporosis and its associated complications. Enhanced awareness promotes lifestyle and behavioral modifications that enhance their health and wellbeing. Secondary prevention is an effective approach to osteoporosis among these patients. The focus is on preventing osteoporosis progression and the development of its associated complications. Lack of knowledge about osteoporosis predisposes elderly patients to behaviors that increase the risk of its worsening and complications (Porter et al., 2022). Therefore, interventions that raise their understanding of its causes, prevention, and management enhance the treatment outcomes in long-term care nursing homes.

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Readiness for Learning: Identify the factors that would indicate the readiness to learn for the target aggregate. Include emotional and experiential readiness to learn.

The elderly population should be ready to learn for them to benefit from the teaching plan. Several factors will be used as indicators of their readiness to learn. One of them is asking questions. The target audience demonstrates its readiness to learn by seeking clarifications and further insights into osteoporosis. Asking questions also enhances the adoption of the proposed interventions against osteoporosis. The other indicator of readiness to learn by the elderly patients is explaining issues related to osteoporosis and secondary prevention in their own words. This ability implies that the elderly patients can make connections between their experiences with the content of the teaching session. The other indicator is justifying their rationales. The elderly patients will be ready to learn if they can provide evidence to support their decisions (Kiberu et al., 2019). The implication will be their enhanced ability to use creative and critical thinking in making informed decisions on issues related to their health.

The other factor that will be used as an indicator of readiness to learn by elderly patients affected by and at risk of osteoporosis is implementing strategies related to the teaching session. The ability of the elderly patients to put into practice the recommended interventions translate into their readiness to learn. By doing so, they play a proactive role in addressing their health needs. Reflection is the other indicator that will be used to determine readiness to learn. Reflection entails the ability of the elderly patients to explore aspects of their lifestyle and behaviors and make informed decisions on ways of improving them. The target population will also be considered ready to learn if they hold discussions among themselves and other healthcare providers on issues related to osteoporosis. The use of discussions increases their understanding of osteoporosis and the required interventions to minimize its effects (Mather & Cummings, 2019). Therefore, the different types of indicators for readiness to learn will be used to inform the teaching session in this project.

I will adopt the teach-back theory in educating the elderly patients affected and at risk of osteoporosis in the long-term care nursing home. The teach-back method of patient education aims at ensuring understanding of the concepts by asking them to re-state in their own words about secondary prevention of osteoporosis. The method ensures that the educator uses approaches that the patient understands in the teaching process. The Teach-back method is appropriate for the proposed educational session because it improves adherence and understanding of the patients.  The use of patient-centered educational strategies increases understanding and promotes treatment adherence in the secondary prevention of osteoporosis (AHRQ, 2022). The intervention also improves patient satisfaction since the educational sessions are tailored to address their unique needs.

One of the ways in which the teach-back method will be used will be by educating the patients about osteoporosis and then asking them to restate concepts according to their understanding. I will use the information that they give to determine the effectiveness of the teaching session. The other intervention will be reinforcing their understanding. I will use their feedback to identify their strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities that should be explored to enhance their understanding. An example will be the adoption of culturally appropriate interventions to ensure the teaching session addresses the diverse cultural needs, values, and practices of elderly patients. The other strategy that will be adopted is ensuring consistency. I will repeat the most important concepts related to secondary prevention of osteoporosis to enhance the understanding of elderly patients. I will also demonstrate the aspects of health education to ensure patients adopt best practices for improving their health and outcomes (AHRQ, 2022). A mixture of learning strategies such as discussion, demonstration, and use of videos will be adopted to address the diverse learning needs of elderly patients.

Goal: Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) objective(s) utilized as the goal for the teaching. Include the appropriate objective number and rationale for using the selected HP2020 objective (use at least one objective from one of the 24 focus areas). If an HP2020 objective does not support your teaching, explain how your teaching applies to one of the two overarching HP2020 goals.

Secondary prevention of osteoporosis among elderly patients in long-term nursing homes relates to Healthy People 2020 objectives. It relates to the objective of ensuring the population attains high-quality lives by reducing their risk of osteoporosis which is associated with adverse outcomes. The promotion of lifestyle and behavioral modifications also contributes to high-quality, longer lives free from preventable diseases, injury, and disability for the elderly populations. The teaching session also promotes the realization of the Healthy People 2020 objective of achieving health equity. The teaching session aims at reducing the disproportionate access to high-quality care by the elderly populations in long-term nursing homes. Factors such as age and decline in physical performance often predispose the elderly to poor access to the care that they need. Teaching about secondary prevention of osteoporosis will enhance their access to and utilization of the best services in the community. The proposed teaching on secondary prevention of osteoporosis also improves the health of all the groups in society. The teaching promotes optimum health for the elderly patients affected and at risk of osteoporosis. It also eliminates the disease burden associated with osteoporosis and its complications to patients, their families, and society as a whole (CDC, 2018). Therefore, the intervention underpins the realization of Healthy People 2020 objectives.

How Does This HP2020 Objective Relate to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives

The above Health People 2020 objectives are related to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives. First, the promotion of the Healthy People 2020 objectives through the teaching plan promotes the optimum health of the elderly patients at risk and affected by osteoporosis. The teaching session ensures the patients’ right to access high-quality care to achieve their optimum health outcomes, hence, Alma Ata’s goal of promoting the highest possible health for all. Healthy People 2020 objectives also address inequalities in healthcare. By preventing secondary osteoporosis, the elderly are assured high-quality care that prevents any form of harm or injury, eliminating disparities due to age. The objectives also strengthen Alma Ata’s goal of ensuring patients participate in the planning and implementation of strategies that address their care needs. The teaching session will empower elderly patients with knowledge and skills in secondary prevention of osteoporosis (Hone et al., 2018). The patients will have the opportunity to explore how they can transform their lifestyles and practices to minimize the risks of osteoporosis and its complications.

Develop Behavioral Objectives (Including Domains), Content, and Strategies/Methods:

Behavioral Objective
and Domain
Example – Third-grade students will name one healthy food choice in each of the five food groups by the end of the presentation. (Cognitive Domain)
Content
(be specific)Example – The Food Pyramid has five food groups which are….Healthy foods from each group are….
Unhealthy foods containing a lot of sugar or fat are….
Strategies/Methods

(label and describe)

Example – Interactive poster presentation of the Food  Pyramid. After an explanation of the poster and each food category, allow students to place pictures of foods on the correct spot on the pyramid. Also, have the class analyze what a child had for lunch by putting names of foods on the poster and discussing what food group still needs to be eaten throughout the day.

1.

 

Elderly patients with or at risk of osteoporosis will name the different types of calcium supplementations recommended to minimize and prevent osteoporosis

 

1. Dietary supplementation of calcium is an effective approach to preventing and minimizing the progression of osteoporosis. Exposure to sunlight also increases bone formation. 1. Discussion and explanation of the available calcium supplements will be offered. Posters of the recommended food types will also be offered. Culturally-diverse dietary supplements will be offered.
2.

 

Elderly patients with or at risk of osteoporosis will name the different types of exercises that prevent or minimize complications of osteoporosis

 

2. Physical activity improves bone formation, density, and structure, which minimizes osteoporosis. Elderly patients require regular, moderate physical activity to improve bone strength, density, and structure. 2. Elderly patients will be educated about the different types of exercises they should engage in to strengthen bone strength. They will be provided with video presentations to enhance their understanding.
3.

Elderly patients will explain the importance of medications in treating and preventing osteoporosis and its complications

 

 

3. Calcium supplements and hormonal replacement therapy are effective in reducing osteoporosis and its progression. 3. Elderly patients will be educated about the importance of seeking medical care should they experience any bone-related problems. They will be educated about symptoms such as bone pain, fractures, weakness, and easy fatigability.
4.

 

Elderly patients with or at risk of osteoporosis will explain the importance of medical checkups for bone disorders

 

4. Regular medical check-ups for bone-related problems facilitate early identification and treatment of osteoporosis. 4. Elderly patients will be educated about the importance of regular checkups for bone problems. They will be educated about the schedules of bone checkups to enhance outcomes.

 

Creativity: How was creativity applied in the teaching methods/strategies?

Creativity will be promoted in the teaching session using several strategies. One of them will be combining different teaching strategies. Methods such as lectures, presentations, and discussions will be used to enhance the understanding of the patients. The use of varied methods also addresses the diverse learning needs of healthcare providers. The other strategy that will be considered to promote creativity is encouraging patient participation. Patients will be actively involved in the teaching session to enhance their retention of the essential concepts and skills. Lastly, creativity will be promoted through brainstorming (Cho & Kim, 2018). Brainstorming will be used to ensure the patients retain the most crucial information related to secondary prevention of osteoporosis.

Planned Evaluation of Objectives (Outcome Evaluation): Describe what you will measure for each objective and how.

  1. Patients’ understanding of the different approaches to calcium supplementation to prevent osteoporosis. The measures will include the ability of the patients to name and identify different dietary supplements for calcium. It will also include the incorporation of the supplements into their diets.
  2. Patient’s understanding and ability to engage in different physical activities to prevent osteoporosis. The measures will include their ability to name, engage, and frequency of engaging in physical activities.
  3. Patient’s understanding of the importance of treatment adherence to prevent and treat osteoporosis. The measures will include adherence to osteoporosis treatment.
  4. The understanding of patients about the importance and frequency of medical checkups for bone-related problems. Measures will include the frequency of utilization of bone screening services.

Planned Evaluation of Goal:  Describe how and when you could evaluate the overall effectiveness of your teaching plan.

The evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the teaching plan will be done at the end of the session. Questions will be asked to determine the understanding of the patients about secondary prevention of osteoporosis. Questionnaires will also be administered to obtain an objective and subjective assessment of the effectiveness of the teaching plan.

Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher (Process Evaluation):

Questionnaires aiming at determining the perceptions of the patients towards my effectiveness in teaching will be administered. The assessment by patients will enable me to have a better understanding of my effectiveness as a teacher. The lesson will be evaluated based on the coverage of the key concepts and their ability to address the needs of the target audience.

Barriers: What are potential barriers that may arise during teaching and how will those be handled?

One of the potential barriers that may arise during teaching is the lack of attention by the patients. Factors such as boredom and lack of preparedness may contribute to the participants not being willing to participate in the session. Interventions such as ensuring their active involvement, mixing different learning strategies, and asking focused questions will be used to address the barrier. The other barrier is inadequate time. Planning before the teaching session will be done to address this barrier. The last barrier is the language barrier (Du Plessis, 2019). Translators will be incorporated to address language barriers during the teaching session.

Therapeutic Communication

4.2 Communicate therapeutically with patients.

I will begin my presentation with a hook statement to capture the interest of my audience. One of the activities that I will use with the audience to ensure active listening is the question-answer approach. I will ask questions related to the educational session after a specific interval to ensure the audience is attentive. I will conclude the presentation by summarizing the main points of the presentation (Harris & Panozzo, 2019). I will use nonverbal communication techniques such as gestures, eye contact, and body movements to enhance the effectiveness of the teaching session.

References

AHRQ. (2022). Use the Teach-Back Method: Tool #5. https://www.ahrq.gov/health-literacy/improve/precautions/tool5.html

CDC. (2018, October 31). Healthy People 2020|About DHDSP|DHDSP|CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/hp2020.htm

CDC. (2021, May 13). Products—Data Briefs—Number 405—March 2021. https://doi.org/10.15620/cdc:103477

Cho, H., & Kim, H. K. (2018). Promoting creativity through language play in EFL classrooms. Tesol Journal, 9(4), 1–9.

Du Plessis, A. E. (2019). Barriers to effective management of diversity in classroom contexts: The out-of-field teaching phenomenon. International Journal of Educational Research, 93, 136–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2018.11.002

Harris, B. A., & Panozzo, G. (2019). Therapeutic alliance, relationship building, and communication strategies-for the schizophrenia population: An integrative review. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 33(1), 104–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2018.08.003

Hone, T., Macinko, J., & Millett, C. (2018). Revisiting Alma-Ata: What is the role of primary health care in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals? The Lancet, 392(10156), 1461–1472.

Kiberu, V. M., Scott, R. E., & Mars, M. (2019). Assessing core, e-learning, clinical and technology readiness to integrate telemedicine at public health facilities in Uganda: A health facility – based survey. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 266. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4057-6

Mather, C. A., & Cummings, E. (2019). Developing and sustaining digital professionalism: A model for assessing readiness of healthcare environments and capability of nurses. BMJ Health & Care Informatics, 26(1). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjhci-2019-100062

Pflimlin, A., Gournay, A., Delabrière, I., Chantelot, C., Puisieux, F., Cortet, B., & Paccou, J. (2019). Secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures: Evaluation of the Lille University Hospital’s Fracture Liaison Service between January 2016 and January 2018. Osteoporosis International, 30(9), 1779–1788. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-019-05036-0

Porter, J. L., Varacallo, M., & Castano, M. (2022). Osteoporosis (Nursing). In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK568781/

Shi, L., Min, N., Wang, F., & Xue, Q.-Y. (2019). Bisphosphonates for Secondary Prevention of Osteoporotic Fractures: A Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. BioMed Research International, 2019, e2594149. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2594149

Nurses are a link between communities and healthcare organizations, who partner in promoting healthy lifestyles and enlightening communities on their health status. These practitioners specialize in developing the most suitable solutions to health issues within a community (Liburd et al., 2020). In addition, they combine their social skills and medical expertise to address issues ranging from lack of knowledge and inadequate access to healthcare among disadvantaged communities.

According to (Choudhary, 2021), increased awareness through education fosters outstanding accomplishments—like improved quality of life—for healthy communities. Community health education highlights the best public health practices and their implications to achieve a common objective of promoting health. Therefore, nurses provide necessary healthcare, alleviate disparities, and eliminate the causes of diseases by educating communities on healthy lifestyles.

The main purpose of primary prevention in community health is to identify and avoid any risk factors that could cause specific injuries or diseases. These measures target healthy individuals and limit their disease exposure (Kisling & Das, 2021). For instance, community hand-washing is a form of primary prevention. This proposal provides a community instruction plan on hand-washing to reduce the spread of illnesses within the community.

Planning Before Teaching

Name and Credentials of Teacher: ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Amadu V. Conneh

 

Estimated Time Teaching Will Last: 55 minutes or more Location of Teaching:

Sacramento, CA

Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed: Hand sanitizers, Sinks, Water, Germ Juice, Chlorine Tablets, Alcohol-based Hand Rubs, Leaflets, Towels, UV Light, and PowerPoint. Estimated Cost: $45.00

 

Community and Target Aggregate: All community members.

 

Topic: Primary Prevention and Health Promotion of Hygiene through Hand Washing.

 

 

Identification of Focus for Community Teaching

      This primary prevention and health promotion plan highlights the benefits of hand-washing as one of the effective ways to protect community members against illnesses. As the COVID-19 virus spreads worldwide, all community members should adopt frequent hand hygiene daily (Bank, 2020). Handwashing also prevents the transmission of deadly diseases like typhoid, cholera, and diarrhea.

Epidemiological Rationale for Hand Hygiene

Sustainable Development Goal 6 requires global community access to good hygiene by 2030. Hand hygiene is a crucial element, but the required facilities and behaviors are lacking in many communities. Empirical research shows that washing hands with soap is almost 85% effective in eliminating germs and pathogens. Besides, adequately-dried hands reduce the transmission of germs, unlike inadequately-dried ones (Suen, So, Yeung, Lo, & Lam, 2019). A recent report by UNICEF shows that 2.3 billion people around the globe lack hand-washing resources (UNICEF., 2021). Further, many public places, schools, and health care centers in developing countries lack the proper hand-washing services.

Hand washing is a simple act that saves lives by reducing the spread of diseases. These diseases are mainly caused by surfaces, air, or foodborne germs. Since people frequently touch their surfaces, food, and face, hands play a crucial role in spreading infections. According to (CDC, 2020), only 19% of individuals globally wash their hands after using the toilet. Approximately half a million people die annually from acute respiratory infections and diarrhea  (Organization., 2021). Communities can reduce these deaths and their financial costs through proper hand hygiene.

Proper hand-washing reduces the number of diarrhea infections by 23-40%, illnesses among vulnerable individuals by 58%, respiratory infections by 16-21%, and illnesses among school children by 29-57% (CDC, 2020). Overall, hand-washing prevents approximately 20% of respiratory-related illnesses and deaths.

Since COVID-19, hand washing has become an essential prevention strategy. The unprecedented attention provided a unique opportunity to consider the practice a permanent public health policy. It is a cost-effective strategy that provides massive health benefits (Vandepitte et al., 2021). The access rate to facilities remains relatively low, and governments should support healthcare practitioners in making it a habit among communities (Organization., 2021). Investment in innovation, governance, and education is a clear pathway to ensuring hand hygiene for all.

Nursing Diagnosis

According to diagnosis, when individuals do not clean and dry their hands properly, they are prone to contracting illnesses due to the spread of germs. Washing hands at least six times a day significantly decreases the frequency of influenza, cold, and COVID-19 (CDC B., 2022). Pathogens like Salmonella are active in animal and human waste and commonly result in diarrhea. It is advisable to wash hands after using the toilet, changing diapers, and touching raw meat (CDC, 2020). Germs invade our hands when we contact contaminated items/surfaces. Not only will hand washing keep one safe, but it also prevents the spread of infections to other people.

 

Readiness for Learning: Factors Indicating Readiness to Learn

Learning readiness means how well-equipped the target is to learn—including emotional and experiential readiness. The target population should adjust their actions to show desire and understanding of the benefits of hand washing. Regarding emotional readiness, they must show intentions to improve their hand-washing habits. Another factor to consider is the number of people who join the session and how well they understand the health promotion purpose. Besides, they should stay alert, be willing to contribute, and illustrate the theory content provided by the instructor. Experiential readiness involves asking and answering questions related to the practice of washing hands.

Goal

The main aim of hand hygiene is to encourage and promote quality of life and equal health among communities. Health promotion through education is supported by Healthy People 2020 (HP2020). HP2020 addresses high-priority health issues and provides reliable objectives to promote public health. One of the critical objectives that align with hand hygiene is attaining high-quality and long lives free of diseases, premature deaths, or injuries (HP2020, 2020). Through hand-washing, communities can prevent certain illnesses which can cause premature deaths. Thus, it is essential to meet this objective by providing knowledge on the importance of hand hygiene and the proper techniques.

How Does This HP2020 Objective Relate to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives?

The Healthy People 2020 and Alma Ata Health Declaration are global programs that closely relate to each other. The two programs share a common target of ensuring better health for all. The Alma Ata declaration focuses on primary health care to achieve equal health opportunities. Notably, the declaration calls for the community’s participation, values, priorities, needs, and vision for health care systems as a guide to achieving better health care (Pandey, 2018). Similarly, HP2020 seeks to ensure health equality, promote quality of life, promote healthy habits, and create conditions that foster better health for all (HP2020, 2020). More importantly, both programs adopt universal health coverage to influence the global healthcare agenda.

Develop Behavioral Objectives, Domains, Content, and Strategies/Methods

Behavioral Objective

and Domain

 

Content  

 

 

Strategies/Methods

 

Learners will explain the necessary instances for washing hands.

 

 

 

Wash hands immediately:  after handling shared items, after handling animal waste or garbage, after changing diapers, after using the toilet, coughing/sneezing, before and after handling the sick, after handling animals/pets, before and after cooking, and before eating. The instructor will supply leaflets containing basic hand-washing information.

The instructor will ask participants how they think germs spread.

The instructor will explain and describe the proper steps when using soap to wash hands.

 

 

·         Wet your palms with clean (warm or cold) water

·         Apply soap and rub together for 20-30 seconds. This amounts to the time spent singing the Happy Birthday song twice.

·         Wash the front and back of hands, between fingers, and under nails, as shown in the PowerPoint.

·         Rinse hands thoroughly for 20 seconds, using  the rubbing motion

·         Use a clean, dry towel to dry your hands adequately. Do not be vigorous to avoid skin damage

·         Turn off the tap using your elbow or the towel to avoid re-contamination.

The instructor will use a brief PowerPoint presentation to reinforce understanding.

The participants will practically conduct a performance following the provided steps.

The instructor will spread a germ-simulating gel on participants’ hands

They will use a UV light to observe their hands immediately before and after cleaning.

Participants will identify the various perks of hand washing.

 

 

 

Proper and routine hand washing is vital for your health and those around you. It effectively kills germs, prevents sicknesses, and spreads viruses. Health experts advocate for better hand washing habits to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. The instructor will issue enough leaflets connecting to the PowerPoint details.

After explanations, participants will be allowed to provide additional points and examples from real-life routines.

The instructor will discuss infections that can be prevented through proper hand hygiene.

 

 

 

Proper hand washing habits protect us against respiratory infections (COVID-19, influenza, colds) and stomach-related illnesses like typhoid and diarrhea.

Hand hygiene combats antibiotic resistance.

Participants will engage in an interactive question and answer session on all preventable diseases to avoid through hand hygiene.

They will also refer to the PowerPoint notes and leaflets.

 

Application of Creativity

The session will entail a consistent use of amusing reminders to achieve the right timing for hand washing. Specifically, participants will sing the happy birthday song twice to achieve the recommended 20 seconds of hand washing. Besides, we will use birthday balloons to provide a salient and timely reminder. Another effective reminder will be writing sticky notes and encouraging participants to put them in strategic areas of their homes (Holzwarth, 2020). The notes will contain a short and memorable message, “Wash Your Hands!”

To make the activity even more desirable, we will reward participants who undertake the practice as instructed. Mainly, we will give out fancy liquid soaps to the best performers. I will use short and vibrant slides to outline the content for the PowerPoint presentations. Lastly, participants will have the chance to use a UV light to observe their hands before and after washing them with soap and water.

Planned Evaluation of Objectives

  1. Participants will provide a summary of the topic to demonstrate their understanding levels. Participants who summarize the key points have effectively understood the hand washing concept.
  2. The instructor will engage in a question and answer session with the participants. Due to their different age levels, the questions will be suited for each level. All questions will relate to the hand washing subjects, and how the participants answer them will determine how they interpret the data.
  3. After answering all the relevant questions, participants will practically demonstrate the hand washing process. The instructor will verify if the participants can conduct the exercise without supervision.
  4. The instructor will randomly select participants of different ages to guide others through the described hand washing procedure. The instructor can establish if the participants captured the correct hand washing procedure.

 

Planned Evaluation of Goal

            After introducing and demonstrating the hand washing concept and procedures, the instructor can accomplish the cumulative measurement efficacy of their teaching method. A successful session allows all participants to use the available materials and demonstrate how to wash hands effectively. Once the participants effectively summarize the hand hygiene concept, demonstrate proper hand washing skills, and answer any arising questions, I will assess the overall efficacy of my strategy.

Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher

We will use two evaluation forms to assess the process—formative and summative. Formative evaluation monitors the level of participants’ thinking and takes place in the form of role-playing. Participants will pretend to wash their hands by following the proper steps. They will also answer and ask relevant questions to reinforce their understanding of the concept.

Summative evaluation will be conducted through short tests, quizzes, and products. Participants will have all the required hand washing materials. They will walk to the sinks in turns, and the instructor will play the recommended hand washing song. They should demonstrate how to effectively wash hands the entire time the song plays, using water and soap. They must interlace the fingers, thoroughly wash the required parts, dry their hands, turn off the tap, and throw the used towels in the garbage. During the observation, the observer will make short notes to document mastery and give feedback. However, participants will not get help during the demos.

Potential Barriers and Possible Solutions

Although hand hygiene is a crucial primary prevention measure, research shows that community compliance can be challenging. In this exercise, we could face barriers like participants with sensitive skin. The composition of the hand washing product might have adverse effects on some participants. They might experience discomfort or painful burning sensation—especially in cases of cracked or wounded hands. Thus, they may dislike the exercise, considering it toxic and uncomfortable. Others prefer washing with water only, which they perceive as efficient and less aggressive. In such a case, the instructor will encourage to try different products other than the ones provided in the exercise. If possible, we will provide various products in small quantities to consider different skin types.

The second barrier relates to participants inter and intra-personal beliefs, automatisms, and beliefs relating to hand washing. The automatic hand washing aspect could reduce their vigilance and interest, resulting in occasional forgetfulness. These habits mainly affect individuals with the mentality of ‘having a strong immunity and not being ready to adopt the routine. Education is the best solution for this group. The instructor should convince such participants and provide real-life examples of the dangers of a poor hand-washing routine.

Some participants may state organizational factors as a hindrance to consistent hand washing. These factors include; lack of time and huge workloads, which result in forgetfulness. This category entails the issue of less or no access to hand washing products. The instructor should recommend alternative products like hand sanitizers, which are practical to carry around.

Other obstacles include the participants’ unwillingness to cooperate, refusal to follow the required measures, and language barriers between the instructor and participants. The instructor will present evidence-based knowledge to handle the issues of unwilling participants and refusal to follow instructions. The language barrier is a common issue in healthcare interventions. We can overcome the barrier by involving interpreters. It is essential to understand that collaborating with interpreters is an activity that should be considered before the actual training. According to (Krampe, Fabry, & Langer, 2022), healthcare practitioners can utilize innovative educational interventions to learn how to address potential language barriers and professionally work with interpreters.

Therapeutic Communication

            As the key speaker, maintaining the audience’s attention for a long could be one of the biggest tasks. I would not imagine a situation where the audience scrolls through their phones, daydream or chat with their neighbors due to boredom. This situation will make me nervous and unable to deliver the message effectively. Interacting with my audience will ensure better understanding and ensure retention of information for better outcomes. Thus, I will make the presentation more interactive and fun.

The perfect way to start is by asking simple questions (icebreakers) to warm up the participants. Icebreakers will change them from passive to active listeners from the word go. Besides, it will allow me to relax before presenting the essential message. I will ensure that my presentation is brief and easy to follow. I will only provide specific explanations orally during the Q&A sessions.

Moreover, the use of humor ensures a lighter mood and create a good rapport with the audience. People tend to remember the points described using humor. While at it, there is power in eye contact. Good eye contact strengthens stage appearance and helps to deliver content effectively. I will try to connect with each part of the audience and not stare at specific people. A professional speaker strictly avoids awkward instances that could make the audience nervous. My body posture and gestures will determine the influence on the audience. This posture entails standing firm, sounding confident, and creating a connection with the audience. Notably, moving around the stage will command the attention of the audience.

Utilizing precise and inspiring language while adjusting voice tone is vital. My language should match the presentation’s style and tone. Considering the demographic of the audience, I will avoid too complex or unsuitable terms to explain concepts. Further, the use of audio and visual effects will make the presentation not so dull. Music and pictures evoke emotions and help the audience to recall or relate to concepts.

The audience will get a chance to ask questions and give opinions. Besides, putting them in control of the presentations would ensure better understanding. If time allows, I can use storytelling to share experiences as the best way to capture attention and ensure active listening. They will want to hear what happens in reality, making the presentation memorable.

To conclude, guests or audience members will get a short moment to share their remarks and thoughts on the session. This will re-engage the audience. If possible, we will have a crowd photo and end the session in a high mood.

Conclusion

This proposed plan provided a community instruction plan on proper hand-washing to reduce the spread of illnesses within the community. Maintaining proper hand-washing needs focused efforts and strategies. Proper hand washing habits protect us against respiratory infections and stomach-related illnesses like typhoid and diarrhea. Better hand hygiene reduces transmitting infection rates, improving quality of life and health outcomes. Thus, education interventions focused on communities significantly increase knowledge and practices regarding proper hand washing techniques.

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                      

 

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