Essay: Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

PHI 413 Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

Essay: Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

Healthcare providers, especially nurses, develop worldviews based on the teachings that they attain and their cultural backgrounds. Nurses play an important part in providing care that is safe, quality, and efficient. In doing so, nurses practice based on their worldview. Garrett (2018) observes that a worldview means sets of assumptions and beliefs that impacts a nurse’s practice. A worldview illustrates the way nurses interpret and explain their experiences in care giving as impacted certain cultural values and norms. Worldviews help nurses to have ontological and epistemic bases determining their belief systems. As such, the purpose of this essay is to analyze different worldviews and their differences. The essay also offers a personal perspective and worldview regarding certain concepts.

Select a family to complete a family health assessment. (The family cannot be your own.)

Before interviewing the family, develop three open-ended, family-focused questions for each of the following health patterns:

  1. Values, Health Perception
  2. Nutrition
  3. Sleep/Rest
  4. Elimination
  5. Activity/Exercise
  6. Cognitive
  7. Sensory-Perception
  8. Self-Perception
  9. Role Relationship
  10. Sexuality
  11. Coping

Christian View of the Nature of Spirituality and Ethics in Contrast to Postmodern Relativism in Health Care

According to the Christian view, spirituality and ethics originate from God as the Supreme being who controls humanity and their actions. The Christian worldview advances that all people are created in God’s image and should live in a loving relationship with Him, self, and others. Spirituality implies that one believes that God as the creator of all things desires people to live in harmony and reverence to Him through seeking spiritual nourishment based on their actions. To be deeply spiritual implies that one can call on the power of God when sick to offer healing and attain recovery from disease (Garrett, 2018). Spiritual connectivity allows nurses to distinguish between right and wrong and is strengthened by the understanding that God is the author of what is ethical and good. Healthcare providers, especially nurses, should make effective decisions that allow them to provide better care with the understanding that all they do is to God’s glory. God provides certain principles that Christians and all people in the world should follow (Mauk & Hobus, 2021). These principles are founded His enduring and long-term love which focuses on improving the interactions among people on earth. Based on love as the foundation, healthcare providers make decisions that are focused on improving patients’ health and not harming them in any manner.

Conversely, the postmodern relativism rejects and opposes most of the ideas and explanation of reality as provided by various worldviews, especially the Christian worldview. Postmodern relativism argues that there can never be absolute truth that is not based on any belief system. The philosophy focuses on science objectivity and scientific facts in treatment of individuals, particularly patients as a whole or holistically. Postmodern relativism advances that spirituality is a process aimed at developing an individual’s inner world. Postmodern relativism advances that the idea of right and wrong actions is relative and that truth is subjective (Garrett, 2018). The implication is that one’s judgment of an action as right or wrong relies on the situation relative to other factors. Therefore, healthcare providers must rely on patient belief system as some actions may be ethically inappropriate for Christians based on their beliefs. However, postmodern relativism proponents are interested in outcomes as opposed to moral aspects of their treatment interventions.

Scientism and Two Main Arguments Against It

Scientism denote a belief system which advances that knowledge concerning the world can only be attained through science. These include illness and diseases as well as medical interventions that focus on providing recovery for one from certain conditions. According to scientism, all knowledge in the world emanates from science and scientific discoveries or efforts. Scientism advances that it is only science that can explain all phenomena in the world. Scientism argues that most of the claims on knowledge and truth are false and personal opinions since they have not been approved by any evidence (Burnet, 2019). The implication is that truth requires evidence and not just assumptions founded on personal or individual aspects. Scientism opposes the Christian worldview on aspects like the existence of God as a Supreme being and a force that authors almost all natural aspects of the world. The perspective advances that anything should be supported by evidence before it is said to be true.  However, it is important to know the difference between science and scientism as scientism is a philosophical perspective that explains not nature but scientific approaches and models related to limits of knowledge. These characteristics pf scientism have led to the development of arguments that are opposed to it.

The initial argument is that the profound knowledge about objects and phenomena existing today cannot be a preserve of science alone. Therefore, not all phenomena in the world require or can be explained using science and be proved through the scientific tools and instruments. For instance, scientism is limited in its approaches to evaluate all components associated with people’s spirituality and emotional relations and interactions (Mauk & Hobus, 2021). Additionally, it is not possible to test the good and bad and deploy scientific knowledge in these components. This implies that the limitations of science do not enable individuals to discuss scientism as a working philosophical perspective. Secondly, scientism is a self-refuting perspective. The logic is that according to scientism, all truths and beliefs should be supported or testes by scientific tools to be existing or true. However, the effectiveness of scientism itself cannot be supported or examined through science. Therefore, it cannot ascertain the appropriateness of scientism as a philosophical model.

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Personal Perspective and Worldview

i). Ultimate Reality

The ultimate reality entails understanding that the world emanates from God as the creator and author of life in all perspectives. From a Christian perspective, ultimate realty exists based in all things that happen, the interactions among people and fellowship. God created people to fellowship with Him. God promised them long lives on earth if they lived based on His principles. Individuals can determine right and wrong and understand most concerning world issues. The implication is that God has the power to give or take life (Filonenko et al., 2018). He is the source of knowledge with some aspects that even science and scientism cannot explain. The implication is that the ultimate reality entails uniting the physical and spiritual aspects and concepts in one universe. Human beings have both the spiritual and physical realms that demonstrate the ultimate reality of existence.

ii). Nature of the Universe

God created the universe to sustain human life and all the living things that exist in it. The universe entails all things that are in existence irrespective of their state. It encompasses the planets, the plants and human life as well as the space. The implication is that the universe comprises of the physical and the spiritual aspects that form the basis of God’s creation (Rieg et al., 2018b). God’s love replenishes his universal creation and demonstrates that whoever believes in this existence shall remain in connection with Him. Therefore, I believe that the universe is created as ultimate reality of God’s existence and plan for human beings. The universe shows individuals purpose of existence or life and all focus on these attributes in their respective professional and personal lives.

iii). A Human Being

From my perspective, a human being is one of the most essential part of the whole creation by God. God created human beings in his image based on the concept of “Imago Dei” and gave them authority and power over other things that He made. Human being have a perfect way based on their creation and are procreators together with God in the world. Human beings have physical and spiritual realm and have authority bestowed on them by God to command other creator on the surface and in the waters. Despite the ingenuity of the human being, he cannot understand nature and universe fully as well as the ultimate realty (Mauk & Hobus, 2021). The human being remains a perfect God’s creation with brains that have studied different aspects of science to enhance knowledge and understanding of his planet.

vi). Knowledge

Knowledge is an abstract idea whose presence is illustrated but whose accurate existence cannot be proven physically. Human beings possess knowledge throughout the lives as none is born with it. The human brain has the capacity to learn and store information acquired and deploy it when needed. The implication is that knowledge comprises of views, ideas, facts and perspectives as well as personal intuitions that propel an individual to making certain decisions when confronted with certain situations (Rieg et al., 2018b). I believe that individuals attain knowledge through both formal and informal settings.

Furthermore, innovations and novel ideas also provide people with knowledge, especially when the implementation of such aspects add to more understanding of different phenomena under investigations (O’Brien, 2018). The insights that individuals attain either divinely or through formal and informal ways of knowledge acquisition are essential as they help one to understand the realty and nature of the universe. Human beings possess and use knowledge to develop complex systems and make scientific discoveries. However, at the heart of knowledge acquisition is the need to appreciate God’s gift of wisdom and even ideas. I believe that God is the source of the ingenuity that people show as part of their knowledge schemas.

v). Basis of Ethics

Ethics help one determine right and wrong as well as make morally upright choices and decisions. My basis of ethics is my worldview and personal experiences based on my interactions in the community and beyond. Christian teachings and the moral values and norms taught within my family and community provide the strongest foundation of ethics (Rieg et al., 2018). For instance, Christian teachings through Jesus Christ and even the Old Testament prophets are categorical that people should do good and make best decisions for the benefit of others. Being servant leaders as nurses implores one to go beyond the professional calling and offer more to patients than expected. The principle of love as the Golden Rule illustrates that the basis of ethics is religious teaching while traditional practices in communities teach norms and values that one should adhere to as a member of the given cultural and ethnic group.

vi). Purpose of Existence

God created human beings with a purpose and it important for any individual to find the reason for their existence. Some may exist to protect their families, offer services to community, demonstrate love, and show the overall plan by God for human beings. Therefore, I believe that the purpose of my existence is love God and my fellow human beings by serving them through my personal and professional engagements and interactions (O’Brien, 2018). Sin and evil came to the world because of sin by man. Further, God uses Jesus Christ as a human being to bring salvation and direct people to His original plan. The implication is that human beings are created with a special individual purpose which is demonstrated throughout their lives in various facets like professional careers and personal lives. For instance, God commands all to show love and serve others as parents, husbands, wives, colleagues, and leaders in different capacities. Imperatively, my purpose of existence is to serve God’s will through my professional life as a nurse which is a calling from Him.


The need to have a worldview as a nurse or healthcare provider cannot be overemphasized. A worldview allows one to understand their patients, implement interventions that are based on effective knowledge and cultural attributes of their patients. Healthcare workers are a critical component of care delivery and when they appreciate the diversity of their patients and the need to offer culturally-sensitive care, they offer quality care and enhance patient outcomes.


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Diverse worldviews affect how healthcare providers and their patients perceive and approach healthcare issues. Worldviews entail sets of principles and perspectives on issues based on one culture and upbringing as well as experiences in life. Healthcare practitioners should understand different worldviews to clearly define their perspectives and attitude while providing care to patients based on their perceptions and attribution to health issues, especially concerning spirituality (Bougue & Hogan, 2020). The purpose of this paper is to discuss different aspects of worldviews based on my personal perspectives and their effects on the delivery of healthcare services.

Christian Perspective and Postmodern Relativism

Christians believe that spirituality and healthcare go together since spirituality inspires and shapes the commitment of religious institutions to found and sponsor organizations and initiatives that care for the sick and offer health education to communities. Further, the practice of spiritual care has positive medical and health reasons and is a core aspect of holistic care. The Christian perspective advances that spirituality is a core component of one demonstrating their beliefs and the associated significance of spiritual practices that form the foundation of holistic care (Bougue & Hogan, 2020). The Christian perspective asserts that ethics is more than making the decision to do what is right and preventing what is considered wrong. Christians believe that ethics emanate from the Ten Commandments, the Golden Rule, and the observance of set moral principles like the bioethics principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Christians also advance that the ethical process entails one also avoiding harmful effects and presupposes the obligation and duty to act according to principles. Above all, these aspects must be guided by biblical teachings.

On its part, postmodern relativism advances that there is no absolute set of principles and rules that guide ethics and spirituality in healthcare. Postmodern relativism contends that God may or may not exist and argues that different ethical approaches can be valid or invalid (Himmelfarb, 2019). The view asserts that one’s perspectives cannot be null and void because of appearing to be contradictory. Postmodern relativism advances that all opinions and views on ethics and spirituality are relative since no absolute truth exists in the world on ethics (Sassower, 2018). For instance, “murder” as a crime may not be wrong based on one’s circumstances. According to this view, one can murder in self-defense. Therefore, in healthcare, providers should be guided by situations and not set protocols and values that may deny one the chance to make life-saving choices and decisions.

Scientism and Arguments Against It

Scientism is the belief that science explains all aspects of phenomena in the world. Scientism advances that science and scientific methods are the ones that provide reliable ways for a man to secure knowledge concerning different aspects of human survival and the existence of the planet. Scientism glorifies the use of scientific findings and evidence to address different issues that the world and humanity face. Scientism advances that complex science as disciplines that require and rely on experiments and natural laws like physics and biology (Milgrom, 2021). Proponents assert that these are reliable and objective as they depend on facts and data that can be tested and replicated in different scenarios. Arguments about scientism are propositions that oppose the idea of human beings relying on scientific knowledge to solve all their problems. The arguments against scientism are categorical that not all things evolve around science and scientific discoveries cannot verify or provide an explanation for certain components of life.

The first argument against scientism is the fundamental argument while the second one is the self-reliant incoherence argument. The fundamental argument against science is that while human beings can do science and it provides knowledge, scientism is not based on scientific things. Science can only offer tested knowledge or made by itself (Peels, 2019). For instance, scientism depends on natural processes and natural elements to make a scientific conclusion. These include the use of logic, introspection, and memory among other natural methods or approaches. Imperatively, if all sources that science depends on cannot account for knowledge, then scientism and science cannot account for knowledge in any manner. The implication is that if science provides insight, it can only do so because non-science sources offered knowledge. Therefore, it has a fundamental issue of verifiability as not all knowledge it advances is tested.

The second argument concerning scientism is self-reliant incoherence. This is a philosophical argument that advances that the thesis for scientism is that only natural things or science offer knowledge and science is a product of natural science (Hietanen et al., 2020). Consequently, the thesis fails to satisfy its criteria and cannot be relied on based on the standard set in fundamental scientific situations. The inability to think of embracing scientism rationally means that scientism cannot prove its truthfulness. Because none can determine that scientism is correct, no way exists to believe in it for effective application in all situations concerning knowledge.

Worldview on

a). Ultimate Reality

The ultimate reality entails what one feels about a higher power about things happening in their lives and to humanity. My worldview is about living based on the understanding that things happen due to reason and are driven by a higher power or entity that directs natural courses and happenings. The absolute nature of all things and the eternal principle or truth that governs and orders the universe form a critical component of my ultimate reality (Utke, 2021). As a Christian, God offers direction and implores everyone to follow their path as the ultimate reality in the world. The increasing need for diversity training shows that one gets what they focus on as God enables them to do so because of his grace and love. The ultimate reality is demonstrated when people make a decision based on the nature of their interactions and the phenomenon defining their culture and the values embodied in them.

b). Nature of the Universe

I believe that the universe is infinite and no possible explanation can define its nature. For instance, man has explored and continues to explore the world. However, he is yet to have concrete answers to some natural occurrences despite their devastating effects on human beings and life. For example, man has never offered a substantial explanation about aspects like consciousness and where the dead go in the universe. I believe that the universe entails all creations by God and the need for humans to take care of them to improve their life and survival in the world. The universe remains a mystery and even with the delegation to man by God, none can still attain the Universalist answers to questions and other components of care and life in general.

c). Human Being

Human beings are the most advanced inhabitants of the planet. From my worldview, human beings have a purpose in the world as they are God’s creations. God created man in his image to allow him to attain a moral status over all animals and other components of his creation. Therefore, human beings are created based on the moral status set by God and aimed at making contributions to the betterment of this world (Rodríguez, 2018). The human being is the most intelligent animal created by God. God created human beings to be stewards of his creation. God gives human beings the freedom to either serve him or not. The implication is that human beings enjoy God’s creation because of the special roles bestowed on them. Human beings have a consciousness that allows them to gain knowledge, have a personal identity, and express their personal feelings. Human beings are complex yet conduct their activities in an organized manner and focus on what brings the greater common good for the majority.

  1. d) Knowledge

Knowledge emanates from different approaches and aspects that impact one’s choices and actions that one takes and makes in life. Knowledge is an aspect of self-awareness and self-understanding to improve one’s approach to life situations and issues. Knowledge entails the awareness that one builds to answer the known and unknown more pragmatically. Knowledgeable individuals use perception, learning, and experiences to decipher their actions and decisions. Knowledge is an ultimate part of one developing a personality that conforms to their beliefs, practices, and worldviews on different ethical and social issues. The implication is that knowledge is the foundation of making critical care decisions and choices in any setting.

  1. e) Basis for Ethics

Ethics are moral values that one attains by learning from their family and communities. Ethics form the basis of interactions and relationships among different people in the world. Ethics guide one’s actions and decisions by advancing what is good and positive but also considering the underlying issues. The basis of my ethics is my upbringing and my Christian worldview. My upbringing entails how I was raised and the things that my parents considered critical to success; having values and thinking of harmonious existence with all people in the world. The Christian values of love, kindness, generosity, and making sacrifices on behalf of others have always guided my decisions and perspectives in life. I believe that an ethical world is possible with minimal occurrences of evil acts and meanness by individuals.

  1. f) Purpose of Existence

Individuals exist for different reasons and purposes and each person has a purpose in this world. I believe that the primary purpose of my existence is to help humanity and fulfill God’s will of having a world where sacrificial love thrives and is the reason for all types of happiness. My existence should offer inspiration and motivation to others so that they can succeed. God created man in his image implying that we possess the abilities and inherent attributes of God in different circumstances. Therefore, my existence is to focus on God’s reasons for my life, and the key among these is helping people in any manner that I can, especially in care delivery and the promotion of quality health as a nurse.


Worldviews are important and provide a chance for people, especially nurses and other healthcare providers, to understand the different attributes and aspects that define how individuals perceive the world and all that exists in it. Christianity and postmodern relativism have conflicting views on ethics and spirituality. The implication is that as health care providers, nurses should appreciate these aspects and leverage them to make effective decisions in care provision.







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