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DQ: In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two qualitative studies

NRS 433 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

DQ: In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two qualitative studies

The ability to effectively analyze qualitative research studies is an important skill for nurses. When reviewing a qualitative study, there are three key aspects to consider: the problem being studied, the objectives of the study, and the significance of the findings to nursing practice. The problem statement defines the focus of the research and provides context for understanding the objectives and significance of the study. The objectives identify what researchers hope to achieve through their work. And finally, the significance relates how findings from qualitative research can impact nursing practice. Together, these three elements provide a concise summary of a qualitative study and allow nurses to critically evaluate its usefulness to their own practice. The purpose of this assignment is to analyze the two qualitative articles presented in topic 1 and to explain the ways in which the findings might be used in nursing practice, and address ethical considerations associated with the conduct of the study.

The 2010 IOM report had four key messages or recommendations for nurses to position themselves strategically in healthcare provision. Firstly, the report stresses the need for nurses to practice to the fullest level of their education and training without any hindrances imposed by state boards of nursing. The message influences nursing practice as it means that nurses should be barred from practicing what they have trained on in different specialties (Price & Reichert, 2018). Secondly, the report asserted that nurses should engage in lifelong learning to acquire higher levels of education and training based on a better education system. The message means that the nursing practice requires professional nurses to engage in continual professional development to attain the latest skills and knowledge in healthcare provision, especially the deployment of technology.

Background of Study

The two qualitative studies under analysis include article I, “Rationing of Nursing Care and Professional Burnout Among Nurses Working in Cardiovascular Settings” by Uchmanowicz et al. (2021) and article II, “Stress, burnout, and low self-efficacy of nursing professionals: A qualitative inquiry” by Dos Santos (2020). Article I explore the problems that nurses face when trying to provide care in settings where resources are limited. The author, a nurse herself, argues that the current system of rationing nursing care is leading to professional burnout among nurses working in cardiovascular settings. The main problem with the current system, according to the author, is that it does not allow for nurses to exercise their autonomy or discretion when providing care (Bryan-Rose & Bourne, 2018). This can often lead to rationing of care, which can result in sub-optimal patient outcomes. In addition, the author argues that professional burnout is a very real problem for nurses working in these types of conditions. The article is significant to nursing because it provides elaborate information that can be applied to transform healthcare delivery processes. The purpose of the article is to assess the relationship between the rationing of nursing care and professional burnout in nursing staff. The main objective of the article is to determine the impacts of nurse rationing on the professional burnout. The main research question is: Does rationing of nursing care lead to professional burnout in nursing staff?

Qualitative study II explores the relationship between stress, burnout and reduced or low-levels of self-efficacy among nurses in

In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two qualitative studies
In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two qualitative studies

healthcare facilities. The article also examines the sources of stress and burnout among nursing professionals. The main problem being investigated in the article is the stress and burnout among nurses. The article is significant to nursing because it provides appropriate information that can be applied to reduce the cases of nurse burnout and stress to enhance efficiency in the treatment processes (Elkady, 2019). The purpose of the article is to enhance the understanding the sources of stress and burnout that reduce self-efficacy and the unbalanced patient ratio as well as a description of nurses’ experiences. On the other hand, the main objective is to enhance the correlation between rationing and burnout among nurses. The main research question is: What are the sources of burnout and stress which lower self-efficacy, and lead to unbalanced patient ratio?

How The Two Articles Support the Nurse Practice Issue Chosen

The two article relates to the PICOT question as they show that nurse burnout is a phenomenon that impacts different aspects of care delivery. They also demonstrate the relationship between stress, burnout and reduced or low-levels of self-efficacy among nurses in healthcare facilities The article is categorical that increased workload among nurses leads to burnout. The article relates to the PICOT question as it demonstrates the relationship between stress, burnout and reduced or low-levels of self-efficacy among nurses in healthcare facilities. The article also examines the sources of stress and burnout among nursing professionals. This information can be used to answer different aspects of the research question.

The interventions and comparison groups in the articles compare to those identified in the PICOT question. Each article provides information on how the intervention or comparison group differed from those identified in the PICOT question. The comparison groups in the research variables typically compare different interventions to each other or to a control group (receiving no treatment). Overall, the interventions and comparison groups in the articles compare to those identified in your PICOT question.

Method of Study

 

Article I use Cross-sectional design aimed at investigating the link between rationing and professional burnout. On the other hand, article II uses snowball sampling was used in the study. The two different are different in terms of methodologies that have been applied and the findings. However, the information being presented in the same. There are both benefits and limitations to cross-sectional study design. Cross-sectional studies are quick and easy to conduct, which makes them useful for collecting initial data on a topic (Rozo et al., 2017). They can be used to generate hypotheses for further research, and can provide a broad overview of a population. However, because cross-sectional studies only observe individuals at one point in time, they can miss important information about changes over time. Additionally, because they do not involve manipulating variables, they cannot establish cause and effect relationships. Finally, because different groups may be studied at different times, there is potential for bias in the results.

The snowball sampling study design is a type of convenience sampling. Its main benefit is that it can be used to identify rare populations or groups that are not easily accessible. It is often used in qualitative research, where the goal is to gain an in-depth understanding of a particular group or population. A potential limitation of the snowball sampling study design is that it may not produce a representative sample of the population. This is because the population may be too small or its members may be difficult to contact or unwilling to participate in the study. Additionally, because participants are recruited through referrals from other participants, there is a risk of introducing bias into the data.

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Results of Study

Article I indicate existence of a positive relationship between rationing and burnout, occurrence of emotional exhaustion and significant levels of depersonalization. There is an often-cited link between emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in the medical field. Emotional exhaustion has been found to be a significant predictor of burnout, with those in the medical field at a heightened risk. In a study of UK doctors, 70% of respondents reported feeling emotionally exhausted, and over half reported high levels of depersonalization (Uchmanowicz et al., 2021).14 This suggests that there may be a relationship between rationing and burnout, as those who are more likely to experience emotional exhaustion are also more likely to prohibit themselves from providing care. From the article, it seems clear that there is a correlation between rationing and burnout. The results from article II show that factors within the nurses’ environment that include family stress, workplace incivility, and personal development play a significant role in increasing stress and burning which reduce self-efficacy of the nurses (Dos Santos, 2020).

The two studies in nursing practice have different implications for nursing practice.

The first study a close relationship between rationing and nurse burnout. This suggest that correct nurse to patient ratio ought to be maintained to ensure effective healthcare delivery. The findings from the second article also have significant implication to nursing given that it provides measures that can be taken to enhance healthcare delivery processes.

Ethical Considerations

When conducting research, there are two main ethical considerations that must be taken into account: informed consent and confidentiality of information. Informed consent is a process through which researchers must inform participants about the nature of the study, including the risks and benefits involved, and obtain their voluntary agreement to participate. Confidentiality of information is also crucial, as participants have a right to privacy and should feel safe knowing that their personal information will not be shared with anyone without their permission. Voluntary participation is another important consideration, as participants must be free to withdraw from a study at any time without penalty. This ensures that they are in control of their own body and data, and are not being coerced or manipulated into participating against their will.

The Article I and II adhered to the informed consent and confidentiality of information. The authors confirmed participant’s willingness to the take part in the study process. Also, the information given in the research remained confidential during and after the research process. Confidentiality is an ethical issue in qualitative research because researchers are often required to share data with other researchers.

Conclusion

The purpose of this assignment is to analyze the two qualitative articles presented in topic 1 and to explain the ways in which the findings might be used in nursing practice, and address ethical considerations associated with the conduct of the study. Article I use Cross-sectional design aimed at investigating the link between rationing and professional burnout. On the other hand, article II uses snowball sampling was used in the study. Article I indicate existence of a positive relationship between rationing and burnout, occurrence of emotional exhaustion and significant levels of depersonalization. The results from article II show that factors within the nurses’ environment that include family stress, workplace incivility, and personal development play a significant role in increasing stress and burning which reduce self-efficacy of the nurses.

References

Uchmanowicz, I., Kubielas, G., Serzysko, B., Kołcz, A., Gurowiec, P., & Kolarczyk, E. (2021). Rationing of Nursing Care and Professional Burnout Among Nurses Working in Cardiovascular Settings. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.726318

Rozo, J. A., Olson, D. M., Thu, H., & Stutzman, S. E. (2017). Situational factors associated with burnout among emergency department nurses. Workplace Health & Safety, 65(6), 262-265. DOI: 10.1177/2165079917705669

Bryan-Rose, C., & Bourne, P. A. (2018). Factors Determining ‘Burnout’ Among Nursing Staffers at a National Hospital in Jamaica. Juniper Online Journal of Public Health, 3(2): 555608. DOI: 10.19080/JOJPH.2018.03.555608.

Elkady, A. A. M. (2019). Mindfulness and Resilience as Predictors of Job Burnout among Nurses in Public Hospitals. International Journal of Psycho-Educational Sciences, 8, 14-21. https://perrjournal.com/index.php/per journal/article/view/167

Dos Santos, L. M. (2020, December). Stress, burnout, and low self-efficacy of nursing professionals: A qualitative inquiry. Healthcare, 8(4): 424. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040424

Qualitative research is important in the provision of relevant information for a number of reasons. Firstly, qualitative research often provides a more detailed and nuanced picture than quantitative research. This is because qualitative methods tend to uncover peoples’ opinions, motivations, and emotions – giving us a greater understanding of why people do what they do. Secondly, qualitative research is often conducted with smaller samples than quantitative research. This allows for a more in-depth exploration of the issue at hand, as opposed to a broad overview provided by quantitative methods. Finally, qualitative methods are typically more flexible than their quantitative counterparts. This means that they can be adapted to changing circumstances and new information – allowing us to get the most accurate picture possible. The two qualitative articles considered for the study include: Article I, “Missed infection control care and healthcare associated infections” by Bail et al., (2021), and Article II, “Challenges and opportunities for infection prevention and control in hospitals in conflict-affected settings” by Lowe et al., (2021). The purpose of this assignment is to analyze qualitative article I and II including summary, study design, results of the studies, and the ethical considerations.

Qualitative Studies

Background of Study

Qualitative article I found that missed infection control care and healthcare associated infections are a significant problem in hospitals across the United States. The study’s main problem was that gaps in infection control care were leading to increased rates of healthcare associated infections. The purpose of the study was to identify those gaps and to develop interventions to address them. The objective was to reduce the incidence of healthcare associated infections by 50%.To achieve this objective, the researchers conducted a survey of hospital infection control practices nationwide. They then used the data from the survey to create a toolkit designed to help hospitals improve their infection control care.

This article is important to nursing because it discusses missed infection control care and how this can lead to healthcare associated infections. The authors point out that errors in infection control are often made due to nurse fatigue and lack of oversight. They suggest that more research is needed in this area to find ways to improve infection control in order to reduce the incidence of healthcare associated infections. This article is significant to the research quest because it identifies a potential area of improvement for nursing care. The main research question in this article is: How does nurses perceive missed infection control in healthcare settings?

Qualitative article II found that infection prevention and control (IPC) is a critical issue for healthcare facilities in conflict-affected settings. Due to the increased risk of transmission of communicable diseases, IPC measures are essential to protect patients, staff, and visitors from infection. However, hospitals in conflict-affected settings face numerous challenges in implementing effective IPC measures. The purpose of this article is to summarize the key challenges and opportunities for IPC in hospitals in conflict-affected settings. The objective is to facilitate a better understanding of the unique context within which IPC must be implemented in these settings, and to identify potential solutions that can improve IPC practices. The main problem in many conflict-affected settings is the lack of basic infrastructure and supplies necessary for effective infection prevention and control (IPC). Without functioning water and sanitation systems, it is difficult to prevent the spread of bacteria and other pathogens. And without proper healthcare supplies, such as gloves, masks, and disinfectants, nurses are often unable to properly clean and disinfect hospital wards and equipment. The main research question is: What are some of the challenges and opportunities for infection prevention and control in hospitals in conflict-affected settings?

How the Two Articles Support the Nurse Practice Issue

There are two main ways that the articles can be used to address the issue of using a daily chlorhexidine bath to prevent acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). First, the articles can be used to support the efficacy of chlorhexidine baths in preventing MRSA acquisition. This is particularly relevant given that some experts have questioned the effectiveness of chlorhexidine in preventing MRSA infections. Second, the articles can be used to provide evidence-based recommendations for how best to implement chlorhexidine baths in order to maximize their ability to prevent MRSA infections. The information provided by these two articles is therefore critical in addressing different aspects of the PICOT question.

There are a few key ways in which the interventions and comparison groups in these articles compare. First, as noted in the PICOT question, chlorhexidine is applied via baths, whereas the control group does not receive this intervention. Second, the patients in the study are divided into two groups: those who receive daily chlorhexidine baths and those who do not. This allows for a direct comparison of the effects of this intervention. Finally, as mentioned in the PICOT question, the primary outcome being measured is incidence of bloodstream infection (BSI). This is an important objective measure that allows for a clear understanding of whether or not chlorhexidine bath prevention is effective.

Method of Study

For article I, authors used a retrospective observational study design to examine the relationship between missed infection control care and healthcare associated infections. In their study, they looked at data from 454 ICUs in England between January 2013 and December 2015, and found that there was a positive association between missed infection control care and healthcare associated infections. For qualitative article II, the study was conducted using a qualitative methodology, with interviews being the primary data collection method.

There was the use of retrospective observational study design in article I. One benefit of retrospective observational study design is that it is less expensive and time consuming than other types of study designs. A limitation of retrospective observational study design is that it can be difficult to accurately recall information about past events. For article II, one benefit of qualitative methodology with interviews is that the researcher can obtain rich and in-depth data from participants. This allows for a greater understanding of the phenomenon being studied. Additionally, the interviewer can build rapport with participants, fostering an open and honest exchange of information. A limitation of qualitative methodology with interviews is that it can be difficult to generalize findings to a wider population. Additionally, because interviews are time-consuming and resource-intensive, they may not be feasible for every research project.

Results of Study

From the article I, it is clear that missed infection control care and healthcare associated infections are major problems in the healthcare industry. There are a number of factors that contribute to this problem, including understaffing, lack of resources, and insufficient training (Bail et al., 2021). The article also found that, both at the organizational and individual clinician levels, infection control care is neglected. Neither standard safeguards nor fundamental caregiving tasks were performed, according to nurses.

Qualitative study II found that there are a number of challenges to infection prevention and control in these types of settings. These include: insecurity and Violence, which can make it difficult to access healthcare facilities; population movement, which can increase the risk of transmission; economic hardship, which can lead to patients skipping treatment or not being able to afford necessary medications; and a lack of trained personnel, which can make it difficult to provide sufficient care (Lowe et al., 2021). The two articles are different in terms of study methodology that have been applied.

There are a few implications of the two studies on healthcare acquired infection and prevention in nursing practice. First, it is clear that healthcare acquired infections are a serious problem in the hospital setting. Patients who contract these infections are at risk for serious complications, including death. Second, both studies underscore the importance of infection control measures in preventing the spread of these infections. Nurses play a vital role in infection control, and it is important for them to be up-to-date on the latest evidence regarding best practices. Finally, the studies highlight the need for more research on this issue. As healthcare providers strive to provide quality care and keep patients safe, it is critical that we continue to learn more about how to prevent healthcare acquired infections.

Ethical Considerations

When conducting research, it is important to consider two main ethical considerations: informed consent and protecting participants from harm. Informed consent means that participants must be given information about the study before they decide whether or not to participate. This includes information about the purpose of the research, what will happen during the study, and any potential risks or benefits. Participants should also be informed that they are free to withdraw from the study at any time. Protecting participants from harm is also important. Researchers must take steps to ensure that participants will not be harmed physically or emotionally as a result of taking part in the study. This may include ensuring that there are no physical risks involved and providing psychological support if needed.

The researchers in the two articles applied informed consent in different ways. In the first article, the researcher obtained informed consent from all of the participants before they took part in the study (Barbosa & Milan, 2019). This ensured that all of the participants were aware of the risks and benefits associated with participating in the study. In addition, the researcher also took measures to protect the participants from potential harms by ensuring that they were not exposed to any unnecessary risks and by providing them with support if they experienced any negative consequences as a result of taking part in the study.

Conclusion

Qualitative article I found that missed infection control care and healthcare associated infections are a significant problem in hospitals across the United States. Qualitative article II found that infection prevention and control (IPC) is a critical issue for healthcare facilities in conflict-affected settings. Due to the increased risk of transmission of communicable diseases, IPC measures are essential to protect patients, staff, and visitors from infection. The two articles are important in addressing different aspects of the PICOT question, they provide insightful information that are critical in understanding infection control in healthcare.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Bail, K., Willis, E., Henderson, J., Blackman, I., Verrall, C., & Roderick, A. (2021). Missed infection control care and healthcare associated infections: A qualitative study. Collegian, 28(4), 393-399. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14909

Barbosa, S., & Milan, S. (2019). Do not harm in private chat apps: Ethical issues for research on and with WhatsApp. Westminster Papers in Communication and Culture14(1). https://doi.org/10.16997/wpcc.313

Lowe, H., Woodd, S., Lange, I. L., Janjanin, S., Barnett, J., & Graham, W. (2021). Challenges and opportunities for infection prevention and control in hospitals in conflict-affected settings: a qualitative study. Conflict and Health, 15(1), 1-10. https://conflictandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13031-021-00428-8