Discussion: Measures of Effect

Discussion: Measures of Effect

Walden University Discussion: Measures of Effect-Step-By-Step Guide


This guide will demonstrate how to complete the Walden University Discussion: Measures of Effect  assignment based on general principles of academic writing. Here, we will show you the A, B, Cs of completing an academic paper, irrespective of the instructions. After guiding you through what to do, the guide will leave one or two sample essays at the end to highlight the various sections discussed below.


How to Research and Prepare for Discussion: Measures of Effect  


Whether one passes or fails an academic assignment such as the Walden University Discussion: Measures of Effect depends on the preparation done beforehand. The first thing to do once you receive an assignment is to quickly skim through the requirements. Once that is done, start going through the instructions one by one to clearly understand what the instructor wants. The most important thing here is to understand the required format—whether it is APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.


After understanding the requirements of the paper, the next phase is to gather relevant materials. The first place to start the research process is the weekly resources. Go through the resources provided in the instructions to determine which ones fit the assignment. After reviewing the provided resources, use the university library to search for additional resources. After gathering sufficient and necessary resources, you are now ready to start drafting your paper.


How to Write the Introduction for Discussion: Measures of Effect  

The introduction for the Walden University Discussion: Measures of Effect  is where you tell the instructor what your paper will encompass. In three to four statements, highlight the important points that will form the basis of your paper. Here, you can include statistics to show the importance of the topic you will be discussing. At the end of the introduction, write a clear purpose statement outlining what exactly will be contained in the paper. This statement will start with “The purpose of this paper…” and then proceed to outline the various sections of the instructions.


How to Write the Body for Discussion: Measures of Effect  


After the introduction, move into the main part of the Discussion: Measures of Effect  assignment, which is the body. Given that the paper you will be writing is not experimental, the way you organize the headings and subheadings of your paper is critically important. In some cases, you might have to use more subheadings to properly organize the assignment. The organization will depend on the rubric provided. Carefully examine the rubric, as it will contain all the detailed requirements of the assignment. Sometimes, the rubric will have information that the normal instructions lack.


Another important factor to consider at this point is how to do citations. In-text citations are fundamental as they support the arguments and points you make in the paper. At this point, the resources gathered at the beginning will come in handy. Integrating the ideas of the authors with your own will ensure that you produce a comprehensive paper. Also, follow the given citation format. In most cases, APA 7 is the preferred format for nursing assignments.


How to Write the Conclusion for Discussion: Measures of Effect  


After completing the main sections, write the conclusion of your paper. The conclusion is a summary of the main points you made in your paper. However, you need to rewrite the points and not simply copy and paste them. By restating the points from each subheading, you will provide a nuanced overview of the assignment to the reader.


How to Format the References List for Discussion: Measures of Effect  


The very last part of your paper involves listing the sources used in your paper. These sources should be listed in alphabetical order and double-spaced. Additionally, use a hanging indent for each source that appears in this list. Lastly, only the sources cited within the body of the paper should appear here.

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NURS 8310 Discussion: Measures of Effect

Discussion: Measures of Effect

It is possible to calculate a number of measures of association (measures of effect) between exposure and disease (Friis & Sellers, 2021).The underlying premise is to figure out how much more (or how little) probable the cases are to be exposed than the controls (Friis & Sellers, 2021). Absolute effects, such as risk differences, are evaluated by comparing measures of disease frequency in exposed and non-exposed people (Friis & Sellers, 2021). The difference in illness frequency measures between the exposed segment of the population and the overall population is used to calculate the population risk difference (Friis & Sellers, 2021).

One example of measures of effect includes an environmental study published in 2019 by Jones et al. It investigated N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are generated endogenously following nitrate/nitrite ingestion, are putative colorectal carcinogens, however epidemiologic evidence of these connections was sparse. They calculated average exposures and years of exposure above one-half the US maximum contaminant level using historical nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) measurements and estimates of total trihalomethanes (TTHM), the sum of 5 or 6 haloacetic acids (HAAs), and individual DBPs in public water supplies (PWS). The findings imply that drinking water exposure to TTHM is linked to an elevated risk of rectal cancer. Positive results for individual THMs and HAAs in colon and rectal malignancies must be confirmed in additional research. They were not able to find an association with ingested nitrates.

A second example of measure of effect is a meta-analysis that reports on sedentary behavior and its association with colon cancer (Cong et al., 2014). In review of twenty-three studies with 63 reports the authors determined that subgroup analyses suggest a positive association with sedentary behavior and the res of rectal cancer in cohort studies.

It is crucial to investigate measures of effect. Extrapolation of individual study findings to a larger population is crucial (Friis & Sellers, 2021). If effect measures are not used, the ability to enhance population health will be hampered by a lack of risk factor reductions (Friis & Sellers, 2021).


Cong, Y. J., Gan, Y., Sun, H. L., Deng, J., Cao, S. Y., Xu, X., & Lu, Z. X. (2014). Association of sedentary behaviour with colon and rectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. British Journal of Cancer, 110(3), 817–826.

Friis, R. and Sellers, R. (2021). Epidemiology for public health practice (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett.

Jones, R. R., DellaValle, C. T., Weyer, P. J., Robien, K., Cantor, K. P., Krasner, S., Beane Freeman, L. E., & Ward, M. H. (2019). Ingested nitrate, disinfection by-products, and risk of colon and rectal cancers in the Iowa Women’s Health Study cohort. Environment International, 126, 242–251.

Examining Measures of Effect in the Nursing Practice

NURS 8310 Week 7 Discussion

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The link between exposure and disease outcomes strengthens the decision-making process in any clinical practice. Risk factors and

Discussion Measures of Effect
Discussion Measures of Effect

outcomes are also important goals in epidemiological and clinical research ( Tripepi et al., 2010). Nurses are also responsible to evaluate the effectiveness of nursing practice on patient health outcomes. Assessing the degree to which exposure affects outcomes can be measured using relative and absolute effects, which can both strengthen nursing practice and reduce patient risk (Friis & Sellers, 2021).

Absolute Risk Measures

The absolute measure is considered an effective examination of risk factors and disease outcomes and is widely used in public health practice (Tripepi et al., 2010).  Through the application of knowledge and evidence-based practice, nurses effectively strengthen practice by modifying the plan of care to direct future nurse-patient interaction to promote positive patient outcomes Krethong et al (2008) suggested that when nurses are called upon to care for patients from different cultures, cultural richness and understanding is an important measure for social support and improved patient outcomes. 

Number Needed for Treatment (NNT)

The number needed for treatment (NNT) is another tool used to determine the clinical significance of effective treatment ( DiCenso, 2001). DiCenso (2001) suggests that NNT is useful in decision making because it helps clinicians and patients avoid bad outcomes such as psychological distress or good outcomes such as the healing of a pressure ulcer.  Knowing the NNT will help nurses determine whether the likely treatment will benefit or harm the patient.


Measures of effects track the association between exposures and health outcomes, and not implementing these measures can cause risk to the individual patient and impact population health ( Friis & Sellers, 2021).  Determining if a nursing intervention is valid can be evaluated using measures of effect such as absolute risk and NNT.


DiCenso, A. (2001) Clinically useful measures of the effects of treatment. Evidence-Based Nursing 4, 36-39. Retrieved from


Friis, R.H., & Sellers, T.A. (2021). Measures of effect. Epidemiology for Public Health Practice

(6th ed., pp.362-380). Jones & Bartlett.


Tripepi, G., Jager, K.J., Dekker, F.W., & Zoccali, C. (2010). Measures of effect in epidemiological research. Nephron Clinical Practice, 115(2), c91-c93. Retrieved from


Week 7, Response 2, Gadon


Thank you for your post. I do enjoy knowing the NNT for reading guideline recommendations. In a commentary article by Kraemer, et al (2019), the authors share the issue avoiding false results from clinical research is to use effect sizes appropriately, but which effect size, when, and how is an unanswered subject. They feel that the p-value, in actuality, represents the quality of research design selections. A solution proposed by the authors is for perhaps the most common problem in clinical research: comparing two populations, such as comparing two treatments in a randomized clinical trial or comparing high risk versus low-risk individuals in an epidemiological study: the success rate difference, or equivalently the number needed to treat/take action (NNT).


Kraemer, H. C., Neri, E., & Spiegel, D. (2020). Wrangling with p‐values versus effect sizes to improve medical decision‐making: A tutorial. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 53(2), 302–308.