NRS 430 CLC Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation

NRS 430 CLC Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation

Assessment Description

This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.

This assignment is to be completed in a group, which will be assigned by your instructor. The presentation will be submitted and graded as a group assignment.

Nursing theories are tested and systematic ways to implement nursing practice. Select a nursing theory and its conceptual model. Prepare a 10‐15 slide PowerPoint in which you describe the nursing theory and its conceptual model and demonstrate its application in nursing practice. Include the following:

  1. Present an overview of the nursing theory. Provide evidence that demonstrates support for the model’s efficacy in nursing practice. Explain how the theory proves the conceptual model.
  2. Explain how the nursing theory incorporates the four metaparadigm concepts.
  3. Provide three evidence‐based examples that demonstrate how the nursing theory supports nursing practice. Provide support and rationale for each.

You are required to cite a minimum of three sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be appropriate for the assignment and relevant to nursing practice.

Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.


Origin of the comfort theory

Kolcaba developed the comfort theory after conducting a conceptual analysis of the term in various disciplines such as medicine, nursing, psychology, and psychiatry. The theory is a middle-range theory that focuses on placing patient comfort as the main aspect of nursing care. To Kolcaba, nurses provide comfort to patient when they engage in holistic nursing (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).


Holistic comfort refers to the immediate strength that patients experience when their needs are met by nurses who are their caregivers. The comfort theory not only assumes that patients need comfort, but also that nurses have the ability to identify comfort needs and ensure that patients experience holistic comfort (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).


Comfort: this is a concept that strengthens patients and is achieved using comforting actions conducted by nurses during healthcare.

Intervening variables: Factors such as social support, finances, and prognosis that do not change during healthcare and healthcare providers have no control over them. They should be considered by nurses when determining interventions that lead to patient comfort.

Healthcare needs: the needs of patients in healthcare settings.

Enhanced comfort: A desirable outcome that occurs after nurses implement appropriate interventions to meet the comfort needs of a patient.

Institutional integrity: the wholeness, values, and financial stability of healthcare organizations at national, state, regional, and local levels. When nurses engage in comfort care, they promote institutional integrity.

Best practices: these are procedures and protocols developed by healthcare institutions for specific patients after assessments. Comfort needs are patient-specific hence best practices should focus on patient-centered care.

Best policies: Overall procedures and protocols developed by healthcare institutions for use in evidence collection. They should facilitate the identification of patients’ comfort needs (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

The comfort theory proves the conceptual model because it encourages the determination of the healthcare needs of a patient and the use of comforting interventions to deal with these needs. In addition, the theory emphasizes on the need of considering intervening variables when providing comfort needs as a way of achieving enhanced comfort.

Propositions of the theory to nursing practice 

The comfort theory describes nursing as a process that should involve the identification of the comfort needs of a patient, determining and implementing the most appropriate care plans, and conducting evaluations to determine if the plans meet the comfort needs of the patients. Intervening variables are those that are not controlled by healthcare providers but they affect the patient’s comfort such as availability of social support or finances. It is important to consider these variables before determining effective interventions (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

Propositions of the theory to nursing practice

When patients are comfortable, they become satisfied with the care they receive. Since patient comfort involves taking care of their physical, spiritual, social, and environmental needs, comfort leads to good patient outcomes which is a crucial healthcare outcome. Patient satisfaction with care also leads to good reputations for healthcare organizations (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).


Types of comfort

According to the diagram, there are three types of comfort: relief, ease, and transcendence.

Relief: The feeling experienced when an individual’s specific comfort needs are met.

Ease: the state of being contented or calm.

Transcendence: a state where an individual has the ability to rise above pain problems.

Comfort occurs in four contexts: physical, environmental, psychospiritual, and sociocultural.

Physical: Comfort that pertains to bodily functions such as immune function, bodily sensations, and homeostatic mechanisms.

Environmental: Comfort that pertains to the external surrounding of the patient such as sound, light, odor, temperature etc.

Psychospiritual: Comfort that pertains to a patient’s internal self-awareness such as their identity, self-esteem, sexuality, and religion.

Sociocultural: Comfort that pertains to the interpersonal relationships of a patient including relationships with family and friends (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

The four metaparadigm concepts

The four metaparadigm concepts include nursing, patient, environment, and health. in the comfort theory, nursing practice should involve the intentional assessment of patients’ comfort needs as a way of determining the needs and developing strategies to meet these needs. The term patients refers to people in need of healthcare such as families, individuals, and members of the community (Krinsky, Murillo & Johnson, 2014).

Patients are greatly influenced by environmental factors. According to the comfort theory, the environment refers to external factors such as light, sound, and odor that influence the patient’s comfort.

Patients are said to be at god health when they have optimal functioning at physical, mental, and psychological levels. enhanced comfort promotes optimal functioning (Krinsky, Murillo & Johnson, 2014).


The comfort theory considers nurses as very important aspects of patient care, hence it supports nursing practice. the theory explains that nurses are in charge of assessing, identifying, and meeting the care needs of patients in any healthcare setting. The theory also encourages holistic comfort among nurses which implies that the theory views nurses as important professionals (Wensley, Botti, McKillop & Merry, 2017).

The comfort theory also supports patient-centered care which is a critical component of nursing practice. the theory encourages nurses to assess each patient individually and to determine the individual needs and interventions for the patients (Wensley, Botti, McKillop & Merry, 2017).


To successfully determine a patient’s comfort needs, nurses must develop a therapeutic relationship with their patients. nurse-patient relationships are critical in nursing practice because they transform patient experiences and ensure that the nurse, who is part of the patient’s environment, interacts well with the patient (Kornhaber, Walsh, Duff & Walker, 2016).


  • Coelho, A., Parola, V., Escobar-Bravo, M., & Apóstolo, J. (2016). Comfort experience in palliative care: a phenomenological study. BMC Palliative Care15(1). doi: 10.1186/s12904-016-0145-0
  • Kornhaber, R., Walsh, K., Duff, J., & Walker, K. (2016). Enhancing adult therapeutic interpersonal relationships in the acute health care setting: an integrative review. Journal Of Multidisciplinary Healthcare9, 537-546. doi: 10.2147/jmdh.s116957
  • Krinsky, R., Murillo, I., & Johnson, J. (2014). A practical application of Katharine Kolcaba’s comfort theory to cardiac patients. Applied Nursing Research27(2), 147-150. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2014.02.004
  • Wensley, C., Botti, M., McKillop, A., & Merry, A. (2017). A framework of comfort for practice: An integrative review identifying the multiple influences on patients’ experience of comfort in healthcare settings. International Journal For Quality In Health Care29(2), 151-162. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzw158