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In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two quantitative studies

NRS 433 Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two quantitative studies

Background of Study

The nursing practice problem identified in topic one is nurse burnout. Nurse burnout is a serious challenge to the healthcare system because of its adverse effects on patient delivery, quality of care and the welfare of nurses. The two quantitative studies considered in topic one includes article I, “Mindfulness and Resilience as Predictors of Job Burnout among Nurses in Public Hospitals” by Elkady (2019) and article II, “The relationship between workload and burnout among nurses: the buffering role of personal, social and organizational resources” by Diehl et al. (2021). According to article I, Mindfulness and resilience are important interventions that can help nurses manage burnout and enhance their overall performance. The main problem identified in the article is nurse burnout that continues to impact quality healthcare delivery in different healthcare institution. The purpose of the study was to inquire the effects of resilience and mindfulness on nurse burnout. The study also investigates the contribution of these two phenomena to job burnout among nurses in public health facilities. The main objective of the study was to determine effective approaches of managing nurse burnout to ensure quality healthcare delivery services. The main research question is: What is the impact of mindfulness and resilience on nurse burnout? The article is significant to nursing because it shows different interventions that nurses can use to mitigate burnout and manage stress.

According to article II, effective interventions based on social, personal and organizational resources can protect nurses from burnout. The article is significant to nursing practice because it offers interventions to address nurse burnout in palliative care settings. The main problem discussed in this article is nurse burnout that continues to impact delivery of quality healthcare services. The purpose of the study was to examine the protective role of resources on the association between workload and burnout. The main objective of the article shoe how nurse burnout can interfere with the delivery of quality healthcare services. The main research question is: What is the relationship between workload and burnout among nurses and the role of personal, social and organizational resources in protecting these providers? The two articles are significant to nursing because they provide different strategies of managing nurse burnout to ensure quality healthcare delivery services.

The purpose of qualitative research is to understand individuals lives and figure out what the central meaning is (Renjith 2021). To analyze different phenomena in this context, researchers gather many different views from different individuals to see how the phenomenon effects their life (Maxwell 2020). An example of this would be mothers with children who have leukemia (Renjith 2021). The research would surround every life aspect, from wearing a mask everywhere to staying home on lock down basically to keep infection minimum during treatments (Renjith 2021). Grounded theory is to discovery in the context of the social process being studied. This theory uses comparative analysis, theoretical sampling, theoretical coding, and theoretical saturation. An example of this would be an analysis of the relationship between women and anorexia. The study analysis showed a development of a theoretical framework on the nature of the relationship between the self and anorexia nervosa (Renjith 2021). Ethnographic research studies the anthropology of culture specific areas. Knowledge and behaviors are used in this type of study (Renjith 2021). An example of this type of research study would be “The aim of the ethnographic study by LeBaron et al. was to explore the barriers to opioid availability and cancer pain management in India. The researchers collected data from fifty-nine participants using in-depth semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and document review. The researchers identified significant barriers by open coding and thematic analysis of the formal interview” (Renjith 2021).

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How The Two Articles Support the Nurse Practice Issue Chosen

The article I relates to and support the PICOT question as it shows different interventions that nurses can use to mitigate burnout and

In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two quantitative studies
In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two quantitative studies

manage stress. Mindfulness and resilience are important interventions that can help nurses manage burnout and enhance their overall performance. As a result, the outcomes can be applied in answering different aspects of PICOT question. Similarly, article II relates to the PICOT question as it shows that effective interventions based on social, personal and organizational resources can protect nurses from burnout. The article therefore relates to the interventions to address nurse burnout in palliative care settings. The two articles can therefore be applied in answering different aspects of the PICOT question.

When evaluating any study, it is important to consider the interventions and comparison groups being used. In the context of a PICOT question, the interventions and comparison groups can be thought of in terms of the treatment being studied and the control group. When reviewing the literature, it is important to critically evaluate these groups in order to determine if the results are applicable to the clinical question. From the two articles, the intervention and comparison groups are comparable to those identified in the PICOT question.

Method of Study

For article I, the researcher used a quantitative survey design with both dependent and independent variables. On the other hand, article II, the researchers used quantitative stratified technique to get its sample. Survey research is a useful/beneficial tool for collecting quantitative data about a population of interest. Surveys can be used to collect data about people’s opinions, behaviors, and demographics. However, surveys also have limitations that should be considered when designing and administering a survey. One limitation of surveys is that they are often reliant on self-report data (Friganović et al., 2021). This means that respondents may not accurately report their opinions or behaviors. Respondents may misrepresent themselves due to social desirability bias or other reasons. Another limitation of surveys is that they can be time-consuming and expensive to administer. Also, it can be difficult to reach a representative sample of the population with a survey. surveys are also subject to question interpretation biases.

There are a number of benefits to using quantitative stratified technique designs in research. first, this approach can provide a more accurate picture of what is happening in a population. By stratifying the population and then selecting a random sample from each stratum, researchers can be sure that their sample is more representative of the population as a whole. This approach can also be used to study sub-groups within a population. For example, if researchers want to study the difference between men and women, they could use a stratified design to select two samples – one consisting of men and the other consisting of women – and then compare the results (Dall’Ora et al., 2020). However, there are also some limitations to this approach. One is that the overlapping issues may occur in a way that some subjects may fall into different subgroups. This can result in misrepresentation of the population.

Results of Study

For quantitative article I, the findings showed that mindfulness can facilitate wellbeing of nurses and protect them from stress and burnout. Nurses can also overcome burnout in different departments when they exercise resilience and focus on the different aspects of their job from an innovative perspective. On the other hand, Diehl et al. (2021) found that high levels and demands of palliative care have negative effects on nurse burnout. The findings showed the different personal, organizational and social resources provide protection for nurses to buffer them from burnout in different care settings. It is widely known that palliative care can be demanding and emotionally taxing for nurses. What’s less understood is how these high levels of stress can lead to negative effects on nurse burnout (Elkady, 2019). Burnout is a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion that can result from working in a high-stress environment. Symptoms of nurse burnout include feelings of hopelessness, cynicism, and detachment from work; loss of motivation; decreased satisfaction with work; and increased absenteeism.

There are a number of implications of the two studies on nurse burnout in nursing practice. First, nurse burnout is a significant problem in nursing practice, and it appears to be getting worse. Second, nurse Burnout appears to be associated with a number of negative outcomes, including decreased job satisfaction, increased absenteeism, and increased turnover. Third, the majority of nurses who experience burnout do not seek help or assistance from their employers. This suggests that employers need to do more to support nurses who are experiencing burnout. Finally, the findings from these studies suggest the need for interventions to reduce nurse burnout.

Ethical Considerations

The two ethical considerations in conducting research include informed consent and confidentiality of information from the study participants. Confidentiality of information and informed consent are important ethical considerations in the research process. Researchers have a responsibility to protect the participants in their study, and to ensure that they fully understand what they are consenting to (Head, 2020). Informed consent forms should be clear and concise, and should explain all aspects of the study in order to obtain truly informed consent. Additionally, confidentiality agreements should be in place to protect the identities of participants and keep their personal information confidential.

Researchers took into account many factors when conducting research, and one of the most important is maintaining the confidentiality of information and obtaining informed consent from participants. There are a few ways that researchers ensured that confidentiality is kept and informed consent obtained. The researchers clearly explained the purpose of the research to potential participants and the confidentiality safeguards. Participants were also made aware of their right to withdraw from the study at any time. Finally, researchers ensured reliable data security protocols in place to protect participant information.

Conclusion

Analysis of quantitative studies involved the consideration of different factors. In most cases, quantitative studies require data analysis which has to be undertaken based in the study design. The first step in any data analysis is to understand the study’s purpose and objectives. The nursing practice problem identified in topic one is nurse burnout. Nurse burnout is a serious challenge to the healthcare system because of its adverse effects on patient delivery, quality of care and the welfare of nurses. For quantitative article I, the findings showed that mindfulness can facilitate wellbeing of nurses and protect them from stress and burnout. On the other hand, article II found that high levels and demands of palliative care have negative effects on nurse burnout. The two ethical considerations in conducting research include informed consent and confidentiality of information from the study participants.

References

Dall’Ora, C., Ball, J., Reinius, M., & Griffiths, P. (2020). Burnout in nursing: a theoretical review. Human resources for health, 18(1), 1-17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-020-00469-9

Diehl, E., Rieger, S., Letzel, S., Schablon, A., Nienhaus, A., Escobar Pinzon, L. C., & Dietz, P. (2021). The relationship between workload and burnout among nurses: the buffering role of personal, social and organizational resources. PloS one, 16(1), e0245798. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.

Elkady, A. A. M. (2019). Mindfulness and Resilience as Predictors of Job Burnout among Nurses in Public Hospitals. International Journal of Psycho-Educational Sciences, 8, 14-21. https://perrjournal.com/index.php/per journal/article/view/167

Friganović, A., Kurtović, B., & Selič, P. (2021). A cross-sectional multicentre qualitative study exploring attitudes and burnout knowledge in intensive care nurses with burnout. Slovenian Journal of Public Health, 60(1), 46-54. DOI: 10.2478/sjph-2021-0008

Head, G. (2020). Ethics in educational research: Review boards, ethical issues and researcher development. European Educational Research Journal19(1), 72-83. https://doi.org/10.1177/1474904118796315

Quantitative research plays an important role in the research process, providing crucial data and insights that can help support or refute a hypothesis. By measuring variables and controlling for confounders, quantitative studies can provide a great deal of information about cause and effect relationships. This is essential in understanding how the world works and can lead to new breakthroughs in fields such as medicine and nursing. The two quantitative studies considered in topic 1 include Article I: “Factors associated with progression to infection in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-colonized, critically ill neonates” by Schuetz et al., (2021), and Article II: “Decreased incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in intensive care units: a 10-year clinical, microbiological, and genotypic analysis in a tertiary hospital” by Kim et al., (2020). The purpose of this assignment is to analyze article I and II and to determine how they will be used to answer the PICOT question.

Quantitative Studies

Background

According to quantitative article I, the following are factors that are associated with a higher risk of progression to infection in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in critically ill neonates: presence of lococcus aureus on admission, gestational age <32 weeks, birth weight <1500 grams, mechanical ventilation for >7 days, total parenteral nutrition for >14 days, and broad-spectrum (Schuetz et al., 2021). The main problem in this article is the progression of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-colonized among the critically ill neonates. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major problem in healthcare settings worldwide. Study I investigated factors associated with progression to MRSA infection in patients who were colonized with the bacterium. The risk factors for progression to infection among MRSA-colonized patients include being older than 65 years, having certain chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, COPD, HIV/AIDS), having a history of IV drug use, and being admitted to the ICU.

The purpose of the study was to identify factors associated with progression to infection in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers. The study population was composed of adults admitted to a long-term care facility who were either colonized or infected with MRSA. Another objective was to find out what causes symptomatic contamination in newborns with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (Schuetz et al., 2021). The study found that patients who were younger, male, non-white, and had higher numbers of comorbidities were more likely to progress from colonization to infection. These findings are significant for nurses who care for patients with MRSA colonization. Overall, the study’s findings are significant to the nursing profession particularly when it come to the management of hospital acquired infections. The main research question from the article is: What are some of the factors that cause symptomatic contamination in newborns with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in the neonatal intensive care unit?

Quantitative study II looked at the decreased incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in intensive care units. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an intensive care unit (ICU) infection control program on the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia. The main research question for the study was: What are the effects of an intensive care unit (ICU) infection control program on the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia?

The results of the study showed that the incidence of MRSA bacteremia decreased significantly following implementation of the ICU infection control program. The rate of decrease was greatest in the ICUs with the most comprehensive program. These findings suggest that implementation of an effective ICU infection control program can reduce the incidence of MRSA bacteremia. The main problem in the study was the increasing incidence of MRSA bacteremia in the intensive care units. The main objective of the study was to determine the impacts of intensive care unit (ICU) infection control program on the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia. The article is significant to nursing because it provide strategies for the management of healthcare acquired infections in the intensive care units.

How the Two Articles Support the Nurse Practice Issue on Hospital Acquired Infection

The two articles analyze factors associated with progression to infection in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-colonized among critically ill neonates and the application of Alcohol-based Nasal Decolonization and Chlorhexidine Bathing to Reduce Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus. The findings on the above issues are critical in supporting the nurse practice issue on hospital acquired infections. The information provided in these two articles are critical in answering different aspects of the PICOT question. In other words, the two articles are essential in answering the PICOT question because they analyze the intervention that have been defined in the PICOT.

There is a great deal of variability in both the interventions and comparison groups used in research on the two articles. This can make it difficult to compare the findings of different studies directly. However, looking at the general trends across the two articles, there are some key similarities and differences between what is being done in each group. The intervention groups tend to receive more aggressive treatment for their infection. This may include things like more frequent and/or longer antibiotic administration, earlier transfer to isolation wards, and so on. The comparison groups received standard care for their infection, which may not be as intensive.

Methods of Study

For article I, case-control study design was used while article II was a cohort study where there was a follow-up. The main difference between case-control and cohort studies is that cohort studies follow people over time (a “follow-up”), whereas case-control studies select people who already have the disease or outcome of interest (the “cases”) and compare them with a group of people who do not have the disease or outcome of interest (the “controls”). Cohort studies are thought to be more accurate because they measure exposures/outcomes in real life as they happen. Case-control studies are often limited by recall bias, where cases may remember things differently than controls.

The main benefit of case-control study design is that it is much less expensive and time consuming than other types of epidemiological studies, such as cohort studies. A limitation of case-control study design is that it can be difficult to determine causation because it is retrospective in nature. Cohort studies are a type of observational study, which means that researchers observe what people do (in this case, who contracts a particular disease) and try to identify patterns (Wang & Kattan, 2020). This type of study is useful because it can track a large number of people for many years, which allows researchers to identify risk factors for diseases. A limitation of cohort studies is that they cannot prove causation; they can only show correlation.

Results of Study

According to study I, the following factors are associated with progression to infection in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) – colonized, critically ill neonates: – gestational age <37 weeks, – birth weight <1,500 grams, – mechanical ventilation for >48 hours, – history of MRSA colonization or infection, – receipt of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for >14 days, – concurrent diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis (Schuetz et al., 2021). Also, from the study, critically ill neonates were found to have a significantly higher risk of progression to infection than those who were not colonized by the bacteria.

Study II showed that the incidence of MRSA bacteremia decreased significantly following implementation of the ICU infection control program. The rate of decrease was greatest in the ICUs with the most comprehensive program (Kim et al., 2020). These findings suggest that implementation of an effective ICU infection control program can reduce the incidence of MRSA bacteremia.

The two studies on nursing practice provide valuable information on the use of alcohol-based nasal decolonization to prevent infection in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) -colonized patients. The two studies are critical in enhancing quality nursing practices and healthcare delivery processes.

Outcomes Comparison

The anticipated outcome of the PICOT question is that chlorhexidine baths can reduce the risk of acquiring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in critically ill patients. A number of studies have shown that chlorhexidine baths are associated with a reduction in MRSA acquisition, and although the exact mechanism by which this occurs is unclear, it is thought that chlorhexidine may potentiate the effects of antibiotics and/or directly inhibit the growth of bacteria (Kim et al., 2020). In addition, chlorhexidine baths appear to be well tolerated by patients and are associated with few side effects. The outcomes of the two quantitative articles are comparable to the anticipated outcomes. The two articles concluded that chlorhexidine has a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity and is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It is also highly effective against MRSA, making it an ideal agent for use in preventing hospital-acquired infections.

Conclusion

There is some evidence that suggests daily chlorhexidine baths may help prevent the acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in critically ill patients. However, more research is needed to determine whether or not this is truly the case. Chlorhexidine has a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity and is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It is also highly effective against MRSA, making it an ideal agent for use in preventing hospital-acquired infections. The two articles analyze factors associated with progression to infection in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-colonized among critically ill neonates and the application of Alcohol-based Nasal Decolonization and Chlorhexidine Bathing to Reduce Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Kim, H., Kim, E. S., Lee, S. C., Yang, E., Kim, H. S., Sung, H., … & Chong, Y. P. (2020). Decreased incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in intensive care units: a 10-year clinical, microbiological, and genotypic analysis in a tertiary hospital. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy64(10), e01082-20. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01082-20

Schuetz, C. R., Hogan, P. G., Reich, P. J., Halili, S., Wiseman, H. E., Boyle, M. G., … & Fritz, S. A. (2021). Factors associated with progression to infection in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-colonized, critically ill neonates. Journal of Perinatology41(6), 1285-1292. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41372-021-00944-8

Wang, X., & Kattan, M. W. (2020). Cohort studies: Design, analysis, and reporting. Chest158(1), S72-S78. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012369220304645