NRS 429V What is the importance of cultural competency in nursing practice?

NRS 429V What is the importance of cultural competency in nursing practice?

NRS 429V What is the importance of cultural competency in nursing practice?

What is the importance of cultural competency in nursing practice? Support your response.

NRS 429 Topic 3 DQ 1 RESPONSES

OLD Question

Discuss how the concept of “health” has changed overtime. Discuss how the concept has evolved to include wellness, illness, and overall well-being. How has health promotion changed over time? Why is it important that nurses implement health promotion interventions based on evidence-based practice?

Christian values are essential to embody in all aspects of life. While GCU utilizes these values as a foundational component for educational standards, these should also be standard for how students are influenced in their academic performance as well. Academic dishonesty, which is the opposite of academic integrity, plagues all academic levels. There are several reasons why I think students are tempted into dishonesty including pressure for success, lack of understanding about what constitutes plagiarism, and not fully understanding the entire process of academia. Integrity is the intrinsic belief to do the right thing even when no one is watching and is an essential value of the Christian doctrine. When students believe and practice integrity, they will be able to apply this outside of the classroom and to other aspects of life. If students are engaging in academic dishonesty, this may be suggestive of a lack of integrity outside of the classroom as well. Lack of integrity is one example of the brokenness seen in society today. It shows a desire for success regardless of the means to get there or if there was any actual self-growth in the achievement of success. Having an educational infrastructure based on Christian values will not only foster academic success but will support students to apply these values beyond the classroom and become a part of their daily lives.


According to the textbook, the definition of health has changed overtime, Infectious diseases were prevalent and difficult to control in the early 19th century, primarily due to lack of adequate sanitation procedures including in adequate disinfection of drinking water and excessive disposal of human waste. Health was seen in simple terms as free of disease during this period. Disease become more manageable once proper sanitation measures instituted in the 19th and 20the centuries, shifting the definition of health to mean the ability to remain a functional part of society (Falkner, 2018).

The concept of health grew into more than being disease –free as prevention of disease took center stage, and the World Health Organization (WHO) was established in 1948. Health promotion for communities worldwide was and continues to be the priority of the WHO. As health promotion expanded, the idea of health was seen as an aggregation of variables such as physical, emotional and spiritual wellbeing.

In an attempt to reduce chronic health problems and encourage safe living, health promotion and disease prevention have taken priority in the united states. The aim is to create health culture in which the emphasis is on health promotion and disease prevention rather than finding care after the start of disease. The Healthy people program was developed in 1979 to help reduce increasing disease related morbidity and mortality rates by setting new targets every 10 years.

It is crucial that nurses adopt health promotion policies based on evidenced based practice because the nurse is very active in all health care settings in delivering health promotion strategies. The role of the nurse in health promotion education is expanding rapidly as the emphasis is shifted to preventive measures. The Nurse assess the patient and implements evidenced-based practice while assuming each function and providing health promotion initiatives to patients and the community.

Nurse must continuously strive to be competent caregivers based on sound scientific evidenced developed via EBP in their practice. In Nursing EBP is regarded as the gold standard for guided improvements in nursing practices to enhance patient care. In order to make improvements that strengthen patient care, what makes EBP special is the integration of the latest research, scientific experience and patient expectations and values. (In 2018, Falkner)


Falkner, A. (2018). Health Promotion in Nursing Care. In, Health Promotion: Health and Wellness Across the Continuum. Retrieved from:


Response to Pardeep

Thank you for this insightful response Pardeep. Indeed, I concur with your post. I believe the scientific advances and societal changes throughout history are associated with the massive enhancements in realization of health. Currently, a maximized level of health, notwithstanding what the definition might be, can only be realized with sufficient resources. However, the realization of optimum level of health is challenged by limited resources, which leads to disproportional allocation of health care services between demographic groups and eventually resulting to disparity in realization of health. Currently, a value-based system in health care has been designed to facilitate high quality of health care services at relatively reduced cost. This system is expected to provide the solution to the increasing crisis in health care system and ensure ideal health is achieved by healthcare consumers. However, the attainment of health is challenged by the problem of high health care cost but with unacceptably low quality of careNRS 429V What is the importance of cultural competency in nursing practice (Badash et al., 2017). Do you think that adoption of value-based system in health care will enhance quality and lead to realization of optimum health?


Badash, I., Kleinman, N. P., Barr, S., Jang, J., Rahman, S., & Wu, B. W. (2017). Redefining health: the evolution of health ideas from antiquity to the era of value-based care. Cureus, 9(2). doi: 10.7759/cureus.1018


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In 1946 the World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not

merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 2019). They went a step further in 1986 to include that “health is, therefore, seen as a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities” (First International Conference on Health Promotion, Ottawa, 21 November 1986, n.d.). The concept of health is no longer just the absence of disease, it is now to lead a healthy lifestyle in all aspects of life. It is also important to focus on our mental well-being as well and to promote an environment that supports that.

Health promotion is an integral part of healthcare. People are living healthier lifestyles to prevent illness instead of waiting until something goes wrong and then trying to correct the problem. It is important that nurses implement health promotion based on evidence-based practice (EBP). Nurses need to stay current on all new EBP in order to find the best interventions for each different patient and how to best promote a healthy lifestyle for them. For instance, due to EBP we have seen the effects of handwashing, social distancing and wearing a mask. We can now take that knowledge and apply it to preventing the spread of COVID and promoting health.


First International Conference on Health Promotion, Ottawa, 21 November 1986. (n.d.). Www.Who.Int.

World Health Organization. (2019). Frequently asked questions. Who.Int.


Response to Robin

This is an insightful response Robin. I concur with you. The reality is that the concept of health has changed overtime. The perception of physicians’ decades ago is far from the perceptions that physicians hold today. This is attributed to the societal changes and scientific advances. Similarly, the perceptions on the concept of health have gone drastic evolution due to societal changes and scientific advancements. However, the most important thing is that the definition of health that operates at any given time should be practical universally across various nations world over. That is, the definition of the concept of health should be developed to work for everyone or probably work for more individuals across various segment of the life (Capua & Cattoli, 2018). Therefore, the definition of the concept of health should be revised periodically to account for the necessity of early and effective disease management and health promotion. To keeping up with the evolving concept of health, health care providers should consider continuous education and regular trainings. What is your perception on changing concept of health?


Capua, I., & Cattoli, G. (2018). One Health (r) Evolution: Learning from the past to build a new future. Viruses, 10(12): 725.



The definition of health has changed over time. In the early 19th century, infectious diseases were widespread and difficult to contain largely because of the lack of proper sanitation methods, including insufficient disinfection of drinking water and improper removal of human waste. During this time, health was viewed in basic terms as being free of disease. Diseases were almost eradicated in the 20th century with the invention and administration of vaccines (Grand Canyon University, (Ed.), 2018).

The World Health Organization (WHO) was formed in 1948, with that, health promotion became the focus. The definition of health then became viewed as an accumulation of factors such as physical, mental, and spiritual wellness. When a dysfunction in these factors occurs it is termed an illness. Preventing diseases from happening is now the goal in the United States, rather than waiting for disease to set in and therefore causing chronic health conditions. The illness-wellness continuum defines wellness as a continual process, moving between the two throughout the lifespan (The Wellspring, n.d.).

Health promotion has changed over time by the incorporation of models of health. These provide assistance for the nurse in providing a plan of action to promote health strategies, thus leading to positive patient outcomes. It’s important to use evidence-based practice (EBP) when implementing health promotion. EBP is acknowledged in nursing as the gold standard for providing patient care. EBP incorporates the latest evidence, patient preference, and clinical expertise to improve patient care.


Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from

The Wellspring. (n.d.) Key concept #1: The illness-wellness continuum. Retrieved from


Response to Michelle

This is an outstanding response Michelle and I agree with you. The concept of health is multi-dimensional and entails various characteristics ranging from fitness to wellness, integrity to ability. It is always a common practice to integrate and update biomedical definitions based on incessant accomplishment in medical science and bioethics. Similarly, the concept of health is also in progress and can change over time. Currently, the modern concept of health revolves from a person to societal risk and back to the person. Health is perceived to entail more than mere lack of disease and is concerned with optimal capacity of a person for self-fulfillment and self-realization. In public health and social medicine, the concept of health goes beyond individuals and focus on the health of community or groups due to the association of the individuals with the social environment. Moreover, the holistic concept of health encompasses expression of entirety where an individual should function properly mentally, physically, spiritually, and socially (Svalastog et al., 2017). Where can draw the line between previous concepts of health and the modern concept of health?


Svalastog, A. L., Donev, D., Kristoffersen, N. J., & Gajović, S. (2017). Concepts and definitions of health and health-related values in the knowledge landscapes of the digital society. Croatian medical journal, 58(6), 431. doi: 10.3325/cmj.2017.58.431

Health promotion is the process of empowering people to take charge of their health and enhance it. It expands beyond human behavior to include a variety of social and environmental interventions.

Health promotion is a basic role of public health that helps governments, communities, and individuals cope with and address health issues. Building healthy public policies, setting up supportive surroundings, and boosting community action and personal abilities are all ways to do this.

The nurse might start the day by instructing a middle-aged man about postoperative care after a heart catheterization and health promotion skills including diet and activity adjustments to prevent coronary artery disease development (CAD). Later, the nurse may inform a patient about the significance of following up with her primary care provider (PCP) and finishing the antibiotic course prescribed to her. Nurses personalize the patient plan of care (POC) and supply the tools needed to make choices that improve patients’ overall health quality by using various health models, therapeutic communication, and assessment skills.

Over time, the definition of health has evolved. In the early nineteenth century, contagious infections were common and difficult to control, owing to a lack of suitable sanitation procedures, such as inadequate drinking water treatment and incorrect waste management. During this period, health was defined as the absence of disease.

When effective sanitary measures were implemented in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, diseases became more treatable, and the definition of health shifted to include the ability to run in society. If a disease caused persistent incapacity or the inability to perform expected role obligations, it influenced overall health. Prevention of disease became a concern after the creation and administration of vaccinations in the twentieth century, as many people realized.

As disease prevention became increasingly important, the definition of health expanded beyond being disease-free, and the World Health Organization (WHO) was set up in 1948. The WHO’s main goal was and continues to be public health promotion. As health promotion became more popular, the term “health” developed to mean a combination of qualities such as physical, mental, and spiritual well-being.

To reduce chronic health issues and promote healthy living in the United States, health promotion and disease prevention have assumed primacy. The goal is to foster a culture of health in which illness prevention and health promotion take precedence over seeking treatment once a disease has developed.


Healthy People 2020 recognizes the nation’s current health care concerns and develops action plans to achieve a variety of aims relating to these issues. The Healthy People 2020 goals include the following:

To live healthier, longer lives devoid of sickness, disability, damage, and early death.

To achieve health equity, to eradicate inequities, and to promote the health of all people.

Create social and physical situations that encourage everyone to be healthy.

The purpose of the joint efforts of federal agencies, health care facilities, and health care practitioners is to create a healthier population by using health promotion initiatives. This effort is important to improve health in the United States because, despite being one of the world’s wealthiest and most modern countries, health care and health generally lag other industrialized countries across the world (Egen, Beatty, Blackley, Brown, & Wykoff, 2017).


In all care settings, the nurse is critical in supplying health promotion initiatives. As the focus shifts to prevention, the nurse’s role in health promotion teaching is rapidly developing. While assuming each function and offering health promotion measures to patients and the community, the nurse examines the patient and executes evidence-based practice (EBP). The following explains the important roles of Nurses in health promotion;



Patient advocacy is a critical nursing function because nurses are the primary point of contact for patients. Nurses must use their advocacy skills to find and address patients’ individual needs. This is also in line with Provision 3 of the American Nurses Association’s (ANA) Code of Ethics, which affirms the nurse’s responsibility as a patient advocate (American Nurses Association [ANA], 2015).


Service provider

In strict terms, the nurse’s duty as a service provider entails the usual nursing responsibilities that nurses and the public are acquainted with. Vaccinations, health screenings, and health education are all examples of health promotion. While working within the registered nurse’s scope of practice, this post also requires clinical excellence and knowledge within the Registered Nurses’ scope of practice that is consistent with the ANA Code of Ethics (ANA, 2015).


Manager of Care

The care manager’s job includes working with the interdisciplinary team as a group. This form of cross-disciplinary collaboration is critical for providing patients with safe, high-quality care. Nurses are often the ones that manage meetings between staff, family, and patients because they are at the forefront of patient care. Because this coordination of care also requires showing patient requirements that have been expressed to the nurse, this function overlaps with that of the patient advocate.


This position grows and becomes a key role and focus on health promotion. The nurse must adjust to the job of health educator and develop new methods for evaluating the patient’s preparedness, ability, and desire to learn. It is critical to teach health promotion and prevention practices to save lives and aid patients and families in living their best lives.



Nurses must aspire to be competent caregivers who base their practice on strong scientific evidence based on EBP in all cases. In nursing, EBP is regarded as the gold standard for influencing nursing practice to improve patient care. EBP is distinguished by its use of the most up-to-date evidence, clinical ability, and patient preferences and values to create adjustments that improve patient care (Stevens, 2013). The most recent data is gathered through qualitative and quantitative nursing research, which offers the statistical evidence needed to back up change recommendations. This evidence is then paired with clinical skills and observations to form a compelling case for changing patient care processes. The knowledge and experience of nurses is crucial to the research process.

It can be the difference between making changes that affect patient care outcomes and saving lives. Changes can be noticed in the several levels of prevention within health promotion. This could entail launching a new sort of teaching program or developing new health tests tailored to specific requirements. The National Institute for Nursing Research (NINR) promotes nurses’ participation in scholarly research and the use of evidence-based practice in nursing.


American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. Retrieved from


Egen, O., Beatty, K., Blackley, D. J., Brown, K., & Wykoff, R. W. (2017). Health and social conditions of the poorest versus wealthiest counties in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 107(1), 130-135.


Grand Canyon University. (2018). Health promotion in Nursing.


Stevens, K. (2013). The impact of Evidence-based Practice in Nursing and the next big ideas.

OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 18(2). doi: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol18No02Man04


World Health Organization.(n.d). Health Promotion. Retrieved from