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NRS 430 Nursing Conceptual Model and a Nursing Theory

NRS 430 Nursing Conceptual Model and a Nursing Theory

NRS 430 Nursing Conceptual Model and a Nursing Theory

Introduction

Nurses constitute a critical part of the healthcare system. As practitioners, they leverage various theories to offer care. These models allow the to use various approaches to patient care and community health. Nursing theories offer a systematic way of executing nursing practice to achieve quality outcomes. These theories include various components of healthcare and the setting that influence care delivery (Younas, 2019). The theories focus on four nursing metaparadigm comprising of person, health, nursing, and the environment (Deliktas et al., 2019). The aim of this presentation is to describe Dorothea Orem’s self0care theory and its conceptual model. The presentation illustrates how the policy can be applied in nursing settings.

Objectives of the Presentation

The presentation’s objectives entail providing an overview of Dorothea Orem’s self-care theory, and evidence to support its efficacy in nursing practice. The presentation also explains and demonstrates the theory’s conceptual model. It also explains the integration of the four metaparadigm concepts into the theory. The presentation also shows three evidence-based illustrations of self-care model’s support for the nursing practice based on rationales.

Dorothea Orem

Dorothea Orem made important and long-term impact in nursing through her self-care theory. Born in 1914, Orem worked in different parts in the country to advance the nursing profession before her demise in 2007 (Younas, 2019). Orem developed her nursing model in 1971 and was vital in assisting to shape the holistic approach nurses use towards patient care. Using the theory, nurses can determine the aspects of care they should emphasize. Self-care model also emphasizes the critical role played by patients play in maintenance of autonomy over the nursing processes.

Self-Care Deficit Theory

The theory explains that nurses should intervene in patient care by helping them to make independent decisions based on their autonomy. The theory advances that all people have the ability to care for themselves if given right information and incentive. The model comprises of self-care, self-deficits and theory of nursing system.

According to Orem, Self-care emanates from actions that individuals freely and deliberately start and execute on their own to maintain life, health and wellness based on their environment. deficit occurs when one requires nursing due to incapacitation in providing self-care (Wills, 2019). The nursing system focuses on the interactions between nurses and patients as well as the wholly or partial compensatory nursing system and supportive-educative model that occurs in healthcare settings.

Efficacy of the Theory in Nursing

The efficacy of self-care theory is buoyed by diverse study findings which illustrates that health professionals leverage the model to lower costs, develop quality care interventions and allows faculty members to reduce the gap between theoretical aspects and practice for nursing students (Maslakpak et al., 2019). The model helps in enhancing patient outcomes and as it can be used to evaluate appropriate interventions for better results and maintenance of autonomy for patients.

The self-care model focuses on patient care and assists nurse practitioners to think and interact well with patients and colleagues. The framework is vital in development of nursing school curriculum and improving quality of nursing care for patients in different settings by leveraging interventions which are self-sustaining and initiated by patients or individuals in need of care. The self-care model’s primary objective is to ensure that an individual returns and maintains their former state of health and this allows providers to customize care interventions based on patients and their practice settings (Wills, 2019).

Conceptual Model

The Model’s Conceptual Framework includes three areas: Self-care, self-care deficits and Nursing Agency. Self care contains two aspects that comprise of self-care agency and self-care demands. The self-care agency advances that an individual can care for themselves based on their age, life experience, and sociocultural orientation health and accessible resources (Wazni & Gifford, 2017). The second concept is the therapeutic self-care demand which denotes to the totality of self-care where one performs actions to meet the self-care needs or requisites using acceptable approaches. The self-care requisites are things needed by individuals at al stages of life to care for themselves.

Self-Care Requisites: Universal Requisites

The universal self-requisites affect all people and are linked to life processes and maintenance of integrity of human structure and optimal functionality (Wazni & Gifford, 2017). These comprise of daily activities in life aimed at sustenance of sufficient intake of air, water, food, and having elimination processes. It also entails creating a balance among a host of activities that include rest, solitude and social interactions as well as hazards’ prevention to attain wellness and promote optimal human functioning.

Self-Care Deficit & Nursing System

Self-deficit implies that one cannot provide care for themselves due to various reasons. The deficit model illustrates the interaction between the self-care agency and the capability to conduct aspects self-care based on the expected requisites (Wills, 2019). The therapeutic self-care demands may not be satisfied when the agency dos not have the ability to initiate and carry out the respective interventions.

Nursing system comprise of three aspects that include wholly compensating model where an individual attains total care by care provision of the nurse, partly compensating where patients can care for themselves with support from nurses, and the supportive-educative where the nursing system focuses on providing education to individuals to enhance self-care (Bender, 2018). The implication is that the self-care model meets the conceptual framework as it shows that nurses should focus on assisting individuals attain better outcomes based on their abilities’ levels.

The four Metaparadigm model comprises Person, Environment, Health and Nursing.

Person and Environment Paradigms

The metaparadigm on person and environment requires providers to assess individual abilities of the patient and the influence of their environment in care provision. The person entails the individual getting nursing care. The self-care model incorporates person metaparadigm as it focuses on holistic approach to care. The model implores one to use learned behavior and instincts to meet their needs (Bender, 2018).  The model also encourages learning about one’s self-care needs for effective care delivery.

The environment metaparadigm advances that environment influences one’s health care and the interventions they can take to attain better outcomes. The self-care model emphasizes the need for one to be in appropriate environment and understand their external and internal systems to attain better care. The self-care model is categorical that external environment is essential as it meets the universal requisites like access to water, and food among other aspects.

Health and Nursing Metaparadigms

Health metaparadigm involves attainment of wellness and better quality of life. The paradigm encourages individuals to make necessary interventions to satisfy changes in self-care requirements (Deliktas et al., 2019). An individual should restore their health to the original or former optimal state. Therefore, health as a paradigm implores nurses to assist the patient go back to their former optimal state through self-care approaches (Bender, 2018). The nursing concept needs nurses and other healthcare providers to offer optimal care aimed at meeting individual self-care needs. Nurses should leverage their skills and knowledge to attain this concept. They should also leverage care by using all the four concepts.

Examples on Self Care Model in Diabetic Patients

Diabetic persons may not have knowledge on how to control their situations and live optimal lives. These persons can use self-care model to get knowledge from providers. In this case, nurses provide information about evidence-based practice interventions like insulin based diets, attainment of low glycemic levels and carbohydrate rich diets and starch. They should also avoid high impact outdoor activities. The second EBP example is having a juvenile individual with diabetes and needs nutrition to recover and be restored to optimal functioning. The minor can have either total parental nutrition or intravenous nutrition. The intravenous nutrition should consists of all elements that include vitamins and minerals, fats and carbohydrates as well as electrolytes. Total parental nutrition requires provision of all nutrients alongside monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Education to General Population

Health populations; particularly communities and individuals who have elevated risk for diabetes, should have general education to enhance self-care and prevent diabetes. These include knowledge on symptoms associated with the condition, and knowledge on insulin administration in events of an attack. The public should have information on aspects like glucose monitoring to position patient better to meet care interventions. The education should also enable the public to understand other aspects like not massaging an individual with the condition and locating positions to administer the insulin. Therefore, Orem’s theory is important in attaining better outcomes among diabetic patients and at risk individuals and populations.

Conclusion

Orem’s self-care deficit theory is essential for nurses as it offers a systematic way for dealing with patients and providing appropriate interventions. Evidence shows that the model is effective in nursing practice and supports the four metaparadigms of nursing. The illustrative examples show that the model is critical in evidence-based practice interventions in nursing

References

Bender, M. (2018). Re‐conceptualizing the nursing metaparadigm:

Articulating the philosophical ontology of the nursing discipline

that orients inquiry and practice. Nursing inquiry, 25(3), e12243.

Deliktas, A., Korukcu, O., Aydin, R., & Kabukcuoglu, K. (2019). Nursing

students’ perceptions of nursing metaparadigms: A

phenomenological study. The Journal of Nursing Research, 27(5),

e45.

Maslakpak, M. H., Shahbaz, A., Parizad, N., & Ghafourifard, M. (2018).

Preventing and managing diabetic foot ulcers: application of Orem’s

self-care model. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries,

38(2), 165-172.

 

Discuss the difference between a nursing conceptual model and a nursing theory.
Select a nursing theory and provide a concise summary of it. Provide an example in nursing practice where the nursing theory you selected would be effective in managing patient care.

The AACN Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice guides the curriculum for the baccalaureate program. The AACN’s The Essentials of Master’s Education for Advanced Nursing Practice, Advanced Nursing Practice: Curriculum Guidelines and Program Standards for Nurse Practitioner Education, NONPF and AACN Nursing Practitioner Primary Care Competencies in Specialty Areas, NONPF Domains and Competencies of Nurse Practitioner Practice, and NACNS Statement on Clinical Nurse Specialist Practice and incorporatesEducation provide structure for the curriculum content of the master’s program. The College of Nursing and Health Care Professions curriculum is designed to facilitate the students’ abilities to creatively respond to continuously changing health care systems throughout the world. Educational experiences are planned to meet the needs of and to empower both students and clients. Professionalism, ethical decision making, accountability, critical thinking, and effective communication are emphasized. This is achieved through the application of liberal arts constructs, science, health and nursing theories, and the values of the Christian faith within the scope of nursing knowledge and evidence-based practice. Nursing practice promotes human dignity through compassionate caring for all human beings, without consideration of their gender, age, color, creed, lifestyle, cultural background, and other visible or invisible boundaries between students, faculty, and clients.

Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

The difference between a nursing model is to provide guidance in research and a nursing theory explains the nursing process that is based on research. The Coping/adaptation Theory- Focuses on focuses on various psychological responses to stress that are considered negative, such as emotional distress, anxiety, depression, anger, and fear (Whitney, 2018). An example I can think of is when a patient presents to the ER for psychiatric evaluation due to auditory Hallucinations. The patient appears distressed, anxious, tachycardic and high blood pressure. The nurse provides a supervised, quiet environment for the patient and offers medication to help calm the Anxiety. The patient calms down, vital signs improve and the patient remains cooperative while admission to the psychiatric unit is finalized. The patient is provided with therapy and medication management to improve patients mental health.

References
Whitney, S. (2018). History of professional nursing. In Grand Canyon University (Eds.), Dynamics in Nursing: Art and Science of Professional Practice. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs430v/dynamics-innursing-art-and-science-of-professional-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/2

Hello Bonnie,
I agree with you that a nursing model provides a protocol that guides research but nursing theory expounds on the nursing process. Therefore, the nursing model is more elaborate than the nursing theory. In most cases, the nursing model may offer various nursing theories than can be integrated into nursing research based on the purpose. Nursing models cover various significant aspects of the research. Successful nursing studies have effective nursing models (Leviner, 2020). There are various nursing models and theories that can be used either together or differently. The coping/ adaptation theory focuses on how patients of psychological issues such as emotional distress, anger, and anxiety can react to their psychological disruptions. Adaptation theory enables a physician to prescribe to a patient with anxiety a supervised and quiet environment for their recovery. The theory also explains occasions where medical intervention may be preferred rather than other responses. The nursing model may proceed to provide a long-term schedule that may eliminate a relapse.
References
Leviner, S. (2020). Patient flow within hospitals: A conceptual model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 33(1), 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894318419881981

Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

Nursing conceptual model and a nursing theory. The nursing conceptual model guides research in nursing. The conceptual model has hypothetical connections and together defines the co-existence between two concepts. The concepts are then linked together with a hypothesis with either a mathematical or declarations (Whitney, n.d.).
The nursing theory differs from the nursing conceptual model by formulating ideas and putting it together in a concise plan. Nurses use this plan with their skills to expand their knowledge which in return improves the care provided. Florence Nightingale was a pioneer in the nursing theory model. Nightingale believed from environment, water, fresh air, proper nutrition, hygiene and sufficient sunlight the patient will improve a patient’s recovery.
An 18-year-old female was exhibiting an acute episode for sickle cell crises. This young female has pain on a scale of 1 to 10 at an 8. She has reported to not refilling her medication for over 1 month and refuses pain medication. As nightingale believed the patient needs the proper environment, hygiene and proper nutrition. The nurse assessed the patient for non compliance to medication and found that the patient did not have insurance and was homeless. In return the patient did not have the proper nutrition nor sufficient hygiene. She refused the pain medication fearing the cost associated with the medication. The nurse provided the resources for a social worker to assist with housing, insurance and medication management teaching was provided.
References
Whitney, S. (n.d.). CCC web books by AWS & CDD. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs430v/dynamics-in-nursing-art-and-science-of-professional-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/2

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RESPOND TO ROSS
Hello Ross
I agree with your assertion that nursing conceptual model guides nursing research. The model has various connections and co-existence of two concepts. A hypothesis is a critical part of a conceptual model. Depending on the nursing research, the hypothesis can be either in calculations or declarations (Upvall & Leffers, 2018). Nursing theory is different since theory formulates ideas that develop a plan. The nursing plan facilitates the execution of nursing research. Florence Nightingale is an example of a successful nurse who used her nursing plan to develop a nursing theory model. Although this pioneer nurse developed her theory in the 1800s, the protocol that was used makes the theory beneficial to date. Nightingale believed that improving a patient’s recovery is a process that is determined by the presence of fresh air, proper nutrition, hygiene, clean water, and sufficient sunlight. Most contemporary healthcare facilities adhere to every element of Nightingale’s environmental theory. The fact that the theory was generated in the 1800s but it is still relevant today shows the importance of the conceptual model in nursing.
References
Upvall, M. J., & Leffers, J. M. (2018). Revising a conceptual model of partnership and sustainability in global health. Public Health Nursing, 35(3), 228-237. DOI: 10.1111/phn.12396

MONICA
Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

“Nursing theory is a structure of purposeful and systematic ideas that help to organize disciplinary thinking and influence practice” (Whitney, 2018, para. 28). In other words a Nursing theory provide the foundations of nursing practice. “Theories can be categorized according to their complexity. These categories include practice theories, midrange theories, and grand theories (also referred to as conceptual models). Conceptual models explain a particular way of thinking, or a mental picture of how the theory fits together, according to the theorist. A conceptual model is the organizing structure that defines the theory’ (Whitney, 2018, para. 34). In other words we can say a conceptual model provide guidance for research of a particular topic in nursing.
The Coping and Adaption Theory by Richard Lazarus says that “ The ability to cope requires the body to adapt continually to a changing environments and it centers on how an individual copes with stressful situations” (Whitney, 2018. para. 38).This theory sees stress, anxiety, depression, anger, and fear, as coping mechanisms. Nurses can apply this theory to assess the effects of stress on the patient and themselves. Unfortunately with covid, nothing is certain, we know that this virus mostly affect to adults and people who have severe underlying medical conditions. At the begging of the pandemic we were told by the CDC that symptoms for this disease may be fever or chills, cough, Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing but after days we also had patients reporting GI symptoms like diarrhea or poor appetite, so this pandemic is constantly changing and everyday there is something new, so nurses should alway be ready to adapt to any situation that can come and also undestand that every patient has their on way to adapt to situations.

References
Whitney, S. (2018). History of professional nursing. In Grand Canyon University (Eds.), Dynamics in Nursing: Art and Science of Professional Practice. Retrieved from: https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs430v/dynamics-in- nursing-art-and-science-of-professional-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/2

RESPOND
I agree with you that nursing theory is the foundation of nursing practice. Nursing practice is an obligation that is guided by systematic ideas that help in organizing thinking and acting. Therefore, nursing theory ensures that decisions and deeds in nursing research are appropriate to guarantee positive outcomes. Nursing theories are classified in midrange theories, and grand theories based on the uniqueness of these theories when they are used in research (Maki & DeVon, 2018). These nursing models are further divided into various categories depending on the situation of their utilization. The conceptual model is an elaborate concept in nursing research. The model guides the thinking and the selection of the suitable nursing theory for the research. There are various nursing theories but some circumstances render some theories irrelevant. The conceptual model plays a crucial role in the selection of the appropriate nursing model. The role of a conceptual model dictates the model to have a hypothesis that guides the thinking and other actions that are performing in nursing research.
References
Maki, K. A., & DeVon, H. A. (2018). A nursing theory‐guided framework for genetic and epigenetic research. Nursing Inquiry, 25(3), e12238. DOI: 10.1111/nin.12238

Nurses constitute a critical part of the healthcare system. As practitioners, they leverage various theories to offer care. These models allow the to use various approaches to patient care and community health. Nursing theories offer a systematic way of executing nursing practice to achieve quality outcomes. These theories include various components of healthcare and the setting that influence care delivery (Younas, 2019). The theories focus on four nursing metaparadigm comprising of person, health, nursing, and the environment (Deliktas et al., 2019). The aim of this presentation is to describe Dorothea Orem’s self0care theory and its conceptual model. The presentation illustrates how the policy can be applied in nursing settings.

The presentation’s objectives entail providing an overview of Dorothea Orem’s self-care theory, and evidence to support its efficacy in nursing practice. The presentation also explains and demonstrates the theory’s conceptual model. It also explains the integration of the four metaparadigm concepts into the theory. The presentation also shows three evidence-based illustrations of self-care model’s support for the nursing practice based on rationales.

Dorothea Orem made important and long-term impact in nursing through her self-care theory. Born in 1914, Orem worked in different parts in the country to advance the nursing profession before her demise in 2007 (Younas, 2019). Orem developed her nursing model in 1971 and was vital in assisting to shape the holistic approach nurses use towards patient care. Using the theory, nurses can determine the aspects of care they should emphasize. Self-care model also emphasizes the critical role played by patients play in maintenance of autonomy over the nursing processes.

The theory explains that nurses should intervene in patient care by helping them to make independent decisions based on their autonomy. The theory advances that all people have the ability to care for themselves if given right information and incentive. The model comprises of self-care, self-deficits and theory of nursing system.

According to Orem, Self-care emanates from actions that individuals freely and deliberately start and execute on their own to maintain life, health and wellness based on their environment. deficit occurs when one requires nursing due to incapacitation in providing self-care (Wills, 2019). The nursing system focuses on the interactions between nurses and patients as well as the wholly or partial compensatory nursing system and supportive-educative model that occurs in healthcare settings.

The efficacy of self-care theory is buoyed by diverse study findings which illustrates that health professionals leverage the model to lower costs, develop quality care interventions and allows faculty members to reduce the gap between theoretical aspects and practice for nursing students (Maslakpak et al., 2019). The model helps in enhancing patient outcomes and as it can be used to evaluate appropriate interventions for better results and maintenance of autonomy for patients.

The self-care model focuses on patient care and assists nurse practitioners to think and interact well with patients and colleagues. The framework is vital in development of nursing school curriculum and improving quality of nursing care for patients in different settings by leveraging interventions which are self-sustaining and initiated by patients or individuals in need of care. The self-care model’s primary objective is to ensure that an individual returns and maintains their former state of health and this allows providers to customize care interventions based on patients and their practice settings (Wills, 2019).

The Model’s Conceptual Framework includes three areas: Self-care, self-care deficits and Nursing Agency. Self care contains two aspects that comprise of self-care agency and self-care demands. The self-care agency advances that an individual can care for themselves based on their age, life experience, and sociocultural orientation health and accessible resources (Wazni & Gifford, 2017). The second concept is the therapeutic self-care demand which denotes to the totality of self-care where one performs actions to meet the self-care needs or requisites using acceptable approaches. The self-care requisites are things needed by individuals at al stages of life to care for themselves.

The universal self-requisites affect all people and are linked to life processes and maintenance of integrity of human structure and optimal functionality (Wazni & Gifford, 2017). These comprise of daily activities in life aimed at sustenance of sufficient intake of air, water, food, and having elimination processes. It also entails creating a balance among a host of activities that include rest, solitude and social interactions as well as hazards’ prevention to attain wellness and promote optimal human functioning.

Self-deficit implies that one cannot provide care for themselves due to various reasons. The deficit model illustrates the interaction between the self-care agency and the capability to conduct aspects self-care based on the expected requisites (Wills, 2019). The therapeutic self-care demands may not be satisfied when the agency dos not have the ability to initiate and carry out the respective interventions.

Nursing system comprise of three aspects that include wholly compensating model where an individual attains total care by care provision of the nurse, partly compensating where patients can care for themselves with support from nurses, and the supportive-educative where the nursing system focuses on providing education to individuals to enhance self-care (Bender, 2018). The implication is that the self-care model meets the conceptual framework as it shows that nurses should focus on assisting individuals attain better outcomes based on their abilities’ levels.

The four Metaparadigm model comprises Person, Environment, Health and Nursing.

The metaparadigm on person and environment requires providers to assess individual abilities of the patient and the influence of their environment in care provision. The person entails the individual getting nursing care. The self-care model incorporates person metaparadigm as it focuses on holistic approach to care. The model implores one to use learned behavior and instincts to meet their needs (Bender, 2018).  The model also encourages learning about one’s self-care needs for effective care delivery.

The environment metaparadigm advances that environment influences one’s health care and the interventions they can take to attain better outcomes. The self-care model emphasizes the need for one to be in appropriate environment and understand their external and internal systems to attain better care. The self-care model is categorical that external environment is essential as it meets the universal requisites like access to water, and food among other aspects.

Health metaparadigm involves attainment of wellness and better quality of life. The paradigm encourages individuals to make necessary interventions to satisfy changes in self-care requirements (Deliktas et al., 2019). An individual should restore their health to the original or former optimal state. Therefore, health as a paradigm implores nurses to assist the patient go back to their former optimal state through self-care approaches (Bender, 2018). The nursing concept needs nurses and other healthcare providers to offer optimal care aimed at meeting individual self-care needs. Nurses should leverage their skills and knowledge to attain this concept. They should also leverage care by using all the four concepts.

Diabetic persons may not have knowledge on how to control their situations and live optimal lives. These persons can use self-care model to get knowledge from providers. In this case, nurses provide information about evidence-based practice interventions like insulin based diets, attainment of low glycemic levels and carbohydrate rich diets and starch. They should also avoid high impact outdoor activities. The second EBP example is having a juvenile individual with diabetes and needs nutrition to recover and be restored to optimal functioning. The minor can have either total parental nutrition or intravenous nutrition. The intravenous nutrition should consists of all elements that include vitamins and minerals, fats and carbohydrates as well as electrolytes. Total parental nutrition requires provision of all nutrients alongside monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Health populations; particularly communities and individuals who have elevated risk for diabetes, should have general education to enhance self-care and prevent diabetes. These include knowledge on symptoms associated with the condition, and knowledge on insulin administration in events of an attack. The public should have information on aspects like glucose monitoring to position patient better to meet care interventions. The education should also enable the public to understand other aspects like not massaging an individual with the condition and locating positions to administer the insulin. Therefore, Orem’s theory is important in attaining better outcomes among diabetic patients and at risk individuals and populations.

Orem’s self-care deficit theory is essential for nurses as it offers a systematic way for dealing with patients and providing appropriate interventions. Evidence shows that the model is effective in nursing practice and supports the four metaparadigms of nursing. The illustrative examples show that the model is critical in evidence-based practice interventions in nursing.

References

Bender, M. (2018). Re‐conceptualizing the nursing metaparadigm:

Articulating the philosophical ontology of the nursing discipline

that orients inquiry and practice. Nursing inquiry, 25(3), e12243.

Deliktas, A., Korukcu, O., Aydin, R., & Kabukcuoglu, K. (2019). Nursing

students’ perceptions of nursing metaparadigms: A

phenomenological study. The Journal of Nursing Research, 27(5),

e45.

Maslakpak, M. H., Shahbaz, A., Parizad, N., & Ghafourifard, M. (2018).

Preventing and managing diabetic foot ulcers: application of Orem’s

self-care model. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries,

38(2), 165-172.