NRS 440 Summary of Current Course Content Knowledge



As I read over the weekly topic objectives, I realized that while there are certain issues that I am familiar with and/or have given little thought to, there are also those that I am unfamiliar with from my associate’s degree program or from this program. The Institute of Medicine’s Future of Nursing Report is one of the goals I am already familiar with. The report’s ambition that by 2020, about 80% of the nursing workforce would hold bachelor’s degrees is one of the more well-known objectives I can recall. I am not sure if I have read the report for 2020 to 2030, though. In my previous class, Nursing Leadership and Management, the course covered a lot of ground regarding how important nurses are to “reengineering” healthcare. I still find It fascinating to think about this job further in terms of trends or issues. Being a “lifelong learner” is a concept I am quite familiar with. A significant part of being able to keep up with healthcare changes and being able to deliver safe, high-quality care has been included in practically all of my nursing education.

Finally, in this program’s leadership and management course, I was first exposed to the idea of servant leadership. Regardless of holding a position of leadership, so many characteristics of this sort of leader spoke to me and encouraged me to incorporate them into my practice. I appreciated reading and learning about this type of leadership in action, and I anticipate learning more about it.


Judith Okpalaobi

Dec 14, 2022, 9:51 AM


The course involves exploring the effect of numerous societal and professional factors on healthcare practice and policy. Some of the most important contents of this course include an analysis of nursing care policy and position statements, environmental, political, as well as cultural issues in healthcare policy. The course incorporates different topics with specific objectives linked to the overall goals.

From the analysis of the course content, I have prior knowledge of topic two and topic five objectives. Topic two objectives include the description of the roles of nursing in the restructuring or reformation of the healthcare delivery system and the prediction of how the nursing profession will transform or grow in response to emerging trends. From previous courses, I acquired basic knowledge of the roles of nurses in the reformation of the healthcare system and the transformation of the nursing profession in response to emerging trends such as technology and new diseases. Nurses play significant roles in the development of interprofessional teams and the knowledge required to ensure changes in the operational processes (Bastable, 2021).

Topic five objectives include analyzing individual leadership styles, qualities, and traits, analyzing the importance of servant leadership in nursing, and discussing the importance of interprofessional communication for nursing leadership. I have advanced knowledge of leadership styles, qualities, and traits, given my strong background in leadership and management. Prior to joining the nursing school, I undertook a diploma course in leadership and management which improved my leadership skills and understanding of the importance of interprofessional communication.

Further, from the analysis of the course objectives, I lack prior knowledge of topics 1, 3, and 4 objectives. As a result, it will be necessary to work closely with the course instructor and classmates, in addition to studying course materials, to gain insight into new knowledge to meet these objectives. The course-related topics that I would like to discuss with my instructor and classmates include the evolution of the role of nurses in healthcare systems, current trends in nursing practice, and healthcare delivery models.

Some concerns I have about this course include the coverage of the course topics and whether the time allocated will be enough to explore all the contents. Another concern is the applicability of the knowledge gained and whether the ideas will be relevant in future nursing practices.














Bastable, S. B. (2021). Nurse as educator: Principles of teaching and learning for nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Bush, T. (2020). Theories of educational leadership and management. Theories of Educational Leadership and Management, 1-208.

The need to deliver quality and affordable care implores stakeholders to continually enact legislations to reform and restructure the health care delivery system with the aim of attaining better outcomes. Nurses are critical players in these reforms and restructuring since they are patient advocates. The new delivery models emerge to offer quality care at the greatest value for patients and stakeholders like nurses (Gott, 2018). The purpose of this paper is to examine changes aimed at reforming or restructuring health care delivery system through a current law or federal regulations. The paper also discusses effect of quality measures and pay for performance in patient outcomes and nursing practice. The essay also discusses professional nursing leadership and management roles in response to emerging trends and in patient safety and quality care promotion.

Current or Emerging Health Care Law or Federal Regulation

The need to improve nursing education and practice is critical to care provision in the U.S. health care system. Imperatively, the Nursing Workforce Reauthorization Act 0f 2019 is essential as it would update, reauthorize and enhance critical programs to help grow and support the nursing workforce as one of the largest labor force in the country. The Nursing Workforce Reauthorization Act of 2019 focuses on enhancing nursing education, practice and programs to retain nurses to meet the growing national demand due to an aging population and subsequent retirement of baby boomers’ nursing generation (Merkley, 2019). The law offers many programs to nurse practitioners to enhance nursing care, services and improve the overall wellbeing of these practitioners. The focus of this act is to provide more accountability to the nurse and improve scope of practice to allow increased satisfaction in the profession and lead to better retention rates.

The act will assist in aligning the nursing field within its profession as nurse get opportunity to advance their education and serve in both rural and urban areas, especially among underserved populations and communities. The act ensures that nurses will have increased skills to practice based on their level of education, training, and specialty. The act implores nurses to be more accountable in their role as primary care providers, especially in rural and underserved communities (Congress.GOV., 2019). The act ensures that the American nursing workforce is well positioned to meet care need now and in the future and can address access to care challenges in the populations where they serve.

Quality Measures/ Pay for Performance

Economic changes are essential for health care delivery in the country to remain sustainable while offering quality patient care. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) develops measures to lower the cost of care and increase access. Pay for Performance is a component of quality measures aimed at rewarding healthcare entities and providers that focus on quality care and enhancing patient outcomes. Pay for performance stresses the important of quality of care and not quantity which increases the possibility of using best clinical practices and supports promotion of good health. Pay for performance increases transparency while encouraging providers to remain accountable and enhance their overall reputation.

Using data on quality measures established in collaboration with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), organizations and providers get financial rewards for enhancing patient care and reducing costs. Through the intervention, CMS can hold organizations and providers accountable for their shortcomings. The pay for performance is a value-based model and uses patient satisfaction and proven best practices as quality measures. Hospitals and providers report quality metrics to the public using the Hospital Consumers Assessment of Health Plan Survey (HCAHPS), and quality measures associated with falls, infections, morbidity, and mortality in different patient settings (Lee & Nathan, 2018). Providers and organizations use the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and information Set (HEDIS) for reporting these measures in outpatient settings.

Nurses, including advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs), leaders and administrators have direct influence on quality programs and patient outcomes. Nurses should know and understand the current concepts on quality that include a selection of quality measure, data collection and measurement, data reporting and effective evaluation (Gott, 2018). Nurses need to be aware of and understand as well as promoted their roles and the impact they have on high quality patient care and outcomes. They need to advocate for resources, foster a safety culture, participate in policy and decision making concerning best practices and lead in the implementation of quality initiatives.

Leadership and Management Roles and Emerging Trends

The nursing profession is in a strategic position in the health care reforms and transition taking place and development of effective patient care models. The advent of these novel care models that aim at preventive measures and health promotion across have led to emergence of new roles among nurses and other healthcare providers. These novel positions and managerial roles include being care coordinators, primary care providers, virtual care nurses, bundled care coordinators and working in retail clinics, especially in health care deserts in rural settings (Sarkar et al., 2020). All these roles are essential since patient care continues to become complex and extending beyond the confines of healthcare settings.

Nurses are becoming primary care providers and leading the provision of care in rural settings and among different patient populations, especially vulnerable populations and communities. As health care coaches and patient advocates, they help patients set wellness goals, especially those with chronic conditions. New roles like being patient navigators ensures that patients go through their complex care journeys with increased hope and better advice from nurse practitioners (Lee & Nathan, 2018). As such, nurse leaders and managers must be visionary and use evidence-based practice interventions to enhance care delivery a. The emerging act implores nurse managers to understand the financial implications of healthcare and care for communities in a more cost-effective manner than before.

Emerging Trends in Technology and Holistic Care

Different trends will continue to define healthcare provision and care plans in the healthcare system. Among these trends include the shift to nurses as primary care providers due to a decline in primary and specialty care physician, emerging technology’s increased use, and focus on holistic care interventions. The shift to APRNs and RNs is due to the need to maintain public health coverage and increase access, especially as states continue to change laws and increase the scope of practice authority for nurses. Emerging technology will continue to define, design, and shape care provision as more patients become reliant on telehealth and telemedicine through virtual nurses and physicians (Gott, 2018). The emergence of infectious diseases and the need for increased disease surveillance and control of such spread underscore the need for better preparation among health care providers, especially nurses.

Another trend is the emergence and development of Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMH) as part of offering better access to holistic care. many of these settings are managed and staffed by advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) and registered nurses (RNs) (Sasangohar et al., 2018). These trends imply that there will continue to be a shift in the entry level into nursing with more institutions requiring baccalaureate level to be hired by hospitals and the medical homes. The use of telehealth and telemedicine applications will imply that more nurses will specialize in nursing informatics.


Nurses are positioned strategically to transition patient care through advocacy, advanced education, training, policy making and leadership. Nurses must keep pace with emerging delivery models to offer safe, effective, and quality care for all patients and ensure that they get the best value outcomes. Nurses should understand the emerging trends and seek effective ways to prepare strategically as critical players in the current reforms.




















Congress.GOV. (2019). H.R.728 – Title VIII Nursing Workforce Reauthorization Act of 2019.

Gott, M. (2018). Telematics for health: The role of telehealth and telemedicine in homes and

            communities. CRC Press.

Lee, J. S., & Nathan, H. (2018). Quality measurement and pay for performance. Surgical

            Oncology Clinics, 27(4), 621-632. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2018.05.003.

Merkley, J. (2019). Merkley, Burr Introduce Bipartisan Nursing Workforce Reauthorization Act

of 2019.

Sasangohar, F., Davis, E., Kash, B. A., & Shah, S. R. (2018). Remote patient monitoring and

telemedicine in neonatal and pediatric settings: Scoping literature review. Journal of medical Internet research, 20(12), e295. doi: 10.2196/jmir.9403

Sarkar, R. R., Courtney, P. T., Bachand, K., Sheridan, P. E., Riviere, P. J., Guss, Z. D., … &

Murphy, J. D. (2020). Quality of care at safety‐net hospitals and the impact on pay‐for‐performance reimbursement. Cancer, 126(20), 4584-4592.