Midweek Assignment Research Proposal Draft

Midweek Assignment Research Proposal Draft

Opioid overdose has been a significant healthcare and public health problem over the years. However, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic brought a completely different challenge in reference to opioid overdose. Recent studies show that individuals with opioid overdose problems sunk more into the problems, primarily due to the lockdown rules and shutting down of the recreational activities where such individuals could spend some time, hence taking the thoughts of opioid use away from them for a duration (Ghose et al.,2022). One of the approaches for managing the opioid overdose crisis is the use of rapid administration of medication to reverse the opioid action. The medication commonly used is naloxone. Therefore, the purpose of this assignment is to conduct a literature review regarding the topic of using naloxone to help reverse the impacts of opioid overdose.

Literature Review

In one of the recent reports, Naumann et al.(2019) conducted a study that focused on examining the impact of the Naloxone distribution program on reducing the impact of opioid overdose. The study, therefore, evaluated the program by examining the relationship between the program and opioid overdose death rates. The researchers used pre-post design and generalized estimating equations to explore the relationship between cumulative rates of naloxone distributed and the rates of death associated with opioid overdose. The analysis of the data showed that the rate of death associated with opioid overdose was significantly lower among the population which was given naloxone in comparison to those that did not have it. Therefore, the distribution and administration of naloxone were connected to reduced rates of opioid overdose deaths.

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Another study was done by Katzman et al.(2020). These researchers conducted a study with the major aim of determining the efficacy of take-home naloxone for overdose reversals among patients with opioid use disorder. This was a cohort study with a total of three hundred and ninety-five participants. The program entailed giving the participant two doses of take-home naloxone and an opioid overdose education for a period of one year. Upon the analysis of the data, the researchers found relevant results. For example, up to eighteen percent of the participants managed to perform one hundred and fourteen reversals. Therefore, provision and distribution of naloxone and overdose education were associated with a significant harm reduction and possible opioid rela

Midweek Assignment Research Proposal Draft

Midweek Assignment Research Proposal Draft

ted deaths. As opposed to Naumann et al.(2019), this research integrated the use of naloxone with patient education hence showing better results.

Dietze et al.(2019) also conducted research that explored the efficacy of intranasal naloxone on opioid overdose as compared to intramuscular naloxone. In a randomized controlled trial, the researchers recruited a total of one hundred and ninety-seven participants who were randomly assigned to either of the two groups. It is important to note that both groups showed a considerable impact of naloxone on opioid overdose. However, the researchers noted that the participants randomized into the intramuscular naloxone administration group were less likely to be in need of a naloxone rescue dose. Therefore, this study showed that the administration of naloxone could effectively help in reversing opioid overdose. However, intranasal administration is not as effective as intramuscular administration; hence practitioners should focus more on intramuscular administration.

Another similar study to Dietze et al.(2019) was conducted by Skulberg et al.(2022). This study was conducted with the major aim of evaluating the efficacy of naloxone among patients with opioid overdose. This study was also a randomized controlled trial where a total of two hundred and one participants were recruited to take part in the study. Participants were randomized into the intranasal or intramuscular group. Therefore, this study, just like the study by Dietze et al. (2019), focused on determining how effective intranasally and intramuscularly administered naloxone would be. From the findings, it was noted that the risk of getting additional naloxone was more pronounced in the intranasal group. Therefore, this study also found that intramuscular administration of naloxone is more effective in reducing the impacts of opioid overdose. Therefore, this is another study that showed the effectiveness of using naloxone among patients with opioid overdose.

Various studies have explored the use of naloxone to reduce the impacts of opioid overdose. However, some other studies have also explored the use of educational programs, such as programs targeting students to help reduce the incidences of opioid overdose and the potential impacts of overdose. According to Stover et al. (2019), increased knowledge among students regarding opioid overdose and strategies for preventing the same is a great weapon for controlling opioid overdose and its adverse impacts. According to this study, exposure to opioid prescriptions as well as naloxone training, leads to increased knowledge regarding opioid overdose. The implication is that university and college students can benefit from education programs on opioid overdose. Therefore, such programs should be implemented in schools to form a larger plan of increasing knowledge regarding opioid overdose, which is a good foundation for reducing various adverse impacts and even deaths.

Midweek Assignment Research Proposal Draft Conclusion

Opioid overdose has caused serious problems among populations hence a need to control it. From the literature review done, it was evident that the use of naloxone is efficacious in reducing the impacts of overdose. Including opioid overdose education and training in school and college programs also have the potential to reduce the incidence of opioid overdose and its adverse impacts.

Midweek Assignment Research Proposal Draft References

Dietze, P., Jauncey, M., Salmon, A., Mohebbi, M., Latimer, J., van Beek, I., … & Kerr, D. (2019). Effect of intranasal vs intramuscular naloxone on opioid overdose: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Network Open2(11), e1914977-e1914977. Doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14977

Ghose, R., Forati, A. M., & Mantsch, J. R. (2022). Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Opioid Overdose Deaths: a Spatiotemporal Analysis. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 99(2), 316–327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11524-022-00610-0

Katzman, J. G., Takeda, M. Y., Greenberg, N., Balasch, M. M., Alchbli, A., Katzman, W. G., … & Bhatt, S. R. (2020). Association of take-home naloxone and opioid overdose reversals performed by patients in an opioid treatment program. JAMA Network Open3(2), e200117-e200117. 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.0117

Naumann, R. B., Durrance, C. P., Ranapurwala, S. I., Austin, A. E., Proescholdbell, S., Childs, R., … & Shanahan, M. E. (2019). Impact of a community-based naloxone distribution program on opioid overdose death rates. Drug and Alcohol Dependence204, 107536.

Skulberg, A. K., Tylleskär, I., Valberg, M., Braarud, A. C., Dale, J., Heyerdahl, F., … & Dale, O. (2022). Comparison of intranasal and intramuscular naloxone in opioid overdoses managed by ambulance staff: a double‐dummy, randomized, controlled trial. Addiction117(6), 1658-1667. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.15806

Stover, A. N., Grogg, K., Patel, J., Thornton, D., & Dwibedi, N. (2019). Opioid overdose knowledge among college students in a high overdose death state. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment29(7), 887-896. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911359.2019.1633981