Discussion: t Tests and ANOVA in Clinical Practice NURS 8200

Week 5 Initial Discussion Post

Discussion: t Tests and ANOVA in Clinical Practice NURS 8200

t Tests and ANOVA in Clinical Practice

The topic I selected for discussion is on a study done on blood donation among college students in Saudi Arabia and their likelihood of becoming donors. For this weeks’ discussion we learned of quantitative methods to use in research such as t Tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Both t tests and ANOVA are examples of inferential statistics in which there are two or more variables involved. The t test is a parametric statistical test used to evaluate means (Grove & Cipher, 2017). There are 3 different scenarios where a t test would be used: (1) in a 1 sample hypothesis testing, (2) independent comparisons, (3) paired sample comparisons (Jankowski et al., 2018).

Summary of Article Selected

In the article used for this discussion was written by Mahfouz., et al. (2021), entitled “Blood donation among university students: Practices, motivation and barriers in Saudi Arabia.” This study was conducted in the town of Jazan in Saudi Arabia. The researchers chose this city because it has a high prevalence of inherited blood diseases that requires blood transfusions and they felt a large population of students would be willing to donate blood if they had family members or friends that would need blood. The study method used was an observational cross-sectional study. The university chosen had an undergraduate population of 56,000 students. The sample size was chosen of 480 students during the 2017-2018 academic year. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select study participants, and the group was further divided into 2 groups: health-related colleges and non-health colleges (Mahfouz, et al., 2021). Data was collected using questionnaires, and data analysis were analyzed using SPSS Version 2.0. Statistical analysis involved both descriptive and inferential statistics. The questionnaires consisted of adding a score and classified into 3 categories: low (<40), medium (40-70), and high (70+) (Mahfouz et al., 2021). Gender distribution showed 210 (44.9%) were female, while 258 (55.1%) were male. The researcher further classified the sample group by age, with 188 (41.8%) were in the age group 22-23 years, and 127 (28.3%) was age 20-21 (Mahfouz et al., 2021).

The conclusion of the research was that the prevalence of blood donation was found to be low and the students knowledge regarding blood donation appeared to be lacking (Mahfouz, et al., 2021). Furthermore the college type had no significant influence on the prevalence of blood donation as 28.5% were donors from the health-related college and 28% was from the non-health college (Mahfouz, et al., 2021). The male respondents were more likely to be blood donors than the female respondents. Using inferential statistics strengthen the article and its application to EBP.


Grove, S.K., & Cipher, D.J. (2017). Statistics for Nursing Research: A workbook for Evidence-Based Practice. 2nd ed. Missouri: Elsevier; 2017: ISBN: 978-0-323358811

Jankowski, K.R.B., Flannelly, K.J. & Flannelly, L.T. (2018). The t-Test: An influential inferential tool to Chaplancy and other healthcare research. JHealth Care Champlain. 2018; 24(1): 30-39. doi: 10.1080/08854726.1335050

Mahfouz, M.S., Majed, R., Hamzi, N.A., Zaeri, D.A., Dahdoh, A.A., Almalki, A.J., Hakami, J.A., Aqeeli, A.A., & Tawashi, I.H. (2021). Blood donations among university students: Practices, motivation and barriers in Saudi Arabia. Avicenna Journal of Medicine, April 1, 2021. DOI: 10.4103/ajn_113_20.

RE: Discussion – Week 5

Post an explanation of the translation science framework or model that you selected and explain why it is most relevant to your practice problem. Be specific and provide examples.

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: Discussion: t Tests and ANOVA in Clinical Practice NURS 8200

     Research Question:  What are the advantages and disadvantages of delivering mental health care through telepsychiatry instead of face-to-face in mental health visits?


Translation Science

Research is an in-depth process that takes time and effort to go through the steps of starting the process to implementing the findings.  Translation science can help with this process.  This can be started by testing different interventions that will be implemented and use the findings to enhance the outcomes for patients and the health of the community (White et al., 2019).  

The Theory of Reasoned Action

Translation Science is made up of many different actions and one of the actions is The Theory of Reasoned Action.  This action is defined by different variables behavior, intention, attitude, and norms.  These variables represent the action that is needed, the behaviors they will be observed pending the attitude and norms, the feelings towards the behaviors and how the individual views the behaviors (White et al., 2019).  When change is occurring, it is important to realize that the individual must be motivated and willing for the change.  The individual should feel that they have control over the situation and the other individuals should also see the change as positive (White et al., 2019).  


Practice Problem

The Translation Science action, Theory of Reasoned Action, can be used when doing research for telepsychiatry.  This is a relatively new process on how patients are interviewed.  It is important for the individual to see the benefits of the change as well as getting the input of the providers and patients using then new process. The behavior is that the individual needs to decide why telepsychiatry should be implemented, how it will be done and who will benefit from this change.  The intention of change will be influenced by the attitudes and norms of the providers and patients to make the change towards telehealth.  The attitude of the patient’s and individuals can either be negative or positive. The norm is my perception towards the providers and patients views of the behavior. 



Titler, M. G. (2018). Translation Research in Practice: An Introduction. Online Journal of Issues 

in Nursing, 23(2), 1.


White, K. M., Dudley-Brown, S., & Terhaar, M. F. (Eds.). (2019). Translation of evidence into nursing and healthcare (3rd ed.). Springer.