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Implementing Change With an Interprofessional Approach Presentation

NUR 514 Implementing Change With an Interprofessional Approach Presentation

Implementing Change With an Interprofessional Approach Presentation

Introduction/ Main Presentation’s Areas

Health care organizations apply different strategies to improve health outcomes. Practice change improves health outcomes by addressing performance gaps and introducing new processes (Busetto et al., 2018). However, change does not always occur as planned, which can have far-reaching impacts on financial assets and workplace relationships. Therefore, the purpose of this presentation is to describe a situation where change did not go as planned in the workplace and the steps that should have been taken to implement change successfully. Central discussion areas include a background of the situation, the nurse’s role as a change agent, and stakeholders essential in change management. Other areas include a presentation of change theory, impacts of unsuccessful change, and factors to drive upcoming organizational change.

Background of the Situation

The situation where change did not occur as planned involved the introduction of a zero-tolerance policy in the organization in response to increased cases of bullying. As Mrayyan (2018) stated, zero tolerance towards workplace violence encourages nurses not to endure violence and report it immediately after they encounter it. The law also severely punishes those who commit violent acts like bullying against health care providers. Like other practice change activities, the nursing staff was supposed to be adequately prepared for policy change to embrace it fully. Unfortunately, the management introduced the policy abruptly, which reduced the staff’s commitment to implementing it fully. Hence, it did not achieve the outcomes as projected.

Rationale for and goal(s) of the change

Health care professionals should work in safe care environments to deliver quality patient care. According to Al-Ghabeesh and Qattom (2019), bullying is damaging to the health and productivity of nurses since it impairs their emotional health and increases their desire to quit their occupations. Therefore, zero tolerance towards bullying is a practical intervention for optimizing employee productivity and protecting nurses from the adverse effects of workplace incivility. Homayuni et al. (2021) found that bullying is associated with depression and distress in nurses, which hampers interprofessional collaboration and their ability to provide quality care. A zero-tolerance policy protects the staff from such health dangers and ensures civil conduct among employees as they work to achieve a common goal.

Implications of Practice Change

Nurse leaders should introduce and guide while looking forward to achieving multi-dimensional impacts. Practice change achieved by implementing zero-tolerance policies can help to promote ethical conduct among nurses, which is characterized by behaviors that prevent harm and ensuring that employees are responsible for their actions. From a social dimension, nursing practice is conducted in social environments with diverse practitioners. Preventing behaviors that hamper teamwork and cooperation is instrumental in building healthy relationships among diverse teams. Mrayyan (2018) stressed the importance of a zero-tolerance policy in preventing costly medical errors. Preventing such errors also minimizes legal issues stemming from patient harm and improves the organization’s reputation and relationship with partners.

Advanced Registered Nurse’s Role as Change Agent

The advanced registered nurse’s role as a change agent is critical for the progressive improvement of patient care outcomes. According to Rafferty (2018), nurses and nurse leaders are directly involved in patient care, and their influence, skills, and guidance are valuable in change implementation. Skills utilization is demonstrated by continuous assessment of practice gaps and introduction of interventions for enhancing performance. Nurse leaders also use their knowledge and skills to promote evidence-based innovation and lead behavior change practices like zero-tolerance policies, motivation programs, and infection control. Other roles include designing and delivering health policy as nurses and patient advocates and mentoring nurses to embrace change to reduce resistance toward new practices.

Key Interprofessional Stakeholders Involved in Change Efforts

Stakeholders play a critical role in change implementation. The type, direction, and success of organizational change depend on stakeholder engagement, participation, and support (Jasinska, 2020). One of the key stakeholders involved in change efforts is the caregivers, including nurses and physicians. They are directly involved in change efforts since many practice changes cannot be conducted without them. The organization’s management plays a crucial role in supporting change through resources and preparing the organization for change. Other stakeholders with varying roles include patients, partners and suppliers, political and legal representatives, and accreditation agencies. These stakeholders should be adequately informed about organizational practices to determine whether the organization promotes care quality and patient safety as professionally obliged.

Appropriate Change Theory

Kurt Lewin’s change management model is highly appropriate for change implementation in a dynamic health care environment. Its basic concepts include driving forces that push change in the desired direction, restraining forces that counter change efforts, and a state of equilibrium. As Hussain et al. (2018) explained, practice change occurs progressively in three basic steps: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. Unfreezing is primarily about preparing the nursing staff and other stakeholders to understand and embrace change to counter possible resistance. The changing phase involves transitioning to new behaviors and work routines, while refreezing involves sustaining the new status to achieve lasting effects.

Lewin’s Change Theory: Rationale

Change leaders apply different change models for different reasons. Besides guiding change management in a simple and straightforward process, Lewin’s change theory aims to understand and demonstrate why change occurs (Hussain et al., 2018). Accordingly, change leaders can justify the change and visualize the outcomes. Lewin’s theory also accounts for uncertainties and resistance to change. In most instances, resistance to change occurs when the nursing staff and other stakeholders are not engaged in the change process. To overcome resistance, Lewin’s theory stresses the need for clear and convincing communication and education about the need for the change during the unfreezing phase (Deborah, 2018). Above all, the phased change management helps change leaders to introduce and implement organizational change procedurally.

Implications of Applying the Change Management Strategies

Organizational change has profound impacts on care quality and work processes. Hence, the change management strategies applied should be centered on achieving change without adverse impacts on behaviors, social relationships, and finances. Due to its straightforward nature and simplicity, Lewis change management model ensures that change is implemented without ethical misconduct or negative impacts on workplace behaviors. The simple process is also economical since it does not include many steps that can be tiring or consume massive resources. Change management through positive behavior change also protects patients, health care professionals, and other populations. Doing so protects the organization from possible reputational damage, which can be politically, ethically, and legally costly.

Initiating the Change as an Advanced Registered Nurse

Advanced registered nurses should be aware of change implementation barriers before initiating practice change. After identifying the change and potential impacts, I would develop a comprehensive implementation plan to share with the management and the nursing staff. Next, I would communicate the change to nurses and all stakeholders since lack of it was the main reason for the initial change failure in the facility. Communication is crucial in the unfreezing phase of change management since it helps stakeholders to understand the change and its importance (Deborah, 2018). The next step would be actively engaging stakeholders to implement the change before its evaluation to determine whether it achieved the desired effects.

Impacts if the Change Initiative is Unsuccessful Again

Change implementation is usually a lengthy, laborious, and resource-intensive process. It requires preparation, continuous communication, and engagement of stakeholders. Unsuccessful change implies potential misuse of the organization’s resources such as zero tolerance policy handouts and finances used communication and other crucial processes. Since the goal of the change process is to prevent bullying, failure to achieve this goal would increase nurses’ exposure to workplace bullying. Al-Ghabeesh and Qattom (2019) found that bullying lowers nurses productivity since it is psychologically harming, and the same would be witnessed in the organization. Other potential outcomes include increased risk to patient care and disappointment with the change process.

Potential Steps if the Change is Unsuccessful

Nurse leaders should never give up with organizational change. Consequently, they should have a backup plan if change is unsuccessful. The most effective intervention to address the current scenario if change does not succeed is a collaborative process and impact assessment. In this case, nurses, nurse leaders, and the management would collaborate to assess why practice change failed and practical remedies. The role of the collaborative assessment would be helping the change team to address implementation barriers before reintroducing the change.  Such barriers include communication problems, a resistance culture, and a lack of stakeholder support (Busetto et al., 2018). As the implementation progresses, the change team should seek continuous feedback from stakeholders while monitoring reactions and impacts. Such an impact would help to fix any issue hampering the process timely and conveniently.

Additional Factors (Change Drivers) and Nurse’s Role

Successful organizational change is achieved through a combination of factors. Besides stakeholder engagement and communication as mentioned earlier, employee growth and development will play a crucial role in driving upcoming organizational change. Largely, employee growth and development will equip employees with the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary for continuous quality improvement in health practice. Organizations ready for change must foster innovation through nurse leaders who seek new ways to transform and influence higher care quality through new care delivery models (Snow, 2019; Mutonyi et al., 2021) Accordingly, the advanced registered nurse must be at the center of innovation and transformation through continuous assessment of performance gaps and fostering a culture of change in the organization.

Conclusion/Summary

As demonstrated in this presentation, the primary goal of practice change is to optimize health outcomes. As a result, nurse leaders and other health care professionals in advanced practice should continually assess performance gaps, promote innovation, and lead behavior-change practices. Since practice change should be systematic and procedural, the advanced registered nurse should initiate change using theoretical guidelines. Kurt Lewin’s change management theory can be applied to introduce change in the organization to achieve the best results. It stresses preparation for change and sustaining it, which are critical to successful change. Additional drivers of change in the organization include the management investing in innovation and employee growth and development programs.

References

  • Al-Ghabeesh, S. H., & Qattom, H. (2019). Workplace bullying and its preventive measures and productivity among emergency department nurses. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research8(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4268-x
  • Busetto, L., Luijkx, K., Calciolari, S., Ortiz, L. G. G., & Vrijhoef, H. J. M. (2018). Barriers and facilitators to workforce changes in integrated care. International Journal of Integrated Care18(2), 1-13. http://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.3587
  • Deborah, O. K. (2018). Lewin’s theory of change: Applicability of its principles in a contemporary organization. Journal of Strategic Management2(5), 1-11. https://stratfordjournals.org/journals/index.php/journal-of-strategic-management/article/download/229/274
  • Homayuni, A., Hosseini, Z., Aghamolaei, T., & Shahini, S. (2021). Which nurses are victims of bullying: the role of negative affect, core self-evaluations, role conflict and bullying in the nursing staff. BMC Nursing20(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00578-3
  • Hussain, S. T., Lei, S., Akram, T., Haider, M. J., Hussain, S. H., & Ali, M. (2018). Kurt Lewin’s change model: a critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge3(3), 123-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2016.07.002

Background

uOur organization implemented a policy to reduce falls in patients

uIt entailed the use of regular safety rounds by the nurses

uThe use of bedside alarms was also introduced

uThese strategies are expected to improve the quality of services offered at the hospital.

1.Our hospital is a tertiary hospital that provides a wide range of services to its populations. The services include inpatient admission, outpatient, specialized

2.surgeries, general surgeries, and maternity services. The aim of the organization is to be the leader in the provision of safe, efficient, and quality care that

3.matches the needs of the patients and their significant others. However, the realization of this objective has been hindered by the recent increase in the

4.incidences of patient falls. It is recognized in studies that patient falls lower the quality of care offered to the patients. Therefore, the hospital embarked on

5.the implementation of a policy to address the issue using interventions that included regular safety rounds being undertaken by the nurses and use of

6.bedside alarms by the patients. However, the intervention was not successful. The cases of patient falls did not reduce. After an audit was performed, it was

7.found that the nursing staffs were not trained, there was high patient to staff ratio, and most patients did not understand the use of bedside alarms.

Rationale

uThere was a rise in case of patient falls

uFalls affect patients by increasing risk of injuries

uIt increases cost of care and prolonged patient stay in hospital

uPatient safety should be prioritized for quality care (Najafpour et al., 2019)

1.As shown above, the need for the policy to address the issue of patient falls arose from its increasing incidence in the hospital. According to evidence, the

2.rate or risk of falls vary based on hospitals and the type of unit. However, the rate of falls is estimated to be 2.6 to 7 in every 1000 patient days. Patient falls

 

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3.have adverse outcomes on the patient, families, and the health organization. Accordingly, it results in bodily injuries, increased cost of healthcare, and

4.extended hospital stays. Patient falls also increase the risk of mental harms that include fear of subsequent falls, loss or decline in self-confidence, and

5.anxiety. Falls also lower the quality of care that is offered in the organization to the patients. As a result, it makes it difficult for them to achieve their set

6.organizational goals, objectives, and vision (Najafpour et al., 2019). Therefore, it is important that health organizations explore the most effective

7.interventions that can be adopted to promote patient safety.

Goals of the Change

uReduce the reported cases of patient falls

uReduce the duration of hospital stay by patients

uReduce the cost of care incurred by patients

uImprove patient satisfaction with care

uEmpower nurses with fall prevention interventions (Weil, 2015)

1.One of the goals of the proposed change was to reduce the incidence of patient falls in the organization from 4% to 0.5% by the end of six months. The

2.hospital expected that the reduction was to be achieved with the adoption of regular safety rounds and use of bedside alarms by the patients. The other

3.goal of the change was to reduce the overall duration of hospital stay by the patients. An improvement in the safety and quality of care result in enhanced

4.outcomes of care such as hospital stay by the patients (Well, 2015). Therefore, it was anticipated that the change will reduce the duration of hospital stay by

5.the patients. A reduction in hospital stay also implied that the cost of care incurred by the patients and their families would decline significantly. The hospital

6.also hoped that the use of the intervention would have led to enhanced patient satisfaction with care. Through it, the organization aimed at empowering the

7.patients to embrace initiatives to address the issue. The last goal of the intervention was to empower nurses to take lead in the prevention of patient falls in their units.

Inter-Professional Stakeholders

uNurses

uNurse managers

uPatients

uPhysicians

uMedical residents

1.Nurses were mainly targeted with the implementation of the change. They were expected to perform regular safety rounds and attend to bedside alarms.

2.However, they were not trained on the implementation of the change. Lack of training often increases the risk of resistance to change due to low level of

3.awareness among the adopters. Nurse managers were also part of the implementing team. However, their input on the critical factors to be considered for

4.the success of the intervention was not obtained in the change process. They did not understand their roles in implementing the change. Patients were also

5.part of the inter-professional stakeholders. They were expected to be educated on the use of bedside alarms. Physicians and medical residents were also

6.expected to be trained on the change since they are part of the healthcare team involved in the promotion of patient safety.

uHuman resources manager

uExternal trainer on patient safety

uSupplier of bedside alarms

1.The human resource manager should have also been involved. He would have determined the learning needs of the nurses and the ways in which they can

2.be met. He would have also assisted in determining the staffs needed in effective implementation of the change. The contributions of the human resource

3.manager would have ensured that sustainability of the change were achieved. However, the human resources manager was not involved in the process. An

4.external trainer on patient safety would have also been incorporated into the implementation of the change. The trainer would have imparted the nurses and

5.other professionals with the right knowledge and skills to address the issue. The supplier of the bedside alarms should have also been included in the

6.implementation  of the change. The supplier would have trained the patients and nurses on the use of bedside alarms.

Change Theory

1.According to Lewin’s model of change, organizational change occurs in a slow manner. According to him, factors that include driving, equilibrium and

2.restraining forces influence change. Lewin perceived that change occurs in steps that include unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. Unfreezing is the first

3.stage in the model where the focus is on letting go of the old behaviors that are considered counterproductive. It is important that the adopters of the

4.change overcome the restraining forces that inhibit the change. Therefore, the driving forces for the change should be increased while decreasing restraining

5.forces to achieve the desired momentum for change. This stage is applicable to the change where the nurses and other professionals would have been made

6.aware of the need for the change in their units. The second stage in the model is change. The adopters move to a new level where there is a change in their

7.feelings, thoughts, and behavior. They understand the need to embrace the interventions to reduce and prevent patient falls. They are willing to change their

8.behaviors as a way of supporting the change. The third stage is refreezing stage where the change has been adopted. As a result, the focus is to ensure that

9.the newly adopted behaviors become the norm to prevent the adopters from relapsing to their earlier behaviors (Burke, 2017).

Health care organizations apply different strategies to improve health outcomes. Practice change improves health outcomes by addressing performance gaps and introducing new processes (Busetto et al., 2018). However, change does not always occur as planned, which can have far-reaching impacts on financial assets and workplace relationships. Therefore, the purpose of this presentation is to describe a situation where change did not go as planned in the workplace and the steps that should have been taken to implement change successfully. Central discussion areas include a background of the situation, the nurse’s role as a change agent, and stakeholders essential in change management. Other areas include a presentation of change theory, impacts of unsuccessful change, and factors to drive upcoming organizational change.

The situation where change did not occur as planned involved the introduction of a zero-tolerance policy in the organization in response to increased cases of bullying. As Mrayyan (2018) stated, zero tolerance towards workplace violence encourages nurses not to endure violence and report it immediately after they encounter it. The law also severely punishes those who commit violent acts like bullying against health care providers. Like other practice change activities, the nursing staff was supposed to be adequately prepared for policy change to embrace it fully. Unfortunately, the management introduced the policy abruptly, which reduced the staff’s commitment to implementing it fully. Hence, it did not achieve the outcomes as projected.

Health care professionals should work in safe care environments to deliver quality patient care. According to Al-Ghabeesh and Qattom (2019), bullying is damaging to the health and productivity of nurses since it impairs their emotional health and increases their desire to quit their occupations. Therefore, zero tolerance towards bullying is a practical intervention for optimizing employee productivity and protecting nurses from the adverse effects of workplace incivility. Homayuni et al. (2021) found that bullying is associated with depression and distress in nurses, which hampers interprofessional collaboration and their ability to provide quality care. A zero-tolerance policy protects the staff from such health dangers and ensures civil conduct among employees as they work to achieve a common goal.

Nurse leaders should introduce and guide while looking forward to achieving multi-dimensional impacts. Practice change achieved by implementing zero-tolerance policies can help to promote ethical conduct among nurses, which is characterized by behaviors that prevent harm and ensuring that employees are responsible for their actions. From a social dimension, nursing practice is conducted in social environments with diverse practitioners. Preventing behaviors that hamper teamwork and cooperation is instrumental in building healthy relationships among diverse teams. Mrayyan (2018) stressed the importance of a zero-tolerance policy in preventing costly medical errors. Preventing such errors also minimizes legal issues stemming from patient harm and improves the organization’s reputation and relationship with partners.

The advanced registered nurse’s role as a change agent is critical for the progressive improvement of patient care outcomes. According to Rafferty (2018), nurses and nurse leaders are directly involved in patient care, and their influence, skills, and guidance are valuable in change implementation. Skills utilization is demonstrated by continuous assessment of practice gaps and introduction of interventions for enhancing performance. Nurse leaders also use their knowledge and skills to promote evidence-based innovation and lead behavior change practices like zero-tolerance policies, motivation programs, and infection control. Other roles include designing and delivering health policy as nurses and patient advocates and mentoring nurses to embrace change to reduce resistance toward new practices.

Stakeholders play a critical role in change implementation. The type, direction, and success of organizational change depend on stakeholder engagement, participation, and support (Jasinska, 2020). One of the key stakeholders involved in change efforts is the caregivers, including nurses and physicians. They are directly involved in change efforts since many practice changes cannot be conducted without them. The organization’s management plays a crucial role in supporting change through resources and preparing the organization for change. Other stakeholders with varying roles include patients, partners and suppliers, political and legal representatives, and accreditation agencies. These stakeholders should be adequately informed about organizational practices to determine whether the organization promotes care quality and patient safety as professionally obliged.

Kurt Lewin’s change management model is highly appropriate for change implementation in a dynamic health care environment. Its basic concepts include driving forces that push change in the desired direction, restraining forces that counter change efforts, and a state of equilibrium. As Hussain et al. (2018) explained, practice change occurs progressively in three basic steps: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. Unfreezing is primarily about preparing the nursing staff and other stakeholders to understand and embrace change to counter possible resistance. The changing phase involves transitioning to new behaviors and work routines, while refreezing involves sustaining the new status to achieve lasting effects.

Change leaders apply different change models for different reasons. Besides guiding change management in a simple and straightforward process, Lewin’s change theory aims to understand and demonstrate why change occurs (Hussain et al., 2018). Accordingly, change leaders can justify the change and visualize the outcomes. Lewin’s theory also accounts for uncertainties and resistance to change. In most instances, resistance to change occurs when the nursing staff and other stakeholders are not engaged in the change process. To overcome resistance, Lewin’s theory stresses the need for clear and convincing communication and education about the need for the change during the unfreezing phase (Deborah, 2018). Above all, the phased change management helps change leaders to introduce and implement organizational change procedurally.

Organizational change has profound impacts on care quality and work processes. Hence, the change management strategies applied should be centered on achieving change without adverse impacts on behaviors, social relationships, and finances. Due to its straightforward nature and simplicity, Lewis change management model ensures that change is implemented without ethical misconduct or negative impacts on workplace behaviors. The simple process is also economical since it does not include many steps that can be tiring or consume massive resources. Change management through positive behavior change also protects patients, health care professionals, and other populations. Doing so protects the organization from possible reputational damage, which can be politically, ethically, and legally costly.

Advanced registered nurses should be aware of change implementation barriers before initiating practice change. After identifying the change and potential impacts, I would develop a comprehensive implementation plan to share with the management and the nursing staff. Next, I would communicate the change to nurses and all stakeholders since lack of it was the main reason for the initial change failure in the facility. Communication is crucial in the unfreezing phase of change management since it helps stakeholders to understand the change and its importance (Deborah, 2018). The next step would be actively engaging stakeholders to implement the change before its evaluation to determine whether it achieved the desired effects.

Change implementation is usually a lengthy, laborious, and resource-intensive process. It requires preparation, continuous communication, and engagement of stakeholders. Unsuccessful change implies potential misuse of the organization’s resources such as zero tolerance policy handouts and finances used communication and other crucial processes. Since the goal of the change process is to prevent bullying, failure to achieve this goal would increase nurses’ exposure to workplace bullying. Al-Ghabeesh and Qattom (2019) found that bullying lowers nurses productivity since it is psychologically harming, and the same would be witnessed in the organization. Other potential outcomes include increased risk to patient care and disappointment with the change process.

Nurse leaders should never give up with organizational change. Consequently, they should have a backup plan if change is unsuccessful. The most effective intervention to address the current scenario if change does not succeed is a collaborative process and impact assessment. In this case, nurses, nurse leaders, and the management would collaborate to assess why practice change failed and practical remedies. The role of the collaborative assessment would be helping the change team to address implementation barriers before reintroducing the change.  Such barriers include communication problems, a resistance culture, and a lack of stakeholder support (Busetto et al., 2018). As the implementation progresses, the change team should seek continuous feedback from stakeholders while monitoring reactions and impacts. Such an impact would help to fix any issue hampering the process timely and conveniently.

Successful organizational change is achieved through a combination of factors. Besides stakeholder engagement and communication as mentioned earlier, employee growth and development will play a crucial role in driving upcoming organizational change. Largely, employee growth and development will equip employees with the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary for continuous quality improvement in health practice. Organizations ready for change must foster innovation through nurse leaders who seek new ways to transform and influence higher care quality through new care delivery models (Snow, 2019; Mutonyi et al., 2021) Accordingly, the advanced registered nurse must be at the center of innovation and transformation through continuous assessment of performance gaps and fostering a culture of change in the organization.

As demonstrated in this presentation, the primary goal of practice change is to optimize health outcomes. As a result, nurse leaders and other health care professionals in advanced practice should continually assess performance gaps, promote innovation, and lead behavior-change practices. Since practice change should be systematic and procedural, the advanced registered nurse should initiate change using theoretical guidelines. Kurt Lewin’s change management theory can be applied to introduce change in the organization to achieve the best results. It stresses preparation for change and sustaining it, which are critical to successful change. Additional drivers of change in the organization include the management investing in innovation and employee growth and development programs.

References

  • Al-Ghabeesh, S. H., & Qattom, H. (2019). Workplace bullying and its preventive measures and productivity among emergency department nurses. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research8(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4268-x
  • Busetto, L., Luijkx, K., Calciolari, S., Ortiz, L. G. G., & Vrijhoef, H. J. M. (2018). Barriers and facilitators to workforce changes in integrated care. International Journal of Integrated Care18(2), 1-13. http://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.3587
  • Deborah, O. K. (2018). Lewin’s theory of change: Applicability of its principles in a contemporary organization. Journal of Strategic Management2(5), 1-11. https://stratfordjournals.org/journals/index.php/journal-of-strategic-management/article/download/229/274
  • Homayuni, A., Hosseini, Z., Aghamolaei, T., & Shahini, S. (2021). Which nurses are victims of bullying: the role of negative affect, core self-evaluations, role conflict and bullying in the nursing staff. BMC Nursing20(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00578-3
  • Hussain, S. T., Lei, S., Akram, T., Haider, M. J., Hussain, S. H., & Ali, M. (2018). Kurt Lewin’s change model: a critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge3(3), 123-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2016.07.002
  • Al-Ghabeesh, S. H., & Qattom, H. (2019). Workplace bullying and its preventive measures and productivity among emergency department nurses. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research8(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4268-x
  • Busetto, L., Luijkx, K., Calciolari, S., Ortiz, L. G. G., & Vrijhoef, H. J. M. (2018). Barriers and facilitators to workforce changes in integrated care. International Journal of Integrated Care18(2), 1-13. http://doi.org/10.5334/ijic.3587
  • Deborah, O. K. (2018). Lewin’s theory of change: Applicability of its principles in a contemporary organization. Journal of Strategic Management2(5), 1-11. https://stratfordjournals.org/journals/index.php/journal-of-strategic-management/article/download/229/274
  • Homayuni, A., Hosseini, Z., Aghamolaei, T., & Shahini, S. (2021). Which nurses are victims of bullying: the role of negative affect, core self-evaluations, role conflict and bullying in the nursing staff. BMC Nursing20(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00578-3
  • Hussain, S. T., Lei, S., Akram, T., Haider, M. J., Hussain, S. H., & Ali, M. (2018). Kurt Lewin’s change model: a critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge3(3), 123-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2016.07.002

Implementing Change With an Interprofessional Approach Presentation – Rubric

Rubric Criteria

Total150 points

Criterion

1. Unsatisfactory

2. Insufficient

3. Approaching

4. Acceptable

5. Target

Description of Situation, Rationale for Change and Goal

Description of Situation, Rationale for Change and Goal

0 points

A description of the background of the situation, including the rationale for change and the goal or goals of change, is not included.

6 points

A description of the background of the situation, including the rationale for change and the goal or goals of change, is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete.

6.6 points

A description of the background of the situation, including the rationale for change and goal or the goals of change, is generally presented. Some aspects of the ethical, social, legal, economic, and political implications of practice change are considered in the response.

6.9 points

A description of the background of the situation, including the rationale for change and the goal or goals of change, is provided and well developed. Overall, the ethical, social, legal, economic, and political implications of practice change are considered in the response.

7.5 points

A comprehensive description of the background of the situation, including the rationale for change and the goal or goals of change, is thoroughly developed with supporting details. The ethical, social, legal, economic, and political implications of practice change are clearly considered in the response.

Advanced Registered Nurse Role as Change Agent

Advanced Registered Nurse Role as Change Agent

0 points

The role of the advanced registered nurse as a change agent is omitted.

6 points

The role of the advanced registered nurse as a change agent is only partially discussed.

6.6 points

The role of the advanced registered nurse as a change agent is summarized. Information or supporting rationale is needed.

6.9 points

The role of the advanced registered nurse as a change agent is discussed. Minor detail or rationale is needed for clarity or accuracy.

7.5 points

The role of the advanced registered nurse as a change agent is clearly discussed. Supporting detail and rationale are provided.

Key Internal and External Interprofessional Stakeholders That Should Be Involved in Change Efforts

Key Internal and External Interprofessional Stakeholders That Should Be Involved in Change Efforts

0 points

The key internal and external interprofessional stakeholders that should be involved in change efforts are not included.

6 points

The key internal and external interprofessional stakeholders that should be involved in change efforts are only partially discussed.

6.6 points

The key internal and external interprofessional stakeholders that should be involved in change efforts are summarized. Information or supporting rationale is needed.

6.9 points

The key internal and external interprofessional stakeholders that should be involved in change efforts are discussed. Minor detail or rationale is needed for clarity or accuracy.

7.5 points

A comprehensive discussion of the key internal and external interprofessional stakeholders that should be involved in change efforts is thoroughly developed with supporting details.

Appropriate Change Theory or Model That Could Be Used to Achieve Results

Appropriate Change Theory or Model That Could Be Used to Achieve Results

0 points

A discussion of an appropriate change theory or model that could be used to achieve results is not included.

12 points

A discussion of an appropriate change theory or model that could be used to achieve results is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete.

13.2 points

A discussion of an appropriate change theory or model that could be used to achieve results is presented. Some aspects of the ethical, social, legal, economic, and political implications of applying the change management strategies to practice change are considered in the response.

13.8 points

A discussion of an appropriate change theory or model that could be used to achieve results is clearly provided and well developed. Overall, the ethical, social, legal, economic, and political implications of applying the change management strategies to practice change are considered in the response.

15 points

A comprehensive discussion of an appropriate change theory or model that could be used to achieve results is thoroughly developed with supporting details. The ethical, social, legal, economic, and political implications of applying the change management strategies to practice change are considered in the response.

Outline for Initiating Change as Advanced Registered Nurse

Outline for Initiating Change as Advanced Registered Nurse

0 points

An outline for initiating change as an advanced registered nurse is not included.

12 points

An outline for initiating change as an advanced registered nurse is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete.

13.2 points

A general outline for initiating change as an advanced registered nurse is present. Information or supporting rationale is needed.

13.8 points

An outline for initiating change as an advanced registered nurse is clearly provided and well developed. Minor detail or rationale is needed for clarity or accuracy.

15 points

A comprehensive outline for initiating change as an advanced registered nurse is thoroughly developed with supporting details.

Impact to the Organization

Impact to the Organization if the Change Initiative Is Unsuccessful Again and Potential Steps the Interprofessional Team Could Take

0 points

The impact to the organization if the change initiative is unsuccessful again, and potential steps the interprofessional team could take, is not included.

6 points

The impact to the organization if the change initiative is unsuccessful again, and potential steps the interprofessional team could take, is only partially described.

6.6 points

The impact to the organization if the change initiative is unsuccessful again, and potential steps the interprofessional team could take, is summarized. Information or supporting rationale is needed.

6.9 points

The impact to the organization if the change initiative is unsuccessful again, and potential steps the interprofessional team could take, is discussed. Minor detail or rationale is needed for clarity or accuracy.

7.5 points

The impact to the organization if the change initiative is unsuccessful again, and potential steps the interprofessional team could take, is thoroughly discussed and includes supporting details.

Additional Factors Driving Organizational Change and Advanced Registered Nurse as Change Agent

Additional Factors Driving Organizational Change and Advanced Registered Nurse as Change Agent

0 points

Additional factors driving upcoming organizational change for the organization and the advanced registered nurse role as change agent are not discussed.

6 points

Additional factors driving upcoming organizational change for the organization and the advanced registered nurse role as change agent are only partially discussed.

6.6 points

Additional factors driving upcoming organizational change for the organization and the advanced registered nurse role as change agent are summarized. Information or supporting rationale is needed.

6.9 points

Additional factors driving upcoming organizational change for the organization and the advanced registered nurse role as change agent are discussed. Minor detail or rationale is needed for clarity or accuracy.

7.5 points

Additional factors driving upcoming organizational change for the organization and the advanced registered nurse role as change agent are thoroughly discussed. The narrative is well-developed and supported.

Presentation of Content

Presentation of Content

0 points

The content lacks a clear point of view and logical sequence of information. Includes little persuasive information. Sequencing of ideas is unclear.

30 points

The content is vague in conveying a point of view and does not create a strong sense of purpose. Includes some persuasive information.

33 points

The presentation slides are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization or in their relationships to each other.

34.5 points

The content is written with a logical progression of ideas and supporting information exhibiting a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness. Includes persuasive information from reliable sources.

37.5 points

The content is written clearly and concisely. Ideas universally progress and relate to each other. The project includes motivating questions and advanced organizers. The project gives the audience a clear sense of the main idea.

Layout

Layout

0 points

The layout is cluttered, confusing, and does not use spacing, headings, and subheadings to enhance the readability. The text is extremely difficult to read with long blocks of text, small point size for fonts, and inappropriate contrasting colors. Poor use of headings, subheadings, indentations, or bold formatting is evident.

12 points

The layout shows some structure, but appears cluttered and busy or distracting with large gaps of white space or a distracting background. Overall readability is difficult due to lengthy paragraphs, too many different fonts, dark or busy background, overuse of bold, or lack of appropriate indentations of text.

13.2 points

The layout uses horizontal and vertical white space appropriately. Sometimes the fonts are easy to read, but in a few places the use of fonts, italics, bold, long paragraphs, color, or busy background detracts and does not enhance readability.

13.8 points

The layout background and text complement each other and enable the content to be easily read. The fonts are easy to read and point size varies appropriately for headings and text.

15 points

The layout is visually pleasing and contributes to the overall message with appropriate use of headings, subheadings, and white space. Text is appropriate in length for the target audience and to the point. The background and colors enhance the readability of the text.

Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)

Language Use and Audience Awareness (includes sentence construction, word choice, etc.)

0 points

Inappropriate word choice and lack of variety in language use are evident. Writer appears to be unaware of audience. Use of primer prose indicates writer either does not apply figures of speech or uses them inappropriately.

12 points

Some distracting inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. The writer exhibits some lack of control in using figures of speech appropriately.

13.2 points

Language is appropriate to the targeted audience for the most part.

13.8 points

The writer is clearly aware of audience, uses a variety of appropriate vocabulary for the targeted audience, and uses figures of speech to communicate clearly.

15 points

The writer uses a variety of sentence constructions, figures of speech, and word choice in distinctive and creative ways that are appropriate to purpose, discipline, and scope.

Mechanics of Writing

Includes spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, language use, sentence structure, etc.

0 points

Errors in grammar or syntax are pervasive and impede meaning. Incorrect language choice or sentence structure errors are found throughout..

6 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors are present. Inconsistencies in language choice or sentence structure are recurrent.

6.6 points

Occasional mechanical errors are present. Language choice is generally appropriate. Varied sentence structure is attempted.

6.9 points

Few mechanical errors are present. Suitable language choice and sentence structure are used.

7.5 points

No mechanical errors are present. Skilled control of language choice and sentence structure are used throughout.

Format/Documentation

Uses appropriate style, such as APA, MLA, etc., for college, subject, and level; documents sources using citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., appropriate to assignment and discipline.

0 points

Appropriate format is not used. No documentation of sources is provided.

6 points

Appropriate format is attempted, but some elements are missing. Frequent errors in documentation of sources are evident.

6.6 points

Appropriate format and documentation are used, although there are some obvious errors.

6.9 points

Appropriate format and documentation are used with only minor errors.

7.5 points

No errors in formatting or documentation are present. Selectivity in the use of direct quotations and synthesis of sources is demonstrated.