NRS 429 How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both nurses and patients), and teaching methodologies impact the approach to education?

NRS 429 How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both nurses and patients), and teaching methodologies impact the approach to education?

NRS 429 How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both nurses and patients), and teaching methodologies impact the approach to education?

Diversity among individuals, as well as cultures, provides a challenge for nurses when it comes to delivering meaningful health promotion and illness prevention-based education. How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both nurses and patients), and teaching methodologies impact the approach to education? How do health care providers overcome differing points of view regarding health promotion and disease prevention? Provide an example.

The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:

  1. Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.
  2. Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age.
  3. Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies you would use to gain cooperation, and potential findings from the assessment.

In the assigned reading, “How to Write Learning Objectives That Meet Demanding Behavioral Criteria,” Kizlik explained that “objectives that are used in education, whether they are called learning objectives, behavioral objectives, instructional objectives, or performance objectives are terms that refer to descriptions of observable behavior or performance that are used to make judgments about learning.” How do health providers design educational programs to clearly articulate objectives to engage both patients as well as families?

According to the assigned article, “Health Disparity and Structural Violence: How Fear Undermines Health Among Immigrants at Risk for Diabetes,” narratives tell the story of the interconnectedness between fear and health. Thematically, the issue of fear is a dominant feature that affects how an individual approaches day-to-day living and health. Explain the relationship between fear and health identified by the researchers in the article. Do you agree that structural violence perpetuates health disparity?

Diversity among individuals, as well as cultures, provides a challenge for nurses when it comes to delivering meaningful health

promotion and illness prevention-based education. How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both nurses and patients), and teaching methodologies impact the approach to education? How do health care providers overcome differing points of view regarding health promotion and disease prevention? Provide an example.

What is the importance of cultural competency in nursing practice? Support your response.

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Traditionally, nutrition programs were targeted to the indigent and poor populations in developing countries. Many of today’s

Americans are malnourished also, but they are inundated with unhealthy foods and require a multidisciplinary approach to nutrition education. What would be the three most important points to include in a public nutrition program? Provide current literature to support your answer and include two nutritional education community resources.

Using the family structural theory (see the textbook as a model) how can families created following second marriages learn to function as one?

Which theoretical perspective, that guides the nursing process with assessment of the family, do you find to be the most helpful and effective? Why is this theory more appealing to you than the others?

Mrs. Jones, a widow, is no longer able to live independently and is requiring more and more help with her self-care. Her daughter, Susie, who is married with three school-aged children, agrees to let her mother move in with her. Susie is concerned with balancing the demands of her career and the needs of her family, especially now that her elderly and chronically ill mother will need assistance. She is also unsure about how she feels with the reversal of roles, having to now be the primary caregiver of her mother. How can the nurse, caring for this family, assist with the changes they are about to undergo? How can both the family structural theory and the family developmental theory be applied to this scenario? How can health education enhance health promotion for this family?

How could you use the family structural theory to determine if a family is dysfunctional or not? Provide evidence to support your answer.

Assessment Strategies and Course Plan

The nature of patient care has immensely evolved over the years and is driven by large volumes of information and patients’ demand for better care services. The implication is that adequate nurse training has more meaning as competent nurses can only be prepared through adequate training and education. As such, nurse education has been used for some time to help promote clinical competence and professionalism with a major focus on improving the safety and quality of the care offered to the patients (Willman et al., 2018). An effective nurse education considers the existence of diversity among the nurse trainers and the diversity experienced in caring for patients. Therefore, learning content on diversity should be key in any nurse education curriculum and course. As such, the purpose of this paper is to formulate a nurse teaching plan. Various aspects of the plan will be explored, including the course overview, learning theories and diversity, teaching strategies, management and motivation, and assessment strategies.

The Course Overview

As earlier indicated, nursing education is key in preparing nurses to be competent in the clinical environment and ensuring that the care offered to patients is safe and effective. The implication is that nurse educators have to identify and address the potential barriers such as diversity and the theory-practice gap (Fawaz et al., 2018). Therefore, the developed course is on cultural diversity. Cultural diversity will be tackled on two fronts; identifying the diversity among nurse trainees and the potential existence of diversity among patients.

The course entails the cultural impacts on patient’s health and illness. Therefore, the targeted population is nurse trainees who are to be taught on how to offer culturally competent patient care to a diverse population and also advance the use of evidence-based practice for the promotion of culturally competent nursing care. The nursing students will be found in an institution of higher learning. Since the course involves education on cultural diversity and its impact on patient care, the course will be handled by a nurse educator with expertise in cultural diversity and who is culturally competent and aware of the diversities that exist among nurse trainees, nurses, and patients.

Learner Outcomes

Learner outcomes are key as they act as a guide to the educator to know how to modify the learning content to help meet specific goals and learner outcomes. Therefore, various learner outcomes were formulated. It is evident from the course overview that this course is designed to address the cultural impacts on a patient’s health and illness and deliver culturally competent patient care to the adverse population and enhance the application of evidence-based practice to help boost culturally competent nursing care (Natesan et al., 2020). As such, by the end of the module, the learners will be able to:

  1. Identify and describe how culture influences an individual’s health and illnesses.
  2. Discuss the skills and cultural competencies needed to boost culturally sensitive nursing care.
  • Identify and apply current evidence-based practice guidelines toward the promotion of culturally sensitive patient care.

Culturally competent nursing care is key in demonstrating to the patients that their needs, values, and beliefs are well taken care of. Therefore, this course focuses on training and educating nursing students on effective strategies for offering care to patients while at the same time taking into consideration their needs, values, and beliefs. As part of the learning content, the students will be educated on various terms used in describing patient care delivery in the patient’s cultural context. Some of those important terms include transcultural nursing practice, culturally sensitive care, culturally appropriate care, and culturally congruent care (Horntvedt et al., 2018). With the focus on making the students more competent, other learning areas will also be covered, including spirituality, religion, health disparities, culture, and disability. Covering every content stated herein will be appropriate in helping the students achieve all three formulated goals.

Learning Theories and Diversity

From the earlier discussions, it was indicated that the targeted audience for the course is nursing students registered at an institution of higher learning. It is worth noting that the students registered in the United States’ institutions of higher learning are drawn from diverse backgrounds in terms of socioeconomic status, gender, culture, age, and ethnicity( Fawaz et al.,2018). The implication is that a nurse educator needs to identify specific diversities existing among their students and come up with the best strategies to overcome them as they can act as barriers to effective teaching and learning. Adoption of educational theories can be key in dealing with such diversities to achieve the set goals.

A nurse educator can also use various approaches to overcome each area of diversity. For example, in the case where there is multiculturalism, it is key that the educator identifies and respects the beliefs and values of every student for a better learning environment. The educator can also promote the use of resources that can easily be accessed and afforded to help students from disadvantaged economic backgrounds. The most important strategy is to employ the most effective evidence-based teaching strategies and educational theories.

The social, ecological model theory and interpersonal relations theory will be used in this course. The social ecological model has been shown to promote decisions that are agreeable to every cultural belief and value, thereby enhancing culturally congruent education. This model has five major components, including individual, interpersonal, community, organizational, and public policy. While the interpersonal aspect entails developing an appropriate relationship between individuals. For instance, creating interpersonal relationships between nurse educators and students and between the students through the use of effective communication skills to formulate an appropriate learning environment (Zhang & Cui, 2018). The organization aspects refer to how the organization can appropriately advocate for a culture of welcoming and understanding every student even though they come from diverse backgrounds. In addition, at the community level, various stakeholders undertake activities to support diversity and avail resources that help in promoting culturally sensitive education and nursing practice. The public policy level ensures that the institute of higher learning can ensure that there are appropriate policies that promote cultural diversity and equality.

Teaching Strategies

            The learning theories are key as they help the educators to deliver learning content appropriately to the students. However, such theories are best used and are more effective when integrated with evidence-based teaching strategies. As such, the planned teaching strategies include interactive teaching methods and individualized education plans (Salifu et al., 2018). The learning audience is nursing students from diverse socioeconomic, cultural, racial, and ethnic backgrounds, implying that this body of students has varied beliefs and values. As such, individualized educational plans can enhance learning by considering their diverse educational needs, thereby achieving the learning goals. The interactive teaching methods will take the form of problem-based learning, workshops, clinical nurse presentations, small group works, journal clubs, and interactive lecturers. These strategies also promote appropriate interaction among learners, which helps them to appreciate and embrace other students’ diversity and culture.

Three specific evidence-based teaching strategies will form a core part of the course to enhance learning. They include reflection, collaborative learning, and simulation. Reflection has widely been applied in the teaching cycles as it has been shown to appropriately support learning and knowledge acquisition through practice. Reflection entails instilling in the learners critical thinking regarding specific clinical experiences and offers the nursing students a platform for incremental learning (Pangh et al., 2019). The implication is that nurses can build on their previous knowledge to enhance collaborative practice, clinical judgment, and communication skills to improve patient care. The strength of reflection in teaching students from diverse backgrounds emanate from the fact that through reflection, the learners can explore their clinical experiences, thoughts, and feelings; hence they can adjust their beliefs and assumption to promote new knowledge hence better clinical practice.

Simulation is another evidence-based teaching strategy that has been shown to be effective. Simulation can be fine-tuned to depict a real-life situation which enables the learner to learn in a context that is more representative or closer to the real-world setting (Yen & Leasure). As such, the simulation will be used to engage the nursing students either as individuals or in groups to perform various patient care activities on a manikin. Through simulation, the learners can repeatedly use culturally competent skills to gain confidence and be proficient in a specific area without being rushed or drawn back. The implication is that the students can freely make mistakes during simulation sessions enabling them to eliminate such mistakes during the actual practice since they shall have learned from them. Indeed, recent data indicate that nursing students who use simulation as a strategy are less prone to fewer errors, such as medication errors in actual practice (Horntvedt et al., 2018).

The other identified evidence-based teaching strategy is collaborative learning which has gained prominence in the nursing profession over the last twenty years. Higher institutions of learning support the use of collaborative learning to enhance learner engagement and promote their perseverance, clinical thinking, social interaction, and problem-solving skills (Dikerson et al., 2020). It may be challenging for an educator to handle a culturally diverse student population. Therefore, the use of strategies such as collaborative learning can have a positive influence on the way the students learn since it enhances the use of group activities. Using group activities to improve cooperation can only be a success when the students are convinced that the success of each one of them will be fulfilled irrespective of their ethnic or cultural background.

Potential Barriers

Several barriers usually arise in a teaching and learning environment. Therefore, a nursing education system or environment is not an exception. These barriers have the potential to hinder effective skills and knowledge acquisition, hence a need to overcome such barriers. Some of the potential barriers to learning include unique learning needs, insufficient resources, lack of motivation among learners, a diverse student population, and rapidly changing technology. Various themes have also been connected to the barriers, including limited times, EBP competencies, relevance/access, financial constraints, and workplace culture. For example, some learners can view collaborative learning as a strategy that consumes time. In addition, individuals have varied abilities to synthesize knowledge (Yen & Leasure, 2019).

An approach like simulation may need more resources, which some learners may find challenging to acquire due to insufficient financial capabilities. While group work is key in removing barriers caused by diversity, some students may find it a challenge working in groups due to their upbringing and preferences. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the educator to find ways to overcome the barriers for better learning experiences and achievement of competencies.

Management and Motivation

            Management of learners and the learning environment is one of the most important aspects of a teaching and learning environment. The success or failure of content delivery highly depends on how well the environment is managed. Various barriers and distractions are bound to occur in a teaching and learning environment; therefore, an educator should have strategies put in place to ensure that such is overcome. When such barriers are overcome, then the students will be more motivated to learn. One of the strategies includes the utilization of healthcare information technology to formulate techniques for handling the large volumes of concepts, skills, and information and find out how best to make them part of the curriculum (Natesan et al., 2020).

Learner motivation is a key aspect of teaching and learning. Hence, an educator should use various strategies to motivate learners since students originate from diverse ethnicity, language preferences, socioeconomic status, and cultural background, all of which heavily impact learning. Theories such as cognitivism can be key in helping the students to achieve their goals. According to this theory, the learner’s internal process is significant and contains various prospects such as self-regulation, meaningful learning, self-efficacy, concept mapping, exploration methods, and information processing (Lavoie et al., 2018).

Through cognitive learning, there is a better motivation of the nursing students to adopt culturally sensitive evidence-based practice, improved care outcomes, and better classroom management. Using the cognitive learning theory in this course promotes a positive mindset and acceptance of respect for diverse ways of thinking among nursing students. Nurse educators can also motivate the students, which is key to the achievement and promotion of the best learning benefits. Some of the evidence-based strategies that can be applied by the nurse educator to motivate the students include mentorship, ongoing counseling, and offering assistance. These strategies are best effective when performed with the utmost respect for the student’s beliefs, cultures, and values based on the student’s diversities (McNally, 2019). In addition, the content should also be fine-tuned based on the student’s learning abilities and educational needs.

The nurse educator has to ensure that every student perceives the learning environment as secure and safe where they can freely voice their perspectives, experiences, and opinions. Such steps are capable of motivating students to learn better. Applying evidence-based strategies to promote student learning requires that the educator understands the existing student diversity in terms of experience, gender, beliefs, and cultural values. The implication is that the educator will be able to adopt a curriculum and learning platform that shows cultural sensitivity hence arousing the students’ interest in learning. In addition, the educator has to implement strategies that enhance empowerment, valuing, inclusivity, civility, and trust, as well as a just cultural learning surrounding (Díaz-Agea et al., 2021). Offering unbiased performance student feedback, incentives, and classroom-based training is also central to motivating the students to learn and achieve learning objectives and goals.

Assessment Strategies

            Assessment is a key aspect of teaching and learning as it is used by educators to find out what the students are learning. Therefore, it enables the educator to have insights on strategies that can be employed to promote learning and promote the educators’ content delivery methods and skills (Immonen et al.,.2019). In addition, assessment helps students to be better learners and improve self-directed learning. Therefore, assessment plays a critical role in improving the quality of classroom teaching. Guided by the course objectives, the nurse educator can appropriately determine and evaluate whether the learning outcomes were accomplished in the course.

It will be key to determine if the students have achieved the set objectives focusing on the impacts of diversity on patient care. As such, both assessment and evaluation strategies will be used. It is key to note that the selected assessment and evaluation strategies chosen should reflect cultural competence and fit for learners with varied learning styles. Therefore, both formative and summative evaluation will be used. The assessment strategies will also be key in helping the educator to obtain valuable and useful feedback on how well the students are learning, how much they are learning, and what they are learning (Immonen et al.,.2019). Therefore, the instructor will be able to use such feedback to ensure that the learning process is more effective and efficient.

Both formative and summative evaluation strategies will be applied in the course. Formative evaluation will be key in offering feedback on how well individual students are learning so that their performance can be enhanced (Hill et al., 2019). This is done by identifying areas of improvement and coming up with particular suggestions to be used as an educational tool. On the other hand, summative evaluation will be used to show whether individual students have achieved specific performance objectives.

One of the targeted methods is the use of a survey. The individualized survey will be administered to students, which touches on various aspects of cultural diversity, competencies, and offering culturally competent patient care (Hill et al., 2019). Surveys can be key in obtaining key quantitative information like parts of the curriculum that may need to be revised. In addition, valuable qualitative information can be obtained from open-ended questions regarding the program’s weaknesses and strengths and some of the suggestions for making it better.

Assessment Strategies

During the learning process, short questions and answer sessions will be used to assess the student’s understanding of the concepts tacked during such sessions or lessons. A verbal question and answer session can reveal areas or concepts which the students find challenging; hence the educator can adjust teaching strategies to help address the shortfalls and make the students learn better (Hill et al., 2019). This question and answer session can also take the form of a one-minute paper strategy where the students are offered one minute to formulate a written response to a posed question or prompt. Reviewing the responses offered by the students can be an important source of assessment of the magnitude of learning.

The other assessment method is the think-pair-share strategy. This strategy can be used to facilitate discussion (Akhtar & Saeed, 2020). When using the technique, the nurse educator will present a challenge or question regarding the presented content to the nursing students, who then take time to quietly reflect individually before partnering with another student to discuss. The importance of this assessment strategy is that it engages the student with the taught content on numerous levels. It is also key in organizing a student’s existing knowledge and enhances content analysis levels. Therefore, when the students talk about the new knowledge taught during the lesson, the educator can have adequate insight into how well they have understood the content.

The next assessment strategy is the use of the muddiest point, which is a rapid monitoring technique. When using the method, the student is offered a few minutes to list some of the most confusing or challenging parts of reading, lecture, or a lesson. This assessment is most appropriate for a quick check of students’ understanding and offers the educator a chance to have an idea of the confusion and misconceptions that have developed in the students’ thinking regarding the topic.

Evaluation of the Learning Outcomes

It is important to determine whether the students have achieved the learning outcomes. Therefore, evaluation comes in. As in the case of assessment, the chosen evaluation approaches should be able to reflect and take into consideration the diverse nature of the students. One of the evaluation strategies to be used is written examinations (Billings & Halstead, 2018). Written examinations will be offered to the students to test their knowledge of the content areas. The answers provided by the students should help determine if the three set objectives have been achieved. By assigning grades to the marked student responses, the educator will be able to judge whether students have passed or failed the class. Such a judgment is key for placement in the upcoming courses.

Final project work will also be used to evaluate whether the students have achieved the set objectives. Project work is important as students build it from scratch over an extended period of time throughout the courses. This method will be appropriate as it will show how the students have evolved over the course from start to finish. One aspect will be to assign the students concepts or topics touching on diversity and other areas of the course while taking care of their diverse nature (Billings & Halstead, 2018). The students will then build these topics to come up with a final project which will reflect how well and what they have learned. Therefore, it will also help in evaluating whether they have achieved the objectives.

How the Selected Assessment Types support Cultural Competence and Fit Learners

The discussed assessment methods were chosen as guided by cultural competence and student learning styles. For example, a short question and answer session was chosen as it takes the form of both one-minute written responses and verbal participation (Billings & Halstead, 2018). This method, therefore, supports cultural competence and befits learners with different styles of learning since some students prefer writing while others prefer talking. The think-pair-share strategy ensures that the students can think within their cultural inclinations and share ideas with partners. This enables them to interact more and embrace each other’s cultural preferences hence promoting cultural competency (Billings & Halstead, 2018). The method is double-pronged as it allows both individual and group assessment hence addressing the different learning styles. The Muddiest point strategy is also important in addressing cultural diversity and different learning styles. It gives the students a chance to reflect on the areas they perceive as tough and challenging. It is worth noting that such areas of difficulty could be influenced by diversity. For example, cultural background and socioeconomic setup, for instance. In addition, this assessment strategy also takes into consideration the different learning methods preferred by students since it gives the students a platform to individually reflect on the challenging areas.


            Nurse education and training is an essential part of patient care as competent and confident nurses offer appropriate levels of nursing care. Therefore, nurse educators need to understand effective strategies for delivering educational content, starting from goal setting and teaching strategies to assessment strategies. Therefore, this course plan has focused on designing an assessment strategy for a course touching on the cultural impacts on patients’ health and illness. Evidence-based teaching strategies to be used include collaborative learning, reflection, and simulation. In addition, assessment strategies identified include question and answer sessions, a think-pair-share strategy, and the muddiest point strategy. These strategies all support cultural competence and students with varied learning styles.


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