Disease Outbreak Investigation Report

Disease Outbreak Investigation Report

Disease Outbreak Investigation Report

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Spirituality would serve as an essential concept in the provision of care for patients because of its crucial role in helping people who believe in its effectiveness to overcome the struggles of their illness. As a healthcare practitioner, I consider the philosophical belief of the patients that forms their spiritual perspectives as essential for making the treatment given to the work since the physical and mental are connected and work in harmony. For example, a patient who believes in praying before doing anything as part of the spiritual routine should be allowed to do so in the healthcare setting whenever he or she wants to engage in the activity. Also, patient care in the current system is defined by the willingness of the practitioner to show respect and understanding of the philosophical perspective of the individual as part of the ethical duty of respect for autonomy. Therefore, the concept of spirituality would play a large role in my care for patients since it functions as part of the framework that they consider useful for restoring their health and wellbeing.

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) collects and disseminates information about outbreaks of disease. H1N1, SARS, and West Nile virus are just a few of the disease outbreaks that the CDC has reported. You have been called upon to lead one of the investigations. Select a disease outbreak for which you will lead an investigation.

In a report of 750-1000-words, present the following information:

Identify and describe the necessary steps to be taken for an investigation of the disease outbreak.

For each of the three prevention levels, provide at least two examples of prevention for this disease.

Describe the criteria to be met before screening for this disease.

Describe how the effectiveness of the screening program will be evaluated.

You are required to use a minimum of three scholarly resources.Disease Outbreak Investigation Report

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

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Disease Outbreak Investigation Report
Disease Outbreak Investigation Report

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An outbreak of salmonellosis occurred among 127 persons attending a wedding
reception on 21 August 1996. Of 115 interviewed guests, 57 (50%) met the case
definition (diarrhoea within three days after having eaten at the reception). Thirtyeight cases visited their GP, seven were admitted to hospital. Forty-six cases
submitted stool samples, of which 39 were culture positive for Salmonella
typhimurium. Turkey was identified as the most likely vehicle for this outbreak
(relative risk ¥). Environmental investigations at the catering facilities showed
deficiencies in food hygiene practices. Eight of 17 asymptomatic kitchen workers
carried S. typhimurium in their stool.
We recommended: to exclude all symptomatic food handlers from work in the hotel
kitchen for 48 hours after their first normal stool; to educate food handlers and
other personnel in the hygienic preparation and serving of food; and to immediately
address the structural and operational deficiencies in the hotel kitchen. Introduction
On 26 August 1996 the Eastern Health Board (EHB) was informed of an outbreak of
gastrointestinal illness among guests of a wedding party that was held in a large
hotel in Malahide on 21 August 1996.
Many guests had fallen ill since the reception and some had required hospitalisation.
Malahide is a popular seaside town approximately twenty kilometres north of Dublin
The same day the EHB started an investigation to assess the extent of the outbreak,
identify the mode and the vehicle of transmission, and initiate appropriate control
Dr. Darina O’Flanagan, Specialist in Public Health Medicine at the EHB, led the
epidemiological investigations. She was assisted by Dr. Thomas Grein, Fellow of the
European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training. Mr. Tom McCarthy,
Principal Environmental Health Officer for food hygiene North Dublin City with
special responsibility for communicable disease, and Mr. Derek Bauer, Principal
Environmental Health Officer for County Fingal, led the environmental investigations
and supervised the implementation of control measures.

Topic 1 DQ 1

Oct 3-5, 2022

What would spirituality be according to your own worldview? How do you believe that your conception of spirituality would influence the way in which you care for patients?

In essence, spirituality is the quest for the meaning of life (Bogue and Hogan, 2020). This vague term takes on many meanings depending on who is asked. Worldviews have a large impact on what path spirituality takes for someone. Personally, my worldview aligns with realism and optimism. Realism in the fact that what I can perceive and what is tangible in this world is what creates the majority of my experience. My optimistic worldview allows me to rely on such ideas as faith in order to maintain a positive view of my future. These play into my spirituality by allowing me to stay grounded in the present and accepting that the future is still unknown but has so much potential to be better than what I can comprehend now. My worldview allows my spirituality to be fluid and less of a daily burden mentally. The combination of my worldview and spirituality allow me to be present for my patients in their times of need, maintain positivity, be open to external experiences and worldviews, all while maintaining a tangible awareness of the physical ailments they are experiencing. Faith without realism does not benefit the patient because even if a grim prognosis exists, realism allows us to deal with the now and continue to move forward. Even if moving forward towards a terminal diagnosis, solace can be found in working through the physical realm to eventually be at peace in faith; knowing all that can be done in the now has been addressed.


Bogue, D. W. and Hogan, M. (2020). Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics. Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in health care. Retrieved from

Oswego outbreak investigation on the outbreak of acute gastrointestinal illness at a church dinner in 1946. The investigation was carried out by the local health department and food and drug administration officials. Investigation revealed that a contaminated batch of oysters had caused the illness. It is believed that the oysters were served raw, and may have been contaminated by sewage or water from a nearby pumping station. There were 36 cases of acute gastroenteritis reported among those who attended the church dinner, 21 of whom required hospitalization (Burckhardt & Kissling, 2020). Although no deaths occurred as a result of this outbreak, there were a lot of serious health consequences for those who became ill. It is important to note that this type of outbreak could have been much worse had it not been for the swift and efficient response by local authorities. Lessons learned from this investigation can be used to prevent future outbreaks of food poisoning.

Question One

The graph/curve shows that the incubation period was approximately 3-7 hours. The estimation is based on the data that have been reported from the study. The incubation period refers to the time between exposure to a pathogen and the onset of symptoms. It can vary depending on the pathogen, but typically ranges from a few days to weeks or even months (Oruko et al., 2019). Some pathogens, such as HIV, may have an incubation period that lasts for years. The investigation also shows that the sources of the outbreak was food eaten from the church supper, mainly vanilla ice cream. The mode of transmission was food borne; the contaminated water or ice used in drinks or for making ice cubes could have been transmitted from one person to the other.

Question Two

Using the incubation range and the clinical symptoms that have been identified, the causative agent of food poisoning could have been staphylococcus albus. Staphylococcus albus is a bacterium that can cause food poisoning. Symptoms of food poisoning caused by S. albus include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (Panisello et al., 2019). The bacteria can be killed by heating food to a temperature of 160 degrees Fahrenheit or higher. Properly cooked food is safe to eat. Staphylococcus albus is a causative agent in food poisoning. Foodborne illness caused by S. albus is a common and often preventable problem in the United States. In 2007, there were nearly 2 million cases of foodborne illness reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Of these, about 1 million were caused by S. albus. The most common routes of transmission for S. albus are through contaminated foods or water supplies, with close contact being the primary means.

Question Three

This is considered an outbreak because it meets the criteria for an event that constitutes an outbreak as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). There was a sudden increase of cases of a food borne diseases in one are (Copin et al., 2019). An outbreak is defined as “the occurrence of two or more cases of a specific disease in a given area, within a certain period of time, and among a group of people who are linked in some way.

Question 4

There are five steps to conducting a field investigation: first, there is the need to determine the outbreak of epidemic, secondly, there is the need for an investigator to confirm the diagnosis, third step involves establishing criteria for the case identification, the fourth step should involve searching missing cases, and finally, the researcher or an investigator should count the infected persons or individuals (Aygören-Pürsün et al., 2018). There is also the need for the investigator to consider orienting data according to the person place time, determine and classify the individuals who are at risk, analyze the data, and formulate the hypothesis. Other steps include testing, reporting, follow up, offering or educating individuals/victims involved, vaccinating or treating, and convalescing.

Question Five

Staphylococcus species are normally spread by direct contact through wound discharge, urinary or respirator infection, however in this instance it was not explicitly indicated on how these germs contaminated the vanilla ice cream used during the church dinner (Falomir et al., 2018). Besides, staphylococcus bacteria are transmitted through contact with an infected person or animal. The bacteria can be found on the skin and in the nose and throat of healthy people, but can cause infection if they get into a cut or wound. Contact with contaminated surfaces, objects, or clothing can also spread Staphylococcus bacteria. Touching your nose or mouth after touching something that’s been contaminated with the bacteria can also transmit the bacteria.

Question Six

Based on the research and data reported, the remaining ice cream from the dinner was condemned and this is a classic example of primary level prevention. Some other effective primary level prevention of Staphylococcus bacteria includes good hygiene practices and prompt treatment of wounds. Washing your hands regularly and thoroughly is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of germs. Prompt treatment of any wound – no matter how small – is also important in preventing the bacteria from spreading. If you think you may have a staph infection, see a doctor right away for proper treatment.




Aygören-Pürsün, E., Magerl, M., Maetzel, A., & Maurer, M. (2018). Epidemiology of Bradykinin-mediated angioedema: a systematic investigation of epidemiological studies. Orphanet journal of rare diseases13(1), 73. Retrieved from:

Burckhardt, F., & Kissling, E. (2020). Training for Foodborne Outbreak Investigations by Using Structured Learning Experience. Emerging Infectious Diseases26(1), 162. 10.3201/eid2601.190755

Copin, R., Sause, W. E., Fulmer, Y., Balasubramanian, D., Dyzenhaus, S., Ahmed, J. M., … & Shopsin, B. (2019). Sequential evolution of virulence and resistance during clonal spread of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences116(5), 1745-1754.

Falomir, M. P., Jávega, A., Rico, H., & Gozalbo, D. (2018). Nasal Isolates of Comensal Staphylococcus aureus and non-aureus species from healthy young adults in Valencia (Spain) and their resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Ann. Epidemiol. Public Health1, 1004.

Oruko, R. O., Odiyo, J. O., & Edokpayi, J. N. (2019). The role of leather microbes in human health. In Role of Microbes in Human Health and Diseases (pp. 243-371). Rijeka, Croatia: IntechOpen.

Panisello, P. J., Rooney, R., Quantick, P. C., & Stanwell-Smith, R. (2019). Application of foodborne disease outbreak data in the development and maintenance of HACCP systems. International Journal of Food Microbiology59(3), 221-234. Retrieved from: