Identifying and Avoiding Bias in Research

Identifying and Avoiding Bias in Research

Identifying and Avoiding Bias in Research

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Spirituality encompasses the search for a purpose or meaning of life found beyond physical reality. Often, spirituality will include religious beliefs and values that an individual adheres. To add on, one way that this conception of spirituality would influence the way in which I care for patients is by understanding the patient’s spirituality to help them develop healthy coping mechanisms. According to a scholarly study, more than 80% of parents reported finding comfort and using religion as a coping mechanism to help overcome the loss of a child (Puchalski 2001). This is sometimes the sad reality that a nurse will have to face; hence, it becomes important for nurses to have a way or method to direct parents to handle grief. Moreover, I do believe in spiritual power and God’s existence. I use my beliefs with morals and manners to enhance nursing care I provide to my patients. Spiritual care improves people’s spiritual well-being and performance as well as the quality of their spiritual life. Spiritual care has positive effects on individuals’ stress responses, spiritual well-being such as the balance between physical, psychosocial, and spiritual aspects of self), sense of integrity and excellence, and interpersonal relationships (Zehtab & Adib-Hajbaghery, 2014).

Asthma is a chronic lung disease caused by inflammation of the lower airways and episodes of airflow obstruction. Asthma episodes or attacks can vary from mild to life-threatening. In 2007, about 7% percent of the U.S. population was diagnosed with asthma and there have been a growing number of new cases since that time. There are several known risk factors identified as triggers of asthma symptoms and episodes, including inhalation of allergens or pollutants, infection, cold air, vigorous exercise, and emotional upsets. There is also growing evidence relating body-mass index to asthma in both children and adults. Design a study to investigate whether there is such an association.

Choose a study design and justify the reasons you chose the design over others.

Select a statistical measure you would use to describe the association (if there is one) between body mass index and asthma.

In addition, address:Identifying and Avoiding Bias in Research

Subject selection

Issues relating to the measurement of both the exposure and the outcome

Potential biases that the study might be prone to, and how they might be handled

Possible confounding factors and effect modifiers and how to overcome their effect

Present the information in a 750-1000-word report, using section headings where each requirement is described and justified under each of the following headings: Study Design, Statistical Measures, Subject Selection, and Measurement Issues.

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Refer to the “Key Elements of a Research Proposal.”

You are required to use a minimum of three scholarly resources.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center. Only Word documents can be submitted to LopesWrite.

Key Elements of a Research Proposal

If you need a review of study design components, view the resources below.

Review the Key Elements page of the Research Methods Knowledge Base website at

Key Elements of a Research Proposal

Background / purpose / rationale of the study

Literature review

Hypothesis/key questions

Research objectives

Research methods

• Study design

• Statistical bias

• Procedures/timeline

o Specific steps to be taken to complete the study

o Instruments/data collection methods

o Outcomes

• Proposed data analysis plan

o Statistical analyses planned

o Power analysis if appropriate

• Data safety monitoring if appropriate

Study participants

• Description of participates

• Recruitment of participates

• Confidentiality/human subject’s protection/legal-ethical issues (if appropriate)

• Sampling / rationale

o Inclusion/exclusion criteria

o Number of subjects

Statistical Analysis (only if applicable)

Anticipated Results and Potential Pitfalls

Implications for Practice

Adapted from “Key Elements of a Social Science Research Proposal: Statement of Research Plan” by the Office of Research at Northwestern University at

Topic 1 DQ 1

Oct 3-5, 2022

What would spirituality be according to your own worldview? How do you believe that your conception of spirituality would influence the way in which you care for patients?

In essence, spirituality is the quest for the meaning of life (Bogue and Hogan, 2020). This vague term takes on many meanings depending on who is asked. Worldviews have a large impact on what path spirituality takes for someone. Personally, my worldview aligns with realism and optimism. Realism in the fact that what I can perceive and what is tangible in this world is what creates the majority of my experience. My optimistic worldview allows me to rely on such ideas as faith in order to maintain a positive view of my future. These play into my spirituality by allowing me to stay grounded in the present and accepting that the future is still unknown but has so much potential to be better than what I can comprehend now. My worldview allows my spirituality to be fluid and less of a daily burden mentally. The combination of my worldview and spirituality allow me to be present for my patients in their times of need, maintain positivity, be open to external experiences and worldviews, all while maintaining a tangible awareness of the physical ailments they are experiencing. Faith without realism does not benefit the patient because even if a grim prognosis exists, realism allows us to deal with the now and continue to move forward. Even if moving forward towards a terminal diagnosis, solace can be found in working through the physical realm to eventually be at peace in faith; knowing all that can be done in the now has been addressed. 


Bogue, D. W. and Hogan, M. (2020). Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics. Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in health care. Retrieved from 

In this paper, the focus is on family nurse practitioners. Several forms of biasness are present in our regular environment, which has a particular impact on the practice of family nurses. Any form of biasness tends to affect the quality of services provided within the periphery of nursing practices. The bias is more pronounced element in the healthcare system that brings down the quality of services. This leads to a non-deliberate reduction in the performance of activities that are performed by the nurses on a daily basis. When there is a shift in cost of services provided by family nurse practitioners when a bias peeps into the system. The cost of activities tends to rise as the motivation of the nurses reduces and there is a reduction in the overall performance of the nurses (Klemenc‐Ketis & Kersnik, 2014).

As elucidated by Alligood (2014) several personal biasness find their way in the family nursing practice, which tends to affect the aspects of culture, gender and sexuality, and the religion of the client that is being treated under nursing practice. Issue often roots out from problems oriented to the health of the patient. This may in particular be that of obesity-induced issues, biasness against individuals with diabetes and so on. Often such individuals suffering medical illness of the common type are refrained from participating in the making of healthcare standards and guidelines for the daily activities of family nurses.

In my experience, as a family nurse practitioner I am highly biased against individuals who are not accurate in their level of verbal and written presentations. Often I do not even give them the due chance to individuals who are slow in their operational activities. This has given rise to issue of team conflicts, which reduced the rate of success of operation, or there is delay in completion or often rise in cost of completion or the time line tends to be crossed.

The level of bias can come down to a great extent by ensuring that the process of educating the staff deployed as family nursing practitioners. It is essential for the leaders to make significant investment and undergo critical decision making in order to resolve conflicts within the system and raise the understanding and ability of each employee in line with the needs of the system (McCormack & McCance, 2017).



Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theorists and their work. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Klemenc‐Ketis, Z., & Kersnik, J. (2014). New tool for patient evaluation of nurse practitioner in primary care settings. Journal of clinical nursing, 23(9-10), 1323-1331.

McCormack, B., & McCance, T. (2017). Person-centred practice in nursing and health care. Theory and practice (2nd ed.). Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.

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