NHS-FPX4000 Assessment 2: Applying Research Skills Capella

NHS-FPX4000 Assessment 2: Applying Research Skills Capella

Create a 3-5-page annotated bibliography and summary based on your research related to best practices addressing one of the health care problems or issues in the Assessment Topic Areas media piece faced by a health care organization that is of interest to you.

Medication Errors

The promotion of patient safety is an area of considerable focus in nursing practice. Patient safety entails the provision of high quality care to the patient with the focus of eliminating any possible harm. Despite this focus, the issue of medication errors continues to affect the quality and safety of care that patients receive in health organizations. Medication errors cause significant harm to patients, distress to healthcare providers, and high cost to healthcare organizations. Medication errors occur at different points of care that include dispensing, ordering, documenting, transcribing, administering, and monitoring. A number of factors contribute to medication errors. The factors include distractions, distortions, illegible writing, burnout, and high workload.  Nurses and other healthcare providers have a critical role in preventing and reducing the risks of medication errors. Nurses adopt interventions that increase their situational awareness to the risk factors for medication errors and advocate for safe practices in nursing. Therefore, organizational structures should systems should support patient safety by minimizing the risk of medication errors and other related safety concerns.

As a future nurse professional, I am responsible for the ensuring that safe and quality care is provided to patients that I serve. I have the responsibility of minimizing the risks of medication errors in caring the populations that I will serve as a nurse. I also have the responsibility to ensure the creation of workplace culture that promotes and protects patient safety. Patient safety culture is achievable through training healthcare providers and developing guidelines that support safety in care. Therefore, I believe that I have the critical responsibility of addressing the factors that contribute to medication errors as a way of promoting safety and quality in healthcare.

Identifying Academic Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

NHS FPX4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills Capella

NHS FPX4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills Capella

The peer-reviewed journals for this research were obtained from a number of databases. The databases included Google Scholar, Pubmed, Embase, and ProQuest. The search of the needed sources of data used specific keywords that included medication errors, medication administration, medication safety, medication errors risk, and preventing medication errors. The search was limited to only scholarly and peer-reviewed journals. The selection of articles was also done by considering their relevance to the focus of the research. The selected articles must have been published within the last five years to increase the relevance and accuracy of the obtained data.

Assessing Credibility and Relevance of Information Sources

The credibility of the information sources was maintained by ensuring that the selected sources were published within the last five years. Individuals with professional qualifications in healthcare must also have published the articles. The articles must also have topics related to medication errors. The last approach was ensuring the clarity of the methods used and reporting of findings.

Heneka, N., Shaw, T., Rowett, D., Lapkin, S., & Phillips, J. L. (2018). Exploring Factors Contributing to Medication Errors with Opioids in Australian Specialist Palliative Care Inpatient Services: A Multi-Incident Analysis. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 21(6), 825–835. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2017.0578

The above study explored the factors that contribute to medication errors in the use of opioids in Australian Specialist Palliative Care Inpatient Services. The study was a multi-incident analysis design where opioid analysis was done on errors reported in two Australian specialist palliative inpatient services. The analysis showed that 78 opioid errors were reported. The majority of the errors (78%) occurred during opioid administration, omitted dose (34%), and wrong dose (17%). The results further showed that 59% of the reported errors led to opioid under dosing while patient harm was reported in 37% of the errors. The factors that increased the risk of medication errors included poor clinical communication, workload, distraction, and non-compliance with policy. This article was included in the annotation because it provides insight into the prevalence and factors contributing to medication errors. It therefore informs the need for the exploration of clinician and patient factors that influence safe delivery of medications.

Jember, A., Hailu, M., Messele, A., Demeke, T., & Hassen, M. (2018). Proportion of medication error reporting and associated factors among nurses: A cross sectional study. BMC Nursing, 17(1), 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-018-0280-4

The above study aimed at investigating the proportion of reporting of medication errors and its associated factors by nurses. The investigation utilized a cross sectional study design. The study utilized data from 397 nurses who were selected using simple random sampling. The data for the research was analyzed using multivariate and bivariate analysis. The results of the study revealed that the proportion of reporting medication errors among the nurses was 57.4%. Factors that included marital status, sex, and experience with a medication error were associated with reporting of a medication error. This article was included in the annotation because it provides evidence on the factors that influence reporting of a medication error by nurses and their proportion. Therefore, the findings from this study inform the strategies that should be embraced in nursing to increase reporting of medication errors by nurses.

Manias, E., Cranswick, N., Newall, F., Rosenfeld, E., Weiner, C., Williams, A., Wong, I. C., Borrott, N., Lai, J., & Kinney, S. (2019). Medication error trends and effects of person-related, environment-related and communication-related factors on medication errors in a paediatric hospital. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 55(3), 320–326. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14193

The above study aimed at investigating the medication error trends and the effect of person, environment, and communication-related factors on the severity of the outcomes of medication errors. The study used a retrospective clinical audit approach where pediatric medication errors reported over five years were evaluated. The researchers analyzed 3340 medication errors that represented 5.73 medication errors per 1000 bed days. Medication errors led to a probable harm. Family and patient involvement increased the possibility of identifying medication errors that were associated with probable or possible harm. This article was included in the annotation because it provides insights into the effect of communication, person, and environment-related factors on the outcomes of a medication error. The study therefore provides critical insights into the protective factors against medication errors.


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The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.

Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.

If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.

I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.

As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:

Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.

Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource