NRS 433 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations SOLUTION

NRS 433 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations SOLUTION

For this assignment, use the nursing practice problem and two qualitative peer-reviewed research articles you identified in Topic 1 (or two new articles based on instructor feedback in Topic 1). In a 1,000-1,250-word essay, summarize two qualitative studies.

Use the “Research Critique Guidelines – Part I” document to organize your essay.

You are required to cite a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice.


The shortage of nurses in the ICU is a huge challenge for healthcare providers in the US. It has increased the demand for more nurses and nurse turnover rates, affecting patients and their families. It also affects nursing professionals. For example, reports have found that many nurses have considered leaving their job due to stress related to the workload while others have developed mental related issues such as anxiety and burnout. Healthcare organizations continuously to witness this challenge and it occurs due to manys reasons, including high acuity/admission levels. Many studies have been conducted in this area to understand the issue better. This essay evaluates and critques two qualitative studies examining staffing levels and how they affect patient safety, infection control, and nurse and patient stress in the ICU. It will include different elements such as author’s obejectives, reseach methods, research findings and the ethial considerations that the authors of the qualitiative articles employed.

PICOT question

In the ICU departments, do sufficient nurse workers (I) prevent

the occurrence of medical errors, infections, and stress among patients and nurses themselves (O) within one year (T) compared to inadequate nurse workers (C)?

Population (P) – The target population is the patients in the ICU.

NRS 433 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations SOLUTION

NRS 433 Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations SOLUTION

Intervention (I) – Sufficient nurse workers

Comparison (C) – Inadequate nurse workers.

Outcome (O) -Prevents infections, stress, and medical errors among the patients and nurses

Time (T) – The duration is one year.

Background of Studies

Banda et al. (2019) investigate how nurses at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital’s ICU in Malawi view the issue of a high workload on patient care. Using a purposive sample technique, the researchers selected research participants based on how long they had previously worked at the hospital. They then provided them with informed consent. The researchers then performed ten in-depth interviews to collect the research data. After collecting data, they evaluated it using Braun & Clarke’s theme analysis method. According to the study, ICU nurses and critically ill patients suffer when nurses are overworked. It jeopardizes patient safety and hinders providing quality care. Additionally, it harms the nurses’ health. It suggests that nurses are worried about the harmful effects that heavy workloads have on patient care. Adding more ICU nurses is necessary to address this problem.

Bridges et al. (2019) examine how patients interact with nursing and staffing regarding quality and quantity. It involves tracking patient outcomes for a year while using various staff ratios. Investigators then performed regression analysis to examine the information gathered on patient care quality. They discovered that compared to nurses who handled fewer patients, those with at least eight patients exhibited poor engagement with them.

How The Two Articles Support the Nursing Practice Problem

Banda et al. (2019) examine nurses’ opinions on the problem of high workloads in the ICU. Thus, the study seeks to determine the idea behind workloads in patient care at the ICU. Similarly, Bridges et al. (2019) studied how patients feel about a situation when patient satisfaction with their care is high or poor. Both studies supported the PICOT question by stating that understaffing is a factor in the serious difficulties encountered in the ICU. They established that it hurts health outcomes. According to Banda et al. (2019), both ICU nurses and critically ill patients suffer when nurses are overworked. It jeopardizes patient safety and hinders providing quality care. In addition, it harms nurses’ health, contributing significantly to the ICU’s healthcare issues. Bridges et al. (2019) found that nurses with at least eight patients had poorer interactions with them than those with fewer.

Method of Studies

Banda et al. (2019) employed purposive sampling to select research participants based on the duration they had worked directly at the hospital. They then provided their informed consent. The researchers then performed ten in-depth interviews to collect the research data. After collecting data, they evaluated it using Braun & Clarke’s theme analysis method. Researchers from Bridges et al. (2019) studied patient outcomes based on various staff ratios for a year. Regression analysis was then utilized to examine the information acquired regarding the standard of patient care. Therefore, the approaches used in these two situations differed since Bridges et al. (2019) relied on observation while Banda et al. (2019) used interviews.

The method makes it easier to get detailed information because the interview questions are open-ended, which helps to clarify the research question. Banda et al. (2019) involved ten interviews to get first-hand information about how ICU nurses in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, perceive the high workload on patient care. However, the interviewing technique will probably introduce considerable biases, leading to incorrect data. Various circumstances that may come into play throughout the interview could cause this issue. In Banda et al. (2019), the researchers did not involve nurse managers, despite their significant role in healthcare. Thus, there are possibilities that the investigation missed out on some crucial data related to the management.

Since the researcher can verify the accuracy of the data gathered, the observation approach is quite accurate. For example, real-time ward-based staff and interaction data significantly improved upon flaws found in earlier studies. (Bridges et al., 2019). Similarly, the investigator can use various tools to identify the behaviors under examination. As opposed to interviewing, the researcher merely uses the participants’ responses as the data source. Some natural phenomena, however, are hard to record during the study using the observation approach because the researchers cannot pinpoint their exact location and timing. Data from independent care observations may not be a good surrogate for the real patient experience, according to (Bridges et al., 2019).

Results of Studies

According to Banda et al. (2019), the nurses’ severe workloads put patients’ safety at risk by giving them subpar care. Additionally, they found that the welfare of the nurses was in danger due to heavy workloads. According to Bridges et al. (2019) researchers, patient-nurse conflict occasionally prevents patients from receiving the care they need.Banda et al. (2019) state that managers and policymakers should focus on hiring more ICU nurses and putting other solutions in place to address the issue of high workloads and the effects they have on patient care. Researchers in Bridges et al. (2019) also advise the need to understand what causes a poor relationship between nurses and their patients when there is a reduced staffing ratio.

Ethical Considerations

There is a need for approval from the relevant authorities to ensure that the study complies with ethical guidelines and safeguards the participant’s rights. Banda et al. (2019) approved the study by the College of Medicine Research and Ethical Committee (COMREC). Bridges et al. (2019) study was approved by the Social Care Research Ethics Committee for England. Thus, both investigations followed the necessary rules and regulations. Researchers must also obtain informed consent from participants before proceeding with their study. The participants are informed about the research purpose, their rights, the possible benefits and risks, and the research procedure. After this, the participants must sign a consent form revealing their willingness to be part of the study. Banda et al. (2019) gave informed consent to all the research participants before beginning the study. However, due to the nature of the research, Bridges et al. (2019) did not seek consent.


Both Banda et al. (2019) and Bridges et al. (2019) investigated the shortage of nurses in the ICU, an issue of concern in the US, affecting both patients and healthcare providers. Banda et al. (2019) explore nurses’ perspectives on the issue of heavy workloads in the ICU. At the same time, Bridges et al. (2019) examine how patients feel about their satisfaction with the care they receive, both when it is high and when it is low. Bridges et al. (2019) used an observation method, while Banda et al. (2019) employed an interviewing method. While the two approaches had some advantages, they also had a fair share of limitations. The two studies revealed that the issue of high workload affects the entire healthcare sector, and it should be solved. The results from both studies are reliable enough since they adhered to ethical considerations.


Banda, Z., Simbota, M., & Mula, C. (2019). Nurses’ perceptions on the effects of high nursing workload on patient care in an intensive care unit of a referral hospital in Malawi: a qualitative study. BMC nursing21(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1186/s12912-022-00918-x.

Bridges, J., Griffiths, P., Oliver, E., & Pickering, R. M. (2019). Hospital nurse staffing and staff–patient interactions: an observational study. BMJ quality & safety28(9), 706-713. DOI: 10.1136/bmjqs-2018-008948


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Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

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Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

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Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource