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Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice

Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice

NURS 6053 Discussion 1: Leadership Theories in Practice

A nurse is expected to work in a healthy environment that ensures satisfaction, safety, and empowerment, thus translating to quality care. A successful leadership transformation can be described by goal-oriented, emotional intellect, focus, and passion (Suratno, 2018). Additionally, emotional intellect effectively guides a leader in demonstrating wisdom and familiarity through conscious drive control. A positive working environment can be achieved through clarity, behavioral integrity, self-awareness, and honesty (Suratno, 2018). The purpose of this discussion is to address the critical insights on leadership from scholarly resources and describe the behaviors and skills showing where they are used in practice.

Two Key Insights from the Scholarly Sources

Leadership is considered a dynamic outcome that involves collective activities thus helps in building networks and relationships. In this way, leadership creates an environment for new knowledge that can be co-created rather than just implemented through the top leader plan. According to Sfantou et al. (2017), the leadership skills that I have gained key insight is on motivating people this can help overcome challenges such as shortage of healthcare workers. Therefore, leaders should protect psychological, social, safety, and esteem needs. In addition, finding meaningful individual rewards motivates workers or staff to perform better.

Leadership behaviors such as transformational leadership help create a healthy working environment for nurses, thus empowering and helping in showing commitment. Transformation leadership relates to the ability to inspire confidence and helps the staff communicate loyalty, which strengthens employee morale (Sfantou et al., 2017). Transactional leadership helps make exchanges with employees, thus leading to improved production.

Observed Leadership Skills and Behaviors and Extent the Practice was Effective

I have seen where behavior and skills are used in practice within our organization. The behavior and skills have helped create a healthy working condition, thus overcoming the shortage of healthcare workers within our organization (Kapur, 2018). The management engages the staff and nurse to ensure their need and the reason that makes them feel like quitting employment, which leads to effective addressing of the issue, thus creating a good working environment. The extent to which the leadership skills and behavior were practical helped recognize the management mistakes that lead to nurse burnout. The skills also effectively inspired and motivated nurses to change their behaviors.

References

Kapur, R.(2018). Leadership Theories and Practices. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323794733_Leadership_Theories_and_Practices

Sfantou, D. F., Laliotis, A., Patelarou, A. E., Sifaki-Pistolla, D., Matalliotakis, M., & Patelarou, E. (2017, December). A systematic review is the importance of leadership style towards the quality of care measures in healthcare settings. In Healthcare (Vol. 5, No. 4, p. 73). Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute. https://www.mdpi.com/230004

Suratno, K. (2018). The relationship between transformational leadership and quality of nursing work life in hospital. International Journal of Caring Sciences11(3), 1416-1422. http://internationaljournalofcaringsciences.org/docs/9_kalukuSuratno_original_11_3.pdf

Hi,  thanks for your post. I agree with you that a healthy work environment can improve patient outcomes. Numerous studies have linked leadership styles and participative governance to the desired results of nurse satisfaction, commitment, and retention. A manager’s leadership style is an essential variable for retention and quality of care in a unit because it strongly influences the team’s achievement of its goal. Leaders have a critical role in increasing employed psychological capital and decreasing intention to sabotage (Altahat & Atan, 2018).

Research has shown that different leadership models affect performance, job satisfaction, and health. Relation-oriented leadership supports job satisfaction, and one form is transformational leadership. This is a style adopted by most leaders in the health sector, and more are encouraged to embrace it. A leader using transformational leadership style acts as a role model, adds meaning and challenge to subordinates’ work, encourages team members to be creative and approach problems in new ways, pays attention to the individual subordinates’ needs, and provides coaching and mentoring. Good leadership style positively affects both nurses’ well-being and that of the patients and the overall quality of care in the health sector (Vidman & Strömberg, 2021).

References 

Altahat, S., & Atan, T. (2018). Role of healthy work environments in the sustainability of goal achievement; ethical leadership, intention to sabotage and psychological capital in Jordanian Universities. SUSTAINABILITY, 10(10), 3559. 

https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/10/3559

Vidman, Å., & Strömberg, A. (2021). Leadership for a healthy work environment – a question about who, what, and how. Leadership in Health Services (1751-1879), 34(1), 1–15. 

https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/lhs-06-2020-0041/full/html

RE: Discussion – Week 4- Initial Post

According to Broome & Marshall (2021), leadership is the discipline and art of guiding, directing, motivating, and inspiring a group or organization toward the achievement of common goals (p.14). I had previously thought more of leadership in nursing as a position rather than a set of qualities and characteristics a person can use to influence positive change. From this week’s readings, it is clear that strong leadership is essential, and should be sought after by all of us in the profession. Strengthening the quality and integration of care requires effective leadership from healthcare professionals (Sfantou et al 2017). Quality leadership in nursing has the power to create healthier work environments and more positive outcomes. A nursing leader is engaged and professional and acts as an advocate for health and dignity. A transformational leader in healthcare must understand the history, culture, and language of the science and practice the discipline of leadership (Broome & Marshall, 2021). Effective leaders must hold the trust and best interest of those they serve.

A key insight in leadership I discovered this week is how essential emotional intelligence is.  Emotional intelligence is one of the most effective traits in a successful leader. According to  Broome & Marshall (2021), emotional intelligence includes self-awareness, self-management of emotions, empathy, and effective communication and relationship management. These are tangible qualities we need to intentionally foster in ourselves to be able to bring the knowledge and benefits of them to our practice in a meaningful way. As nurses in advanced practice, we will be looked upon to lead. Self-awareness is key. Emotionally intelligent nurses with an administrative role generate emotions, passion, and motivation enabling others to reach goals that would otherwise have not been realized.

Leadership is considered a core element for a well-coordinated and integrated provision of care, both from the patients and healthcare professionals (Sfantou et al 2017). Looking back on my 22 years as a nurse, the leaders who stuck out to me were the ones who were able to make an impact because of their emotional intelligence and ability to connect with others. One, in particular, was my charge nurse when I was brand new to the ER. She led by example and was a natural mentor who was able to provide supportive correction without negativity or shame. She kept morale positive, even when the department was in chaos. She would review the more critical patients with me after they were stabilized and it helped me grow my knowledge and skills quickly. Leaders emerge when preparation, character, experience, and circumstance come together at a time of need (Broome & Marshall, 2021). Emotionally intelligent individuals are able to use, understand and manage their feelings in a way that benefits themselves and others (Prezerakos, 2018).  To be an effective leader, you must know yourself and your strengths well and be able to help others do the same.

References

Broome, M., & Marshall, E. S. (2021). Transformational leadership in nursing: From expert clinician to influential leader (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.

Prezerakos P. E. (2018). Nurse Managers’ Emotional Intelligence and Effective Leadership: A Review of the Current Evidence. The open nursing journal, 12, 86–92. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874434601812010086

Sfantou, D. F., Laliotis, A., Patelarou, A. E., Sifaki-Pistolla, D., Matalliotakis, M., & Patelarou, E. (2017). Importance of Leadership Style towards Quality of Care Measures in Healthcare Settings: A Systematic Review. Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 5(4), 73. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5040073

RE: Discussion – Week 4

COLLAPSE

 Leadership can have an enormous impact on your organization. Leaders can help uplift employees as well as tear them down. Good leaders mentor employees and inspire others to want to do a good job. Leaders provide a sense of vision and purpose to their employees and help them achieve their professional goals. In my 43 years I have seen great leaders as well as horrible leaders. Poor leadership within an organization has the potential of destroying an entire organization of good employees. 

     In a clinical setting effective leadership is required to ensure a high quality of safe and effective patient care (Xu, 2017). It is important for nurses to identify leadership styles and theories that can be used in their area of nursing practice. Developing leadership skills helps nurses improve relationships with colleagues and other leaders (Xu, 2017). There are a variety of leadership styles and theories to choose from, however selecting the style that is most suitable for you and the situation is important. There are 2 leadership theories I believe are the most beneficial in the clinical setting, and we will review these styles in more depth below. 

     Transformational leadership is a theory that focuses on the positive relationship between the employee and the leader. Transformational leaders motivate and inspire others through their enthusiasm and passion for the job. Some studies have shown a significant effect between transformational leadership and the improved work performance of employees (Eliyana et al., 2019). I currently work in an area where the program director exhibits characteristics of a transformational leader. He communicates well with the employees; he is very inspiring and motivating. Due to his presentation employees want to do a good job and do not want to let him down. Unfortunately, this same director has difficulties with the supervision aspect of his job. He is so worried about everyone liking him, he fails to hold employees accountable when necessary. To be a good leader it is important to have a good balance of leadership qualities as well as supervisory qualities. 

     Situational leadership theory is another leadership theory that is beneficial in the acute clinical setting. Most unit directors where I work employ this type of leadership theory. Situational leadership uses the leadership style that is best for the current situation. Being able to adapt to different situations as a leader is necessary. Leaders who employ situational leadership increases employee motivation (Wuryani et al., 2021). For example, an employee who has been doing a job for several years does not need a supervisor to micromanage their work, a laissez-faire approach may be necessary for this situation. However, if a crisis occurs a more autocratic leadership style may be necessary. Having the ability to be flexible as a leader increases employee motivation. Working in acute psychiatric facility, situations change rapidly and dramatically which forces leaders to adopt the situational leadership style of leadership which has proven to be effective in my experience. 

     Good leaders care about their employees and want to bring the best out of them. They help coach, and mentor employees to help them reach their ultimate goals. They advocate for their people and empower them to do remarkable things. Great leaders can lift an organization up and bring people together to achieve the common goal. Developing great leaders should be a priority of all health care organizations. 

Eliyana, A., Ma’arif, S., & Muzakki. (2019). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment effect in the transformational leadership towards employee performance. European Research on Management and Business Economics25(3), 144–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iedeen.2019.05.001

Wuryani, E., Rodli, A. F., Sutarsi, S., Dewi, N. N., & Arif, D. (2021). Analysis of Decision Support System on situational leadership styles on work motivation and employee performance. Management Science Letters, 365–372. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.9.033

Xu, J.-H. (2017). Leadership theory in clinical practice. Chinese Nursing Research4(4), 155–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cnre.2017.10.001

Leadership skills begin with understanding one’s self. Leadership leaders “demonstrate self-confidence and are able to trust and empower others” (Sherman & Pross, 2010). Their communication and actions impact others and creates a healthy working environment. The art of leadership within healthcare organizations involve managing relationships with patients, coworkers, nurses and influencing their behaviors.

An example of a good leader was my previous manager who I had the pleasure to work with for four consecutive years. I witnessed a strong leadership characteristics such as setting certain directions, strategies, having a vision for the unit, and her ability to connect with her coworkers/nurses on both personal and professional level. She was considered an informal leader; as described in the Laureate Education (2014) “displayed charisma and willingness to help others be successful because of the vision they see for their unit which can be perceived as a leader with personal power”. A good example of leadership, when my manager implemented pressure ulcer prevention strategies on the unit. She created a daily list of patients who required frequent turning every 2 hours and set up a worksheet with times with nurses names to turn patients at the assigned times. Options were offered for nurses on a preferred time depending on their patients’ workload.

Overall, this particular practice helped recognize team members’ strengths to help create a positive workplace environment and ensure tasks get completed. Also, made quality of care to be a vital element for achieving high productivity levels within healthcare organizations (Sfantou et al., 2017). In the process of conducting skills; leaders are establishing the methods of collaboration, innovation, and communication. These methods will help set the healthcare organization for success. In conclusion, it is important for leaders to ensure they develop the skills and competencies needed to be successful. The development of healthy work places are responsive to the changing healthcare environment.

References

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014). Leadership [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Sherman, R., & Pross, E. (2010). Growing Future Nurse Leaders to Build and Sustain Healthy Work Environments at the Unit Level. OJIN: Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(1), Manuscript 1. Doi: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol15No01Man01. Retrieved from http://ojin.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol152010/No1Jan2010/Growing-Nurse-Leaders.aspx

Sfantou, D.F., Laliotis, A., Patelarou, A.E., Sifaki-Pistolla, D., Matalliotakis, M., & Patelarou, E. (2017). Importance of Leadership Style towards Quality of Care Measures in Healthcare Settings: A Systematic Review. Healthcare, 5(4), 17. DOI:10.3390/healthcare5040073

Leadership Theories in Practice

A walk through the Business section of any bookstore or a quick Internet search on the topic will reveal a seemingly endless supply of writings on leadership. Formal research literature is also teeming with volumes on the subject.

However, your own observation and experiences may suggest these theories are not always so easily found in practice. Not that the potential isn’t there; current evidence suggests that leadership factors such as emotional intelligence and transformational leadership behaviors, for example, can be highly effective for leading nurses and organizations.

Yet, how well are these theories put to practice? In this Discussion, you will examine formal leadership theories. You will compare these theories to behaviors you have observed firsthand and discuss their effectiveness in impacting your organization.

Resources

Be sure to review the Learning Resources before completing this activity.
Click the weekly resources link to access the resources.

WEEKLY RESOURCES

To Prepare:

  • Review the Resources and examine the leadership theories and behaviors introduced.
  • Identify two to three scholarly resources, in addition to this Module’s readings, that evaluate the impact of leadership behaviors in creating healthy work environments.
  • Reflect on the leadership behaviors presented in the three resources that you selected for review.

By Day 3 of Week 4

Post two key insights you had from the scholarly resources you selected. Describe a leader whom you have seen use such behaviors and skills, or a situation where you have seen these behaviors and skills used in practice. Be specific and provide examples. Then, explain to what extent these skills were effective and how their practice impacted the workplace.

By Day 6 of Week 4

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days by explaining how the leadership skills they described may impact your organization or your personal leadership, or by identifying challenges you see in applying the skills described.

 

Leadership is critical to organizational growth, and leaders should possess desirable traits to influence followers positively. The resources I reviewed on leadership theories and behaviors demonstrate leadership as uniting for a common purpose. As a result, leaders and followers must understand each other and what they want to achieve. As Lai et al. (2020) underscored, the purpose of a leader is to inspire followers, communicate the strategic plan, and ensure the followers understand the mission and vision of the organization and planned activities. Employee engagement has also been emphasized as a desirable behavior that leaders must prioritize. Central to the success of transformational leadership, engagement involves enabling access to information, opportunities, and shared decision-making (Amor et al., 2020). It promotes the unity of purpose and encourages followers to be part of progressive change and organizational transformation.

I have witnessed various instances where transformational leadership behaviors and skills have been used in practice. Commonly in change implementation, nurse leaders or project leaders influence change through inspiration to ensure stakeholders and followers understand the purpose of the change. I have witnessed this approach being implemented in change projects for addressing workplace incivility and helping nurses to cope with nurse burnout. Influence through inspiration helps change agents earn stakeholder support and reduce possible resistance to change. Engagement also helps followers to connect with the change process and feel valued (Fransiska & AyiAhadiat, 2021). Doing so develops an emotional connection with a project and promotes active participation.

Regarding the effectiveness of these skills and the impact of practice in the workplace, it is right deducing that leaders cannot succeed without engaging their followers. As a result, leading through inspiration and engagement promoted collaboration as situations necessitated. The implication is that diverse teams readily participate in their assigned roles if they are actively engaged. The other positive impact was that change implementation was quick, teamwork was central to cohesion, and conflicts during change implementation were reduced significantly.

 

 

References

Amor, A. M., Vázquez, J. P. A., & Faíña, J. A. (2020). Transformational leadership and work engagement: Exploring the mediating role of structural empowerment. European Management Journal38(1), 169-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.06.007

Fransiska, T., & AyiAhadiat, K. H. (2021). Transformational leadership on employee engagement: the mediation of work-life balance. Nveo-Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils Journal| NVEO, 10453-10471. https://www.nveo.org/index.php/journal/article/download/2160/1907

Lai, F. Y., Tang, H. C., Lu, S. C., Lee, Y. C., & Lin, C. C. (2020). Transformational leadership and job performance: The mediating role of work engagement. Sage Open10(1), 2158244019899085. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244019899085

Nurses are most definitely comparable to quarterbacks on the football field. We must be very attentive towards the various interdisciplinary players on the field of any healthcare unit. We must be able to accurately seek input, while maintaining respect for the contributions of everyone involved; this allows each “player” to practice at their highest potential (Clark & Hassmiller, 2013). Nurses as leaders are very dedicated individuals, spending an entire career expanding themselves through continuing education and practice. This commitment to hard work and determination provides the best healthcare possible. These are often standards that are set by nurses across all disciplines (Clark & Hassmiller, 2013). Nursing roles are diverse in function, as you mentioned; the RN may be designated a leadership position over a shift, such as charge; or employ a formal nurse leadership role such as an educator or supervisor. Nursing is very versatile which allows for personalities to flourish into their highest and best use.

It is my belief that nurses should continue to evolve and develop throughout their careers. Continual growth is the counter measure to stagnation. Like many biological creatures, a nursing career can be nurtured or hindered by its environment. Take the example of Dr. Melanie Dreher; practicing in a leadership capacity four decades as an educator serving as Dean at the following Universities: The University of Miami, the University of Massachusetts at Amhurst, the University of Iowa, and the Rush University College of Nursing. She has conducted research studies subsequently quoted in: the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and the Chronicle of Higher Education. Dr. Dreher has a very impressive career and has since retired from education, she now sits as a member of the Chicago Board of Health, a Director of Wellmark Blue Cross/Blue Shield, a Trustee of Loyola University, a member of the Fiduciary Board of AvaSure, and Chair of the Board of Trinity health (Clarke & Dreher, 2016). With such an impressive résumé, I would take her advice pertaining to any nursing subject matter as well as personal advice.

Dr. Dreher provides advice in this publication identifies transformations within an individual’s career as well as organizational leadership.  When a leader vacates a position, and is being replaced by a new leader, this can be comparable to a change of governments. This takes planning and preparation for both parties. Dr. Dreher describes how things function throughout the resignation phase as turbulent. Stated “once you announce your resignation you are yesterday’s news. The faculty and staff are no longer going to pay much attention to what you have to say and are already thinking about who will be the next leader. When asked, agree to continue providing career guidance to seemingly bereft members of the faculty, but don’t be surprised if they never call or email. Everyone moves on; it’s not personal; it’s just the way it is.” (Clarke & Dreher, 2016). Nurses as leaders occupy a healthy amount of space within their role as an interdisciplinary team member. Nonetheless the nurse should continue to develop and expand until they reach their full personal capacity. This is a healthy process that will provide the profession as a whole the highest and best use of the individual.

 

References

Clark, P., & Hassmiller, S. (2013, October 1). Nursing Leadership: Interprofessional Education and Practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 26(4), https://doi.org/10.1177/0894318413500313.

Clarke, P., & Dreher, M. (2016, December 25). Transitions and Transformations in Nursing Leadership. Nursing Science Quarterly, 30(1), https://doi.org/10.1177/0894318416680532.