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NRS 429V Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children

NRS 429V Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children

NRS 429V Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children

Traditionally, nutrition programs were targeted to the indigent and poor populations in developing countries. Many of today’s Americans are malnourished also, but they are inundated with unhealthy foods and require a multidisciplinary approach to nutrition education. What would be the three most important points to include in a public nutrition program? Provide current literature to support your answer and include two nutritional education community resources.

The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:

  1. Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.
  2. Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age.
  3. Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies you would use to gain cooperation, and potential findings from the assessment.

What is the importance of cultural competency in nursing practice? Support your response.

Diversity among individuals, as well as cultures, provides a challenge for nurses when it comes to delivering meaningful health promotion and illness prevention-based education. How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both nurses and patients), and teaching methodologies impact the approach to education? How do health care providers overcome differing points of view regarding health promotion and disease prevention? Provide an example.

School-aged children are typically aged 5-12 years. The school-age child’s growth and development is characterized by gradual growth. The purpose of this paper is to describe physical findings within the school-aged child and the typical developmental stages of a 6-year-old and apply a developmental theory in child assessment.

Physical Characteristics/Findings within the School-Aged Child

School–aged children gain about 3.8kg/year, but boys tend to gain slightly more weight through 12 years. The child also gains about 5cm/year in height, and both boys and girls are long-legged. With regards to dentition, permanent teeth erupt during the school-age period, starting from 6 years, usually in the same order in which primary teeth are lost. The child acquires permanent molars, medial, and lateral incisors (Srinath et al., 2019). The vital signs findings in this age group include Pulse 75-105 beats/min, Respirations 18–24b/min, and Blood Pressure 100/60+/-16/10. Fine motor skills improve at this age as well as writing skills. Fine motor skills are refined with more focus on skills, like painting, building models, typing, and using technological devices.

The school-age child usually has smooth and strong motor skills. Nonetheless, their coordination, balance, endurance, and physical abilities vary. Differences also occur in the age at which school-age children start to develop secondary sexual characteristics. Secondary sex characteristics in girls can start from 9 years, and include breast development and underarm and pubic hair growth (Srinath et al., 2019). On the other hand, boys experience growth of underarm, chest, and pubic hair and growth of testicles and penis.

Assessment can be modified to match the age and developmental stage of the school-age child by first ensuring privacy when assessing the child. The examiner must ensure comfort, especially for the older child (8 years and older) by exposing only the body parts being examined and examining the child in their caregiver’s absence (Srinath et al., 2019). Besides, assessment should begin with the least distressing procedures and areas not associated with pain or the chief complaint to foster cooperation.

Typical Developmental Stages Of Children Aged 6-Year-Olds

The typical motor development in a 6-year-old includes improved locomotor skills. Thus, the child can ride a bicycle, run, jump, climb, and hop. The child also has improved eye-hand coordination. Language development includes following a series of 3 commands in a row, having about 2560 words, and constructing comprehensible 6-7 word sentences. Regarding cognitive development, a 6-year-old typically knows their age, understands the concept of time, and relates words with their use. Furthermore, emotional development milestones include exhibiting self-control skills and emotional stability (Parker et al., 2022). With regards to social development, a 6-year-old typically demonstrates a sense of humor, is peer-oriented, has sibling jealousy, and fears the dark.

ALSO READ: NRS 429V Nutrition Programs

Application of Erickson Theory in Developmental Assessment

According to the Erickson Theory, a 6-year-old falls into the Industry versus Inferiority stage of psychosocial development.  A major part of this stage focuses on competition, academics, and social interactions (Chung, 2018). Children at this stage look for recognition from adults and peers, wanting to prove that they are capable. Besides, they learn what they can and cannot achieve; but, their ability is more important through practice and work. Therefore, the Erickson theory can be applied to assess a child’s psychosocial development by assessing the child’s level of confidence and competency when they accomplish or fail to accomplish a given task (Maree, 2021). In addition, I would assess the child if they are struggling with issues related to perfection to establish if they are taking competency to an extreme. Furthermore, I would assess a child’s level of anxiety when they make a mistake.

When examining a 6-year-old I would explain the procedures with simple and short sentences and ask for their consent to foster cooperation. In addition, using polite and non-threatening language would be vital to ease tension and promote cooperation (Srinath et al., 2019). After the assessment, I would report to the child of the assessment findings and explain any abnormal findings, likely causes, and the next steps.

Conclusion

School-aged children have different physical findings in weight, height, vital signs, dentition, and gross and fine motor skills. A 6-year-old typically has improved locomotor skills, eye-hand coordination, self-control skills, emotional stability, and a sense of humor. The Erickson theory can be applied to assess a child’s level of confidence and competency when they accomplish a task.

 

References

Chung, D. (2018). The eight stages of psychosocial protective development: Developmental psychology. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science8(06), 369. DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2018.86024

Maree, J. G. (2021). The psychosocial development theory of Erik Erikson: a critical overview. Early Child Development and Care, 191(7-8), 1107–1121. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2020.1845163

Parker, R., Thomsen, B. S., & Berry, A. (2022). Learning through play at school–A framework for policy and practice. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 7, p. 751801). Frontiers Media SA. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2022.751801

Srinath, S., Jacob, P., Sharma, E., & Gautam, A. (2019). Clinical practice guidelines for assessment of children and adolescents. Indian Journal of Psychiatry61(Suppl 2), 158. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_580_18

According to the assigned article, “Health Disparity and Structural Violence: How Fear Undermines Health Among Immigrants at

Risk for Diabetes,” narratives tell the story of the interconnectedness between fear and health. Thematically, the issue of fear is a

dominant feature that affects how an individual approaches day-to-day living and health. Explain the relationship between fear and health identified by the researchers in the article. Do you agree that structural violence perpetuates health disparity?

In the assigned reading, “How to Write Learning Objectives That Meet Demanding Behavioral Criteria,” Kizlik explained that

“objectives that are used in education, whether they are called learning objectives, behavioral objectives, instructional objectives, or performance objectives are terms that refer to descriptions of observable behavior or performance that are used to make judgments about learning.” How do health providers design educational programs to clearly articulate objectives to engage both patients as well as families?

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Details:

Select a family to complete a family health assessment. (The family cannot be your own.)

Before interviewing the family, develop three open-ended, family-focused questions for each of the following health patterns:

1. Values, Health Perception

2. Nutrition

3. Sleep/Rest

4. Elimination

5. Activity/Exercise

6. Cognitive

7. Sensory-Perception

8. Self-Perception

9. Role Relationship

10. Sexuality

11. Coping

NOTE: Your list of questions must be submitted with your assignment as an attachment.

After interviewing the family, compile the data and analyze the responses.

In 1,000-1,250 words, summarize the findings for each functional health pattern for the family you have selected.

Identify two or more wellness nursing diagnoses based on your family assessment. Wellness and family nursing diagnoses are

NRS 429V Week 1 Discussion Question 2

different than standard nursing diagnoses. A list of wellness and family nursing diagnoses, from J. R. Weber’s Nurses Handbook of Health Assessment (5th ed.), can be found at the following link

http://web.archiv.org…..

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

“Violence is a concern for every family and encompasses a wide range of issues within the home, community, and the world” (Faulkner et al, 2022). Child abuse, domestic violence, elder abuse, or neglect is a problem within homes as well as the community public health.

 

Elder abuse is the failure to act or intentionally act that causes harm to the elder, this can include physical or verbal aggression, financial abuse, or neglect by the caregiver. Some signs of elder abuse include physical injuries such as bruises, broken bones or cuts, emotional neglect or lack of basic needs being met, mental health symptoms like anxiety, fear or depression or signs of financial exploitation or abrupt changes in financial accounts (Faulkner et al, 2022).

 

Domestic Violence typically includes physical or sexual violence also known as IPV as well as psychological and verbal abuse. Some identifying signs of domestic violence include mental health issues such as anxiety, fearfulness, depression, PTSD, suicide, substance abuse and low self-esteem in the victim or unexplained physical injuries or a pattern of frequent visits to healthcare facilities with inconsistent explanations of injuries. The Perpetrator may display signs of controlling or coercive behavior or may use fear or intimidation as a means to isolate and limit the victims access to help or medical care (Faulkner et al, 2022).

 

Child abuse entails any minor under the age of 18 years old that involves emotional, physical, sexual abuse, and/or neglect that causes harm by a parent, caregiver, or custodian (Faulkner et al, 2022). Some examples of child abuse include physical harm displayed as unexplained fractures, contusions, head trauma or internal bleeding. The child may also appear malnourished, untidy, or basic needs being neglected, or display withdrawn, fearful, anxious, or aggressive behaviors along with poor communication skills. If sexual abuse is suspected the child may display behaviors such as undressing in front of others, preoccupation with touching genitals or verbally inappropriate statements being made by the child (Gonzalez et al, 2022).

 

While working I’m adolescent psych, especially dealing is crisis intervention I have been involved in many cases of suspected child abuse. As a mandated reporter I have always taken reporting abuse very seriously. In PA we have what’s called the “Childline” ran by the state Human Resources department, where a mandated reporter can make a detailed verbal or electronic statement of suspected child abuse. The nurse would take a statement by using subjective and/or objective data, report to the physician covering and create a safe plan of care while in the hospital. The nurse would then report the suspected child abuse to Childline and a Childline specialist then determines the most appropriate course of action. For example, the specialist may contact the County children and youth agencies, or the Office of Children, Youth and Families (OCYF) , for assessment or employ law enforcement officials for further investigation. Gathering has much data along with a specific and detailed nursing assessment is vital to aid in any further investigation that may or may not take place. It is our duty as a patient advocate and mandated reporter to protect, support and report any suspected abuse to those suffering from violence, verbal abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, or financial abuse.

 

Refrences

Falkner, A., Green, S. Z., & Whitney, S. (2022-b). Health Promotion, Health & Wellness Across the Continuum. Role of a nurse. https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/1000000000585/epub/Chapter5.html#pp 134-137

 

Gonzalez, D., Bethencourt Mirabal, A., McCall, J. D., & Doerr, C. (2022). Child Abuse and Neglect (Nursing). In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.