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NU 500 Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope metathe or mindy gange or practice theory aradle rnd purpose descriptive explanatory predictive or prescriptive

NU 500 Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope meta the or mindy gange or practice theory cradle and purpose descriptive explanatory predictive or prescriptive

Regis University NU 500 Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope meta the or mindy gange or practice theory cradle and purpose descriptive explanatory predictive or prescriptive-Step-By-Step Guide

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How to Research and Prepare for NU 500 Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope meta the or mindy gange or practice theory cradle and purpose descriptive explanatory predictive or prescriptive                                   

Whether one passes or fails an academic assignment such as the Regis University  NU 500 Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope meta the or mindy gange or practice theory cradle and purpose descriptive explanatory predictive or prescriptive depends on the preparation done beforehand. The first thing to do once you receive an assignment is to quickly skim through the requirements. Once that is done, start going through the instructions one by one to clearly understand what the instructor wants. The most important thing here is to understand the required format—whether it is APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.

After understanding the requirements of the paper, the next phase is to gather relevant materials. The first place to start the research process is the weekly resources. Go through the resources provided in the instructions to determine which ones fit the assignment. After reviewing the provided resources, use the university library to search for additional resources. After gathering sufficient and necessary resources, you are now ready to start drafting your paper.

How to Write the Introduction for NU 500 Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope meta the or mindy gange or practice theory cradle and purpose descriptive explanatory predictive or prescriptive                                   

The introduction for the Regis University  NU 500 Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope meta the or mindy gange or practice theory cradle and purpose descriptive explanatory predictive or prescriptive is where you tell the instructor what your paper will encompass. In three to four statements, highlight the important points that will form the basis of your paper. Here, you can include statistics to show the importance of the topic you will be discussing. At the end of the introduction, write a clear purpose statement outlining what exactly will be contained in the paper. This statement will start with “The purpose of this paper…” and then proceed to outline the various sections of the instructions.

How to Write the Body for NU 500 Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope meta the or mindy gange or practice theory cradle and purpose descriptive explanatory predictive or prescriptive                                   

After the introduction, move into the main part of the NU 500 Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope meta the or mindy gange or practice theory cradle and purpose descriptive explanatory predictive or prescriptive assignment, which is the body. Given that the paper you will be writing is not experimental, the way you organize the headings and subheadings of your paper is critically important. In some cases, you might have to use more subheadings to properly organize the assignment. The organization will depend on the rubric provided. Carefully examine the rubric, as it will contain all the detailed requirements of the assignment. Sometimes, the rubric will have information that the normal instructions lack.

Another important factor to consider at this point is how to do citations. In-text citations are fundamental as they support the arguments and points you make in the paper. At this point, the resources gathered at the beginning will come in handy. Integrating the ideas of the authors with your own will ensure that you produce a comprehensive paper. Also, follow the given citation format. In most cases, APA 7 is the preferred format for nursing assignments.

How to Write the Conclusion for NU 500 Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope meta the or mindy gange or practice theory cradle and purpose descriptive explanatory predictive or prescriptive                                   

After completing the main sections, write the conclusion of your paper. The conclusion is a summary of the main points you made in your paper. However, you need to rewrite the points and not simply copy and paste them. By restating the points from each subheading, you will provide a nuanced overview of the assignment to the reader.

How to Format the References List for NU 500 Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope meta the or mindy gange or practice theory cradle and purpose descriptive explanatory predictive or prescriptive                                   

The very last part of your paper involves listing the sources used in your paper. These sources should be listed in alphabetical order and double-spaced. Additionally, use a hanging indent for each source that appears in this list. Lastly, only the sources cited within the body of the paper should appear here.

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Description

Herzing NU 500 Unit 3 Discussion 1 Types of Theory

Discussion Question

Please read the following introduction and complete the following steps for your initial discussion post:

There are a number of methods for classifying theory in nursing.  These include classification based on range/scope or abstractness (metatheory, grand, middle-range, or practice theory) and type or purpose of the theory (descriptive, explanatory, predictive, or prescriptive).

For this week’s discussion post, address the following:

  • Identify one specific nursing theory that relates to your area of practice.  Feel free to go to the Currents website or look in your textbook for multiple nursing theories to choose from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/ (Links to an external site.)
  • Discuss the type of the selected nursing theory according to scope (meta-theory, grand, middle-range, or practice theory) and purpose (descriptive, explanatory, predictive, or prescriptive).
  • Provide an example of how the selected nursing theory can be applied to your area of practice.  The example should include core concepts of the theory and demonstrate its practical application.
  • Be sure to supplement your discussion with your personal and professional experiences.

Responses need to address all components of the question, demonstrate critical thinking and analysis, and include peer reviewed journal evidence to support the student’s position.

Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references in APA format.

Please review the rubric to ensure that your response meets the criteria.

 

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Nursing theories play an important role in guiding nursing practice. Nursing theories act as frameworks for knowledge development that is utilized in making health-related decisions for the patients. The theories also provide a better understanding of the human experiences with illnesses as well as health in an institution of healthcare. Nursing theories also guide nursing research. Nurses use concepts from nursing theories as the underpinnings of their research. Nursing researches evaluate the effectiveness of nursing interventions based on whether the goals stated in a theory have been achieved or not. Furthermore, knowledge from nursing theories elicit more issues in nursing that can be solved and understood better utilizing concepts from the theory. Therefore, this research paper examines the adaptation theory of nursing by Sister Callista Roy. The paper examines the background of the theory, describes it, its evaluation, and application to nursing.

Theory Background

Sister Callista Roy developed the adaptation theory in 1976. Born in 1939, Roy studied a bachelor’s degree in nursing from Mount Saint Mary’s College in 1963. She also got a master’s degree in nursing in 1966 from the University of California. She proceeded to get a doctoral degree in nursing from the same university in 1977. Roy developed her theory of adaptation after working with Dorothy Johnsons when she was developing her conceptual model for nursing. Roy identified from her experience as a pediatric nurse that children demonstrated significant resilience in care despite the challenges due to their health problems (Spraga-Spencer, 2020). The theorist developed the concepts of her model between 1964 and 1966 when she was at the University of California. She operationalized the model in 1968 where it was adopted for use as a philosophical foundation for the nursing curriculum in Mount Saint Mary’s College of nursing.

Roy has extensive experience as a professional nurse. She worked as an associated professor as well as chairperson for the nursing department at Mount Saint Mary’s College. She also worked as a profession at University of Portland and Mount Saint Mary’s College. She was the clinical nurse scholar for neuroscience in the University of California between 1983 and 1985 (Zerwekh & Garneau, 2020). The other professional contributions of Roy to nursing includes the development of the coping and philosophical underpinnings of the adaptation model for use in nursing epistemology and founding of the Boston Based Adaptation Research in Nursing Society. The use of Roy’s theory has also been evaluated in many studies that focus on promoting behavior change (Peate, 2019). Since inception of the Roy’s adaptation model, its use has gained significant relevance and need in the modern nursing practice and research. Roy’s adaptation theory mainly aims at assisting the vulnerable populations such as the patients to build the resilience they need in overcoming a disease. Further, the theorist’s model strives to ensure that patients have the abilities and power to achieve their optimum level of functioning (Smith, 2019). As a result, successful adaptation to an illness is perceived to a critical determinant of health and wellbeing in Roy’s model of adaptation.

ALSO READ: Identify at least two regulatory bodies, and your state’s nurse practice act, that specify certification, licensure requirements, or scope of practice for your specialty

Theory Description

Reasoning in Roy’s Model of Adaptation

The adaptation model by Roy used both inductive and deductive reasoning. The model used deductive reasoning in that it used other theories to develop her prepositions. For example, Roy used the theory by Helson concerning psychophysics to explain the nature of human reaction to disease and illness. The psychophysics theory by Helson identified the existence of stimuli that include residual, contextual, and focal. Roy adopted these concepts from Helson’s theory to explain the various environmental stimuli that influence the person. Therefore, Roy’s use of concepts from other theories in her model makes it deductive in nature.

Moreover, the adaptation theory by Roy also used inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning was used in that she developed a framework that nurses can use in developing nursing process to promote patient adaptation in times of ill health. The model is also inductive because it was developed based on nursing research and practice experiences of Roy and her colleagues (Smith, 2019). Therefore, the model of adaptation used both of deductive and inductive reasoning.

Concepts of Roy’s Model of Adaptation and their Relationships

The model of adaptation by Calista Roy has five concepts that relate to nursing. The concepts include adaptation, person, environment, health, and nursing. According to Roy’s theoretical definition, adaptation is the process in which an individual responds positively to environmental changes. According to her, people live in environments that constantly change. The constant environmental changes demands that human beings respond positively to promote their optimum health. The ability of the human beings to adapt to their environment depends on factors such as self-reflection, conscious awareness, and the choice to integrate the needs of their environments into their daily lives. Roy perceived that conscious awareness is important in human life because it enables individuals to select the decisions or behaviors that minimize their exposure to circumstances that affect health adversely. Roy also considered adaptation to be a product of self-reflection. Accordingly, the individual’s experiences form part of the events that influence their adaptation (Peate, 2019). Roy further identified that successful adaptation requires individuals to identify ways in which they can successfully integrate the constant environmental changes into their lives.

The second concept in the adaptation model by Roy is the person. According to Roy’s theoretical definition, the person is an adaptive system that responds to environmental changes. In this case, Roy perceived human beings to be in constant interaction with their environments. The environmental conditions change in a constant manner, which increases the need for the person to respond to them effectively. Roy’s model identified that the person uses acquired as well as innate mechanisms to respond to the constant changes in the environment. The innate mechanisms are that are inborn. The innate mechanisms include immunity and the influence of genetics. On the other hand, acquired mechanisms encompass those that individuals acquire from their environment or previous encounters with new conditions in their environment. For example, a persistent exposure to cold weather or influenza builds new immunity that enables individuals to overcome the health effects of the constant environmental changes. The model of adaptation further identifies that the concept of person is an adaptive being that uses regulate and cognator sub-systems to remain adaptive to the environmental needs. The cognator sub-system responds to environmental demands using the cognitive and emotional channels. The channels include information processing, judgment, emotion, and learning. The regulator sub-system utilizes the chemical, neural, and endocrine channels to respond to environmental stimuli. Optimum health therefore depends on the effective functioning of the cognator and regulator subsystems of adaptation. Roy further considered the concept of person to include individuals, groups such as families, communities, organizations, and the society in its entirety. The Roy adaptation model also considered the person to comprise of parts that work together to ensure unity for a purpose in responding to environmental changes (Browning, 2020). As a result, the person becomes the focus of nursing care, as it receives the planned care interventions by nurses.

The third concept in Roy’s adaptation model is environment. According to Roy’s theoretical definition, environment comprises mainly of the stimuli that requires adaptation from the person. The environment confronts the person, forcing the need for successful adjustment to the environmental needs. Roy also considered the environment contextual in nature. In this case, environment refers to all the stimuli that contribute to focal stimuli. The stimuli can be either internal or external environmental stimuli. Roy asserted that the environmental stimuli affect human behaviors and development. The effect on behavior and development also extends to groups, organizations, and communities responding to the environmental needs (Gibson, 2020). Therefore, as seen from Roy’s model of adaptation, individuals, groups, organizations, or communities should demonstrate positive response to the environmental stimuli for them to achieve their optimum health needs.

The other concept in Roy’s adaptation model is health. Roy’s theoretical definition of health was that it is a critical dimension in the life of an individual. Accordingly, health-illness continuum represents the health and life of the person. Roy also considered health to be a process and state of becoming and being integrated in a system of wholeness. Accordingly, the successful integration of the person and the existence of mutually co-existing relationship between the person and environment influences health. Roy however considered health also unrealistic in nature, as seen from the lack of a predetermined continuum of the relationship between illness and health. Due to this, Roy considered illness and health to co-exist. Roy also considered health to be the ability of the person to adapt with their environment. According to her, health occurs when an individual successfully adjusts or responds to both internal and external environmental stimuli (Ellis, 2017). However, ineffective response to the environmental stimuli leads to ill health, hence, the nature of the relationship between health, person, and environment.

The last concept in the model of adaptation by Roy is nursing. According to Roy’s theoretical definition, nursing is a profession that aims at assisting the person to achieve successful adaptation in their environments. Roy’s model perceived nursing to focus on the processes that influence human life and patterns of people’s behavior that promote health and full-potential for families, individuals, communities, and groups. Roy further perceived nursing as a practice and science. Accordingly, nursing utilizes science of understanding the interrelation between the different adaptive modes that promote adaptation. Roy therefore considered the goal of nursing to be to promote individual and group adaptation in the different adaptive modes, as a way of contributing to quality of life, health and dignified death. Roy also identified that nurses assist the adaptation of the person using adaptive modes that include physiological, self-concept, role functioning, and interdependence modes (Zerwekh & Garneau, 2020). Consequently, the role of nursing in Roy’s model of adaptation is to promote successful adaptation of the person to their environment for the desired quality of life, health, and dignified death, hence, the interrelationship between the concepts.

Evaluation of Roy’s Model of Adaptation

Assumptions

The use of Roy’s model of adaptation relies on a number of assumptions. The assumptions can be classified as either implicit or explicit assumptions.

Explicit Assumptions

One of the explicit assumptions of the adaptation model by Roy is the fact that human beings are bio-psychosocial in nature. According to this assumption, human beings interact with their environment and respond effectively to adjust to the prevailing environmental conditions. The other assumption is that the environment that the person interacts with undergoes constant evolution. The constant changes in the environment result in the development of effective coping mechanisms by the person. The coping mechanisms are either acquired or innate and are of psychological, social, ad biological origins. The model also operates on the explicit assumption that illness and health are unavoidable in life. There is a continuum in the relationship between the two. As a result, the person should adapt to their environmental stimuli for them to have optimum health and be free from illnesses. Roy’s model also has the explicit assumption that the person has four modes of adaptation that include self-concept, physiologic needs, interdependence, and role function. These modes of adaptation are rely on each other for health and wellbeing to be achieved. The model also has the explicit assumption that nursing practice values the perspectives and opinions of others. Due to this, nurses should support interpersonal relations in their practice to promote the provision of care that promotes dignity and integrity (Peterson & Bredow, 2020).

Implicit Assumptions

The adaptation model by Roy also has a number of implicit assumptions. One of the implicit assumptions is that the person or human being can be reduced into parts for care as well as study. The implication of this assumption is that nursing care that focuses on a specific region of the body or part can be given to promote adaptation. A similar focus can be seen in nursing research where a specific part of the person can be investigated to determine the effectiveness of the adopted interventions in promoting adaptation (Thomas, 2016). The other implicit assumption of the model is the fact that nursing care is largely based on casualty. The model also recognizes that the opinions and values of the patients should be respected in care. Through this assumption, the focus of nursing care should be patient-centered. The last implicit assumption of the theory is that adaptation enables an individual to respond to other forms of stimuli that affect health. Consequently, nurses should focus on ensuring that the basic needs of the person are met for them to respond effectively to the needs of their environmental stimuli (Fawcett, 2016).

Metaparadigms

From the above analysis, the four main concepts of the adaptation by Roy include health, person, nursing, and environment. The concepts constitute the metaparadigms of the adaptation model by Roy. Each of these metaparadigm components has a unique definition in their use in nursing practice. According to Roy’s model of adaptation, the person is an adaptive system that has regulator and cognator subsystems that ensure successful adaptation in the above-identified adaptive modes. Roy defined the environment as the conditions, influences, and circumstances that affect and surround the development as well as behavior of the person. Roy defined health as the process and state of becoming and being integrated into a system of wholeness that reflects environment and person mutuality. Lastly, Roy defined nursing as a profession that promotes the adaption of the person in the four modes of adaptation with the aim of promoting quality of life, health, and dignified death (Smith, 2019).

Clarity

The use of Roy’s model of adaptation has been consistent in nursing practice. Since its inception, the theory has consistently been used in nursing practice to promote adaptation among the vulnerable populations. The definitions of the concepts have also been used consistently in nursing practice and research. The consistency and clarity of the model has been evaluated in studies including those by Daly, (2020) and Elmoneim et al., (2017).

Application of Roy’s Adaptation Model to Nursing

The model of adaptation by Roy can be used to guide nursing practice, administration and research. One of the ways in which the model guides nursing practice is assessment. Nurses can use the model to assess the ability of the patients to adapt to their changes in health status. Nurses can use cues to changes in health that can be either observable or non-observable. During the assessment of the patient, the nurse determines the behaviors of the patient from the four adaptive modes and the patient’s response to stimuli. The nurse then uses the assessment data to develop nursing diagnoses that match the behaviors and response of the patients to the stimuli (Spraga-Spencer, 2020). Roy’s model of adaptation also guides planning stage of nursing care. The nurse uses the data from the assessment to develop care goals that will promote adaptation. The setting of goals encompasses the development of statements that reflect the behavioral outcomes that must be met for adaptation to be possible. The adaptation model  by Roy also guides the implementation of nursing care plans. In this case, the nurse determines the most effective ways in which the pre-developed goals of care can be achieved to ensure that patients attain their adaptation to environmental stimuli (Fawcett, 2016). The model also guides the evaluation of nursing care. Nurses use the model to determine the effectiveness of the adopted interventions in promoting adaptation. The nurse evaluates the patient’s response to the stimuli based on the interventions that were used in the care process (Peterson & Bredow, 2020). Nurses often use strategies such as observation, interviewing, and measurement to determine whether the selected interventions were effective in facilitating effective adaptation in their patients.

Roy’s model of adaptation also guides research. The model can act as a theoretical framework for studies that aim at promoting behavioral change in populations. The theory provides the assumptions and concepts that are used for evaluating the effectiveness of interventions in a research. An example of a study that used Roy adaptation model is the one conducted by Jennings (2017) where it revealed the model effective in guiding knowledge development, inter-disciplinary education, and provision of case specific care to patients with anorexia nervosa.

I will use the adaptation model by Roy in the formulation of nursing care plans for the patients that I offer my services. I will use it in the assessment phase to determine the adaptation needs of the patients and develop appropriate nursing care plans. I will use the assessment data in planning of care to develop appropriate goals of care. I will also use the model in the implementation stage to come up with strategies that aim at improving the adaptation level of the patients. The last way I will use the model in nursing care is evaluation where I will determine the effectiveness of the adopted interventions in promoting successful adaptation to stimuli in the patients.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Roy model of adaptation is a theory that can be used to inform nursing practice, research, and administration. The theory provides an understanding of the relationship between concepts of nursing practice that include health, nursing, person, and environment. The adaptation model also provides assumptions that guide nursing practice. The above analysis has shown that Roy model of adaptation has practice, research, and nursing administration uses. The theory can be used for the purposes of assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation of care. The theory is also effective for use in nursing researches that investigate the effectiveness of interventions that aim at promoting adaptation and behavioral changes. The adaptation theory by Roy also has uses in nursing administration. Nurse administrators can use the theory to implement new initiatives that transform behaviors, quality of care, and health outcomes for patients. Consequently, nurses should explore the ways of making an effective use of the theory in their practice.

 

 

 

References

Browning, A. M. (2020). Application of the Roy Adaptation Theory to a care program for nurses. Applied Nursing Research, 151340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2020.151340

Daly, L. M. (2020). A Qualitative Descriptive Research Study on Resilience Using the Roy Adaptation Model (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton).

Ellis, P. (2017). Understanding Ethics for Nursing Students. Learning Matters.

Elmoneim, E. F. A., Ghonemy, G. E., & Hassan, N. I. (2017). Effect of Roy Adaptation Model on Sexual Function and Spousal Support among Women after Total Hysterectomy. IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science6(2), 130-140.

Fawcett, J. (2016). Applying Conceptual Models of Nursing: Quality Improvement, Research, and Practice. Springer Publishing Company.

Gibson, M. (2020). The application of a Middle Range Nursing Theory: Roy’s Adaptation Model, to the Caregivers of Mental Illness Sufferers. Theoretical Foundation in Advanced Practice Nursing. https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/hsc_advpracticenursing/13

Jennings, K. M. (2017). The Roy Adaptation Model: A Theoretical Framework for Nurses Providing Care to Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 40(4), 370–383. https://doi.org/10.1097/ANS.0000000000000175

Peate, I. (2019). Fundamentals of Assessment and Care Planning for Nurses. John Wiley & Sons.

Peterson, S. J., & Bredow, T. S. (2020). Middle Range Theories: Application to Nursing Research and Practice. Wolters Kluwer.

Smith, M. C. (2019). Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice. F.A. Davis.

Spraga-Spencer, K. (2020). Twenty-First Century American Nursing Theories. Independently Published.

Thomas, T. (2016). Management and Leadership for Nurse Administrators. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Zerwekh, J., & Garneau, A. (2020). Nursing Today – E-Book: Transition and Trends. Elsevier Health Sciences.