NRS-410V Benchmark – Nursing Process: Approach to Care Solved


Write a paper (1,750-2,000 words) on cancer and approach to care based on the utilization of the nursing process. Include the following in your paper:

Describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer.
Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.
Discuss what factors contribute to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans.
Explain how the American Cancer Society (ACS) might provide education and support. What ACS services would you recommend and why?
Explain how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span. Your explanation should include each of the five phases and demonstrate the delivery of holistic and patient-focused care.
Discuss how undergraduate education in liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process. Consider mathematics, social and physical sciences, and science studies as an interdisciplinary research area.
You are required to cite to a minimum of four sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be pu

blished within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.

Benchmark – Nursing Process: Approach to Care

Cancer is a body’s condition that is characterized by uncontrollable multiplication of body cells that spread across the body rampantly. These cells can be originally normal body cells that mutate into an abnormal cell that rapidly divides and invades other body cells and tissues. They can also be foreign cells introduced to the body that rapidly divide and attack other body cells and tissues. Cancer is a major contributor of mortality in the modern age due to the increasing change in lifestyle and technological advancements (Miller et al., 2019).The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been on the leading foot in the studies about cancer. From various studies, this institute has come up with diagnosis and staging strategies based on the behavior of the cancer cells. The purpose of this paper is to define cancer including its diagnosis and staging, complications and effects of its treatment, and factors contributing to high cancer mortality rates. In addition, the nursing process will be applied in providing holistic nursing care to cancer patients.

Cancer Diagnosis and Staging

Depending on the location of the cancer or suspected cancer, the symptoms may vary. Some symptoms however are common in cancers, and some of these symptoms include a lump developing under the skin that can be seen or felt as an area of thickening, changes in skin integrity such as the development of non-healing sores, skin yellowing, bladder and bowel changes in habits and fatigue among others (Koo et al., 2019). Once the symptoms are indicative of an existing malignancy, confirmatory diagnostic tests are conducted. These include imaging tests, lab tests and biopsy. For lab tests, various aspects of human body samples are analyzed including body fluids such as blood and urine. A full blood count can indicate an irregular number of white blood cells or an unusual type especially in leukemia (National Cancer Institute, 2019). Blood samples can also indicate tumor markers. Tumor markers are usually produced by cells responding to the presence of cancer or by cancer cells themselves. Cancer cells however produce a higher amount of tumor markers as compared to normal cells. Higher levels of tumor markers are indicative of a malignancy.

Imaging tests include an MRI and a CT scan. Imaging tests can clearly show the body organs and abnormal growths or tumors. A nuclear scan is also an imaging test that can be used in diagnosis. For this scan, a radioactive material i

NRS 410V Benchmark  Nursing Process Approach to Care Solved

s injected into the blood stream for computerized imaging (Koo et al., 2019). A bone scan can also be used to indicate bone cancers or metastasis to the bones. Radioactive material collects over the areas of bone abnormalities known as the hotspots. X-rays, PET scans, and ultrasounds are other imaging scans that can be used in diagnosing cancer. The final method of diagnosing cancer is through a biopsy. Taking biopsies is the most accurate method of diagnosing cancer. This is because biopsies are indicative of the type of cells within the area of sample collection.

There are three types of biopsies, the fine needle aspirate which involves using a needle to withdraw samples from a tissue or from body fluids. It is common for prostrate, breast, spinal taps, liver, and bone marrow aspirations. The other types are incisional biopsy which involves the removal of a small sample of the affected tissue and sending it to the lab for studies. The other type is an excisional biopsy, where the entire affected mass is excised and used for diagnosis. Biopsies offer a definitive diagnosis for cancer including the type of cells affected and the metastasis.

Staging tells how advanced the cancer is. For staging, roman numerals are used. Stage zero (0) means there is no actual cancer development, but there is a potential for cancerous development. This is also called a carcinoma in situ. A stage I means the cancer is not vastly developed and is stuck to one location. The synonym for stage I is early stage cancer. Stages II and III indicate that the cancer has metastasized to the lymph nodes and surrounding tissue (National Cancer Institute, 2019). A stage IV is the terminal stage of cancer that is irreversible even with treatment. The cancer has advanced and metastasized to other body tissues causing irreversible damage. It is also termed metastatic cancer.

The staging process incorporates the TNM system that stands for tumor, node and metastasis. Each of these is assigned values and if the specific measurement cannot be determined, an “X” is used instead. The T which stands for tumor indicates the size of the tumor given the range of 0-4. T0 means the tumor is below measureable limit. The greater the value of the T, the larger the tumor is (Rosen & Sapra, 2020). The N that represents the node is accompanied by the values 0-3, indicating the extent of lymph node involvement. The last one is metastasis that is accompanied by either 0 or 1 indicating it has either spread to other parts of the body, or it has not.

Cancer Complications and Treatment Side Effects and Methods to Lessen the Side Effects

Some of the most common cancer complications include general endocrine disorders. Some cancer cells emulate the original body cells and perform an excess of their original function. An example is hypercalcemia that is experienced in case of a malignancy. Hypercalcemia can occur due to failure of the kidneys to effectively get rid of excess calcium due to malignant disease (Koo et al., 2019). It can also occur due to a malignancy affecting the bones causing them to leak excess calcium into the blood stream. Another example is inappropriate antidiuretic syndrome characterized by an excess in the production of antidiuretic hormone. This is common in malignancies that emulate pituitary gland function and lead to an excessive production of antidiuretic hormones.

Another complication of cancer is hematologic disorders. These include anemia, which may be induced by the suppression of normal cell production by a tumor (Koo et al., 2019).  The third complication is gastrointestinal complications. These are more common in cancers that affect the GIT. These complications include abdominal pains, GI bleeding, and indigestion among others.

Cancer treatments possess various side effects. These include nausea and vomiting, hair loss (Alopecia), delirium, loss of appetite, thrombocytopenia, urinary incontinence, lymphedema, infertility, fatigue, thrombocytopenia etc. (Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC] Breast Cancer, 2019). The physical and psychological effects of cancer and its treatment can be regulated. The physical effects can be managed using pharmacological methods. An example is the use of antiemetics to reduce nausea and vomiting. Lifestyle changes including dietary changes can also be effective in the management of GI symptoms. Psychological management is also important in managing psychological cancer effects. These patients are usually vulnerable and suffer psychological torture based on the weight of the disease. These patients require constant reassuring. They need to be indulged in activities that draw their mind off the impending diagnosis.

Factors Contributing to Incident and Mortality Rates of Various Cancers in America

Cancer is a common cause of mortality in America. This is because of the current lifestyle based on technological advancements. The feeding habits also act as a major contributor. Cheap foodstuff in America is mostly junk food found in fast food outlets and restaurants. These predispose this population to cancers raising the prevalence (Siegel et al., 2021). Familial history of cancers is also high in America. Most of the cancer patients inherited the condition from their bloodline. The high mortality rates experienced in America due to cancer are due to the increase in prevalence of cancer.

Studies however indicate that smoking rates in America have reduced b 11% which effectively reduces the rates of lung cancer significantly. Alcohol intake has however increased by 0.6% increasing the risks of liver disease and associated GIT cancer. The rates of obesity and associated risk factors have been increasing over the years and this increases the prevalence of cancer. The National Cancer Institute (2021) outlines ageing as a risk factor for cancer development. This is because ageing cells are prone to mutations and escape of normal cell development regulations.  America, the ageing population is significantly high, increasing the incidence of cancer. This explains the surge in cancer cases experienced in America.

The American Cancer Society

The American cancer society (ACS) is a large widely recognized organization that offers healthcare and support services to cancer patients. They also provide educational services and information regarding cancer, its diagnosis, treatment and management. This organization can offer educational services especially during group therapy sessions. They can offer the patients a platform to express their experiences and then offer them important information regarding cancer (ACS, 2018). They also have a helpline that can be used as a source of offering educational services. When inquiries are made, they can offer additional education that tallies with the queries asked. I would recommend the breast cancer support groups as they help empower the women who feel have lost everything once they contract breast cancer (ACS, 2018). The connecting with survivors group is also an important service that can help motivate other cancer patients that they can lead a normal life even after battling cancer. It provides an essential psychological support for these patients.

Utilization of the Nursing Process across the Life Span

Cancer management can utilize the nursing process effectively. From the assessment, where the nurse evaluates the presenting symptoms, does the physical exam to come up with their diagnosis. The nurse also takes note of the patient’s complaints and uses these clusters of cues to come up with a nursing diagnosis. The primary focus of the assessment is to find out what is ailing the patient both physically and psychologically. This is what makes the care holistic. After outlining the cluster of cues, the nurse can come up with a list of nursing diagnoses that help prioritize the care (Semachew, 2018). Each nursing diagnosis originates from an actual problem based on the previous assessment or potential problems that may originate. The nurse uses this information to come up with strategies of managing actual problems and preventing the occurrence of potential problems.

This is followed by planning. For this, the nurses come up with goals that they need to achieve during the care of cancer patients. The outcome criteria indicate the expected result if the goals have been achieved (Semachew, 2018). The implementation phase follows the planning phase. Here, actual execution of the plan is conducted. The nurses perform the interventions they had planned for with a rationale for the interventions. This means each intervention has a reason for its implementation.

Lastly, the nurses evaluate the effectiveness of their interventions by checking the patient’s outcome. If the goals are unmet, the nurse starts the process over again to correct the hitches that prevented the achievement of the goal (Semachew, 2018). The target is patient well-being holistically and this requires a series of management strategies, explaining the need for the utilization of the nursing process in patient management.

Contribution of Liberal Arts and Science Studies to Nursing Knowledge

Studying liberal arts as an undergraduate has many advantages to the nursing field. This is because mathematics increases the capability of an individual to accurately give statistics as required. In the nursing field, statistics are an important phenomenon. Social sciences are important as they improve an individual’s communication skills and improve their basic social skills (Kooken & Kerr, 2018). This will be especially helpful in interacting with the patients and fellow healthcare workers. Nurses who take liberal arts have a greater capacity for critical thinking and decision making. Finally, the nurses also gain the capacity to view the society in a broader way and understand social and cultural diversities in the provision of care. This is what promotes holistic patient care.

Science studies equip the nurses with the knowledge about body processes. This gives them the ability to understand the pathophysiology of disease processes and how to effectively manage them (Kooken & Kerr, 2018). Science studies also equip nurses with the emerging treatment strategies and equip them with the scientific knowledge to conduct research on the effectiveness of such treatment strategies and their side effects.


Over the years, studies have been conducted to come up with the most appropriate management strategies for cancer. The main reason why the existing remedy or cancer treatment is not effective for all cancers is that cancerous cells keep changing their configuration. The nurses are tasked with offering palliative care to patients who are suffering from stage 4 cancer. This requires empathy and understanding. It is also important to incorporate psychological support to the patient and family during their care. This is what holistic nursing care entails. Incorporating liberal and science studies in nursing has been instrumental in improving the communication skills, changing the approaches to patient care and providing scientific knowledge to nurses is instrumental in the management of cancer.


American Cancer Society. (2018). ACS Patient Programs and Services.; American Cancer Society.

CDC BreastCancer. (2019, October 30). Side Effects of Cancer Treatment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Gegechkori, N., Haines, L., & Lin, J. J. (2017). Long-Term and Latent Side Effects of Specific Cancer Types. Medical Clinics of North America, 101(6), 1053–1073.

Koo, M. M., Swann, R., McPhail, S., Abel, G. A., Elliss-Brookes, L., Rubin, G. P., & Lyratzopoulos, G. (2019). Presenting symptoms of cancer and stage at diagnosis: evidence from a cross-sectional, population-based study. The Lancet Oncology.

Kooken, W. C., & Kerr, N. (2018). Blending the liberal arts and nursing: Creating a portrait for the 21st century. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(1), 60–64.

Miller, K. D., Nogueira, L., Mariotto, A. B., Rowland, J. H., Yabroff, K. R., Alfano, C. M., Jemal, A., Kramer, J. L., & Siegel, R. L. (2019). Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2019. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 69(5).

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Diagnosis and Staging. National Cancer Institute;

National Cancer Institute. (2021, April 2). Cancer Statistics – National Cancer Institute.

National Cancer Institute. (2021, May 5). What Is Cancer? National Cancer Institute;

Rosen, R. D., & Sapra, A. (2020). TNM Classification. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.

Semachew, A. (2018). Implementation of nursing process in clinical settings: the case of three governmental hospitals in Ethiopia, 2017. BMC Research Notes, 11(1).

Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D., Fuchs, H. E., & Jemal, A. (2021). Cancer Statistics, 2021. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 71(1), 7–33.

The scourge of cancer has been increasingly affecting the patients, their families, and even the community at large. Its prevalence has been increasing, the effects are increasingly being experienced and reported, and the healthcare burden has been worrisome. The global incidence of cancer was 23.6 million as of 2021 with 10 million deaths occurring annually worldwide making it the second leading cost of death in the world only bested by cardiovascular deaths (Sung et al., 2021). The United States is not exempted from these impacts with the annual new cases being approximately 1.75 million and estimated deaths being 0.6 million annually (Cancer data and statistics, 2022). In addition, the affected patients also develop psychosocial effects and physical impacts of the disease that might be debilitating. Due to these high burdens of cancers, the healthcare systems have conducted studies to help in understanding the etiologies of cancer, the reasons for increasing healthcare burden related to disease, and even the preventive healthcare strategies that can be employed in reducing the burden. The objective of this paper is to provide insight into cancer by describing how it is diagnosed and staged, complications arising during its treatment, and the roles that nurses perform in managing cancers.

Cancer Diagnosis and Staging


            Cancer can either be diagnosed at routine screening or during the diagnosis. The screening tests are preferred by the healthcare stakeholders because it guides in the early detection of cancer before it manifests and is therefore associated with a better outcome of care. In contrast, diagnostic tests are employed to identify specific cancer when the patient has presented with the signs and symptoms suggestive of certain cancer. Diagnosis, therefore, begins with history taking and physical evaluation of the patient whose results will guide the specific diagnostic tests to order for. For instance, patients who present with chronic cough and hemoptysis with a history of cigarette smoking can be diagnosed with lung cancer as opposed to another who presents with hematuria, flank pain, and flank mass who would be diagnosed with renal cell cancer (Koo et al., 2020). In either of these cases, the diagnostic tests done are different. These tests can however be broadly considered as imaging studies, laboratory tests, and histological tests.

The laboratory tests that have been employed in cancer diagnosis utilizes specimen such as those that have been collected through biopsy. During the assessment, the structures of the collected samples are compared with the normal structures to identify any abnormalities at the cellular (cytological) or tissue (histological) levels (Wilkinson, 2021). Given the advancements in diagnosis, there is a recent application of molecular studies in the diagnosis of cancers where the molecular characteristics of the oncogenic cells can be identified through immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry to not only help in the qualitative diagnosis of specific cancer but also quantification of the oncogenic cells (Sung et al., 2021). The biopsy and visual tissue inspection are the gold standards for the diagnosis of cancer given the high cost and unavailability of molecular studies. The molecular studies are however more accurate.

Imaging studies complement the laboratory studies in the diagnosis of cancers. They help in structural visualization and may guide in assessing the local effect of cancer or even its spread. Some of the imaging tests include CT scan, colonoscopy, esophagoduodenoscopy (OGD), MRI, and PET scans. During some of these imaging studies, targeted specimen collection can be done for the affected structures thus increasing the yield of the specimen (Koo et al., 2020). Incorporating both laboratory and imaging studies in cancer diagnosis is encouraged as it promotes accuracy in diagnosis.


            After the diagnosis of cancer has been made, the oncologist helps with the cancer staging to explain the extent of its spread and determine its prognosis. Different staging classification has been in use although most of them are done based on the size of the tumor (T), the number of nodes involved in tumor spread (N), and the presence of metastasis of the tumor to the local or distant structures (M). These TNM staging that employs the three parameters is further subdivided into stages I, II, III, and IV where stage I signifies a disease that is limited locally without metastasis as opposed to stage IV which is advanced cancer with metastasis to the other structures (Padilla-Leal & Medina-Franco, 2019). The stage IV tumor has a poor prognosis and may only be addressed palliatively as compared to stage I which has a better prognosis.

Other staging classifications are dependent on the system affected by the tumor and may be based on other parameters. These stagings include the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging for cancers gynecologic cancers, Manchester staging employed for breast cancer, and the Ann-Arbor staging system for lymphomas and leukemias (Sung et al., 2021). Either of these staging criteria helps in determining the severity of cancer, and its prognosis and may therefore influence the choice of therapy to be employed.

Complications resulting from Cancer, Side Effects of Drugs Used, and Methods that can be Employed in Reducing the Physical and Psychological Impacts of Cancer

Cancer Complications

            The complications related to cancer can either result from cancer itself or the adverse effects of medications that are used in its treatment. Most of these complications usually present late although their symptoms depend on the affected organs. The organ-specific complications include increased intracranial pressure in brain tumors, jaundice and ascites in liver cancers, hydronephrosis in stage 3 cervical cancer, and anemia due to cancers of the bone marrow (Koo et al., 2020). In contrast, the systemic complications are usually unrelated to the cancers and may include malnutrition, cachexia, and infections. Malnutrition in cancer usually results due to reduced food intake or increased nutrient demand due to the cancer-mediated hypermetabolic state (Jairam et al., 2019). The reduced weight in malnutrition is therefore different from cachexia in which it is due to increased production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factors that encourage. Malnutrition is responsible for reduced immunity, in addition, to the myelosuppression due to cancer that reduces the leucocyte levels in the body (Padilla-Leal & Medina-Franco, 2019). These impacts of cancer complications would increase the risk of infections.

Side Effects of Drugs used in Cancer Treatment

            Chemotherapeutic drugs pose risks to the organs they act on and even other systems due to their toxicity. The drugs especially cell cycle nonspecific agents usually affect the cell cycle of normal body cells thus resulting in their adverse effects. These adverse effects that occur regardless of the agent type include myelosuppression, tumor lysis syndrome, fatigue, mucositis, and hair loss.  Myelosuppression, in which the drug suppresses the bone marrow, is responsible for reduced production of blood cells and therefore presents as anemia, increased risks of infections, and bleeding tendencies in patients who are on care (Jairam et al., 2019). Tumor lysis syndrome, on the other hand, occurs especially in the treatment of cancers with high cell turnovers such as leukemias and lymphoma because the increased cell destruction causes electrolyte imbalances such as hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, and hypercalcemia that may then affect other systemic functions (Nurgali et al., 2018). Organ-specific effects are usually due to toxicity and are also specific to the agents used such as hemorrhagic cystitis, pulmonary toxicity, and cardiotoxicity in patients on cyclophosphamide, bleomycin, and doxorubicin respectively (Sung et al., 2021). These side effects can be addressed by discontinuing the therapy and lowering the drug doses, before managing the complications that the patients present with. For instance, blood transfusion and administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be appropriate for myelosuppression whereas adequate hydration and administration of allopurinol are indicated for the management of tumor lysis syndrome (Prieto-Callejero et al., 2020). They should therefore be anticipated, diagnosed promptly, and addressed appropriately to minimize the adverse impact on the patients.

Nursing Interventions to Minimize Physical and Psychological Impacts of Cancer

            The physical complications of cancer and the effects of its treatment as well as the consequential psychological impacts should be addressed appropriately to improve patients’ wellbeing. Some of the interventions employed for managing these effects include the administration of analgesia, teaching the patients on relaxation techniques, and even meditation to help them relieve the pain they experience (Tuominen et al., 2019). Family education can also be done to promote their involvement in patient care, improve the psychosocial support system and therefore address psychological effects such as loneliness and depression that are experienced by neglected cancer patients (Wilkinson, 2021). Further, the patients may be linked with social support groups and other healthcare professionals such as nutritionists and clinical psychiatrists to provide other necessary social support and healthcare services (Tuominen et al., 2019). These interventions will strengthen the patient’s physical and psychological status thereby enhancing the outcome of care.

Reason for the Increasing Yearly Incidence and Mortality for Various Cancers in the US.

            CDC (2022) reports that there is an upward trend in the incidence and mortality rates of cancer in the US with 0.6million deaths and 1.6million new cases reported annually. It further projects the new cases to rise by up to 49% by 2050 which is approximately a 2.2million new cases annually, especially in the aging population. Some studies suggest that this trend is a consequence of the increasing size of the aging population and lifestyle changes (You & Henneberg, 2018). The lifestyle change includes an increased sedentary lifestyle, more cases of cigarette smoking and alcohol use as well as increased incidences of implicated infections.

Advanced age is a risk factor for most cancers because the aging process is associated with increased cellular damage and decreased effectiveness of repair mechanisms thus more risk of accumulation of defective cells (Koo et al., 2020). This predisposes individuals to cancers. The increased aging population which has quadrupled from 4.1% in 1900 to 16% in 2019 may therefore explain the increased incidences of cancer (Abeliansky et al., 2020).

The sedentary lifestyle that has increasingly led to obesity is also implicated in the upwards trend. Obesity is a risk factor for endometrial, colorectal, and breast cancers, and thus increased incidence of obesity to 41.9% in 2020 up from 30.5% 20 years earlier may be responsible for the increase in the incidences of these cancers (Sung et al., 2021). On the other hand, increased cases of cigarette smoking may have led to increased incidences of laryngeal, lung, throat, and oral cancers in which cigarette smoking is a risk factor. Further, for the cancers which are associated with infections such as Epstein Bar Virus (EBV) and nasopharyngeal cancer, and Burkitt’s lymphoma, increased cases of EBV especially in low socioeconomic status may result in increased incidences of the related cancers (Wilkinson, 2021).

Strategies that address the factors that are responsible for the increased incidences and mortality rates of cancer may guide in reducing both the new cases and their related mortality. Individuals should be encouraged to adopt physical exercise, nutritional modifications, and other weight reduction measures to prevent obesity (Koo et al., 2020). They should also be encouraged to reduce alcohol use and avoid cigarette smoking. Further, healthcare strategies such as screening for infection and prompt treatment of patients may also be adopted (Wilkinson, 2021).

American Cancer Society Education and Support

Patient education is a key component of the fight against cancer. The American Cancer Society is a supporting group that is a non-profit organization (NGO) that contributes to the fight against cancer by offering patient education. Their mode of education is by using flyers and brochures to enlighten the public on cancer prevention measures and encourage them to adopt routine screening and early diagnosis (Prieto-Callejero et al., 2020). Through this enlightenment, the organization prevents disinformation that is responsible for delays in health-seeking by the public.

I noticed that the organization has not been involved in financial support for the patients or research institutions. My recommendation is therefore that they offer financial support to the cancer patients to assist with transport and purchase of drugs, therefore, improving their adherence to therapy sessions. Further, financing research will improve knowledge on how to prevent cancers and treat the patients effectively.

Nursing Processes that are Applied in the Care of Cancer Patients

            Management of cancer patients requires a multidisciplinary approach. The nurses are therefore engaged in the care process through their nursing processes including the assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation (ADPIE). When the patient reports to the facility, the nurses can provide an initial assessment that would help in making the nursing diagnosis that guides patient care (Wilkinson, 2021). The implementation process includes administration of prescribed drugs, monitoring of patient’s vitals, and cooperation with other healthcare professionals during patient management (Jairam et al., 2019). The nurses may also engage in patient education that would increase the acceptance of the diagnosis and enhance their adherence to therapy.

Contributions to the Undergraduate Education in Liberal Arts and Science

            Holistic care of the patients not only requires the understanding of medical knowledge but also an understanding of other patient factors that may influence patient care. Liberal art and sciences help the nurses to incorporate other patient-specific characteristics such as their racial factors and socioeconomic status during the care process. Training the nurses in these fields, therefore, equip them with knowledge and skills that they can apply in predicting how socioeconomic factors or the geographical origin of the patient affects their disease presentation and outcome of care (Abeliansky et al., 2020). It may also help the nurses to modify these characteristics to improve the outcome of care.


            Cancer is a malady that has been increasing in incidence and impact due to the increased size of the aging population and lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and screening may help in better management of patients and prevention of cancer complications although the side effects and toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents should also be considered and appropriately managed. Among the interventions that the nurses can employ include family education and pain management to promote the physical and psychological well-being of the patients. Their care process should incorporate the knowledge of liberal arts and sciences to promote holistic care for cancer patients.


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Koo, M. M., Swann, R., McPhail, S., Abel, G. A., Elliss-Brookes, L., Rubin, G. P., & Lyratzopoulos, G. (2020). Presenting symptoms of cancer and stage at diagnosis: evidence from a cross-sectional, population-based study. The Lancet Oncology21(1), 73–79.

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Prieto-Callejero, B., Rivera, F., Fagundo-Rivera, J., Romero, A., Romero-Martín, M., Gómez-Salgado, J., & Ruiz-Frutos, C. (2020). Relationship between chemotherapy-induced adverse reactions and health-related quality of life in patients with breast cancer. Medicine99(33), e21695.

Sung, H., Ferlay, J., Siegel, R. L., Laversanne, M., Soerjomataram, I., Jemal, A., & Bray, F. (2021). Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians71(3), 209–249.

Tuominen, L., Stolt, M., Meretoja, R., & Leino-Kilpi, H. (2019). Effectiveness of nursing interventions among patients with cancer: An overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Clinical Nursing28(13–14), 2401–2419.

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You, W., & Henneberg, M. (2018). Cancer incidence increasing globally: The role of relaxed natural selection. Evolutionary Applications11(2), 140–152.


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If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource