HLT 362 Topic 3 DQ 1 Provide two different examples of how research uses hypothesis testing

Topic 3 DQ 1

Feb 13-15, 2023

Provide two different examples of how research uses hypothesis testing, and describe the criteria for rejecting the null hypothesis. Discuss why this is important in your practice and with patient interactions.

Submitted on:

Feb 14, 2023, 8:27 PM

Aaya Nassar

Feb 17, 2023, 5:10 AM

Hello Class,

Thank you for sharing your thoughts about using hypothesis testing at your workplace. I came along the mnemonics below which might be helpful to you to remember the hypothesis testing when you perform a study, it is easy to follow, for Hypothesis Tests, recall the PHANTOMS:

P: arameter of interest

H: ypotheses

A: ssumptions/conditions/req’s

N: ame of test

T: est statistic

O: btain p-value

HLT 362 Topic 3 DQ 1 Provide two different examples of how research uses hypothesis testing

HLT 362 Topic 3 DQ 1 Provide two different examples of how research uses hypothesis testing

M: ake decision (if necessary)

S: tate conclusion in context

You can share others if you came along with different ones.

Mirna Garcia

replied toAaya Nassar

Feb 17, 2023, 10:10 PM

Thank you for sharing. That is very helpful

Kristine Rivera

Feb 15, 2023, 9:27 PM

When a clinical trial begins, there is a belief or assumption which is to be proven or disproved.  The belief or assumption is known as the hypothesis.  A null hypothesis in a study states that there is no relationship between the variables.  An alternative hypothesis shows that there is a relationship between the variables indicating it is the opposite of the null hypothesis.  (Helbig & Ambrose, 2018)

A prediction between two variables is a hypothesis that identifies independent and dependent variables.  However, correlations between variables do not always prove causation.  A study is underway to determine if cells with high cholesterol levels are more susceptible to the SARS-CoV-2 virus than low cholesterol cells.    (Wang et al., 2020)  A null hypothesis is important in this study to determine whether or not individuals with high cholesterol are more susceptible to lethal Covid infections to improve outcomes, decrease errors, and determine changes in practice to improve patient outcomes.


Another study in which the null hypothesis is critical is a double-blind clinical trial to research if high-dose vitamin D decreases the risk of pre-diabetic individuals progressing towards diabetes.  (Niroomand et al., 2019)

These two examples are important in my practice and patient interactions because both diabetes and covid-19 are prevalent at this time.  If simple medications and vitamins can be used to improve patient outcomes and health then it is important for nurses to be able to interpret this data.




Helbig, J., & Ambrose, J. (2018). Applied Statistics for Health Care. Gcumedia.com. https://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt362v/applied-statistics-for-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3


Wang, H., Yuan, Z., Pavel, M. A., Hobson, R., & Hansen, S. B. (2020). The role of high cholesterol in age-related COVID19 lethality. BioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.09.086249

Niroomand, M., Fotouhi, A., Irannejad, N., & Hosseinpanah, F. (2019). Does high-dose vitamin D supplementation impact insulin resistance and risk of development of diabetes in patients with pre-diabetes? A double-blind randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 148, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2018.12.008



Paula Hemmings

replied toKristine Rivera

Feb 15, 2023, 11:12 PM

Great post Kristine,

Hypothesis and prediction are two different things, but they are frequently confused.

Both are statements assumed to be true, based on existing theories and evidence. However, there are a couple of key differences to remember:

  • A hypothesis is a general statement of how you think the phenomenon works.
  • Meanwhile, your prediction shows how you will test your hypothesis.
  • The hypothesis should always be written beforethe prediction.

Remember that the prediction should prove the hypothesis to be correct.

The purpose of an experiment is to gather evidenceto test your prediction. Gather your apparatus, measuring equipment and a pen to keep track of your results.


When magnesium reacts with water, it forms magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2. This compound is slightly alkaline. If you add anindicator solution to the water, it will change colour when magnesium hydroxide has been produced and the reaction is complete.

To test the reaction rate at different temperatures, heat beakers of water to the desired temperature, then add the indicator solution and the magnesium. Use a timer to track how long it takes for the water to change colour for each water temperature. The less time it takes for the water to change colour, the faster the rate of reaction.



  1. CGP, GCSE AQA Combined Science Revision Guide, 2021
  2. Jessie A. Key, Factors that Affect the Rate of Reactions, Introductory Chemistry – 1st Canadian Edition,2014
  3. Neil Campbell, Biology: A Global Approach Eleventh Edition, 2018
  4. Paul Strode, The Global Epidemic of Confusing Hypotheses with Predictions Fixing an International Problem, Fairview High School,2011
  • Kristine Rivera

replied toPaula Hemmings

Feb 17, 2023, 7:31 PM

Hi Professor and Paula,

Thank you for explaining a hypothesis and hypothesis testing.  This is a new topic and world for me so I really appreciate it.  I can use help in understanding this in a simple way.

So as you stated Paula,


A hypothesis is a general statement of how you think the phenomenon works.


I found an example study to use your suggestions: Effects of a fall program in the elderly.  Fall programs are common adverse events experienced by elderly patients in hospitals.  The article was published in 2019 and took place in Norway.


Example Study Hypothesis:  A fall intervention program would reduce the rate of fallers in the intervention department (ID) compared to the department without the intervention.

Prediction in example study: fall prevention programs affect the rate of fallers, patient safety culture, and patient-perceived safety.

Purpose: gather evidence to assess the effects of a fall prevention program on the rate of fallers, the patient safety culture, and perceived patient safety

(Røyset et al., 2019)


I will try using the PHANTOM mnemonic too which takes some practice.




Røyset, B., Talseth-Palmer, B. A., Lydersen, S., & Farup, P. G. (2019). Effects of a fall prevention program in elderly: a pragmatic observational study in two orthopedic departments. Clinical Interventions in Aging, Volume 14, 145–154. https://doi.org/10.2147/cia.s191832