NUR 590 Week 7 Assignment Benchmark – Evidence-Based Practice Proposal Final Paper
NUR 590 Week 7 Assignment Benchmark – Evidence-Based Practice Proposal Final Paper
Throughout this course, you have developed a formal, evidence-based practice proposal.
The wellness of a population’s health using improved patient safety protocols implores healthcare workers (HCWs) especially nurses, to develop evidence-based practice interventions to reduce and prevent occurrence of adverse events like hospital acquired infections (HAIs) and medication administration errors (MAEs) among others. These adverse events lead to poor patient outcomes, increase the overall cost of care and disease burden, and lowers the quality of care delivered by healthcare professionals. Hospital acquired infections are some of the leading healthcare concerns that affect patient safety and quality of care. Many patients suffer from these infections that result into lengthened stays in hospitals, increased cost of care, and in extreme circumstances death.
There are many challenges in improving the health of populations and one of the biggest challenges has to do with the delivery and utilization of the interventions that are being proposed (Dearing, 2018). When it comes to the delivery of the interventions, it incorporates more than one factor. The factors that are considered in the delivery of the interventions include communication, training, leadership, coordination, and management (Dearing, 2018). When it comes to change, organizational readiness needs to be assessed. Two tools that can be used to assess organizational readiness includes the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA) tool and the Organizational Readiness for Implementing Change (ORIC). As my organization is a Magnet facility and already supports and implements evidence-based practices, I chose the ORIC tool to discuss. The ORIC tool is the most appropriate for assessing my organizations readiness as this tool focuses on the readiness of the organizational members for implementing change. Being a Magnet facility, my organization has proven that they support nursing excellence and to determine if the team members are ready for change implementation, the ORIC tool would be ideal to evaluate this. When the organization’s readiness is high, the members are more likely to initiate and put forth greater effort for implementing change and on the flip side when the organization’s readiness is low, the team members are more than likely to view change as undesirable and may resist change (Shea et al., 2014). With my proposed evidence-based change, it does involve a fully engaged team which is even more of a reason to use the ORIC tool to help determine the team’s readiness for change and hopefully lead to a successful change implementation.
Nurse practitioners and other healthcare professionals transmit infections to patients through poor hand hygiene measures and protocols (Alotaibi & Federico, 2017). As such, nurses and other providers should leverage evidence-based practice (EBP) interventions to reduce and prevent the occurrence of hospital acquired infections and guarantee quality care. The use of evidence-based practice interventions allows these providers to offer better services through increased quality, increased engagement of patients and their preferences, and leveraging clinical experience and expertise. The purpose of this evidence-based practice project proposal paper is to discuss how nurses in pediatric settings can integrate hand hygiene measures and protocols to reduce and prevent the occurrence of hospital acquired infections. These measures and protocols include handwashing using soap and water alongside hand sanitizers compared to handwashing with water and soap alone.
Hospital acquired infections or nosocomial infections are newly acquired infections that patients contract during their stay in hospital settings or facilities. The transmission of the nosocomial infections happens through healthcare workers, patients, hospital equipment like catheters and interventional procedures that include catheterization. Studies demonstrate that healthcare workers who include nurse practitioners infect patients when they fail to adhere to effective hand hygiene measures like handwashing with soap or using alcohol-based sanitizers and hand rubs when handling and interacting with patient in the care process (Liana 2021). The use of evidence-based practice interventions using PICOT question is important in assisting nurses to implement better practices to reduce the susceptibility of patients acquiring nosocomial infections that have adverse effects on overall care delivery and quality. These infections lead to increased length of stay in hospitals, a rise in cost of healthcare and cause deaths, especially in critical care settings like pediatric units (Setty et al., 2019). Hand hygiene measures that include handwashing with soap and water alongside sanitizer will improve patient safety among healthcare workers. The implication is that healthcare workers will adhere to these measures in pediatric settings to reduce hospital acquired infections within six months’ period and improve quality outcomes.
Population- Healthcare workers in pediatric settings
Intervention-Hand Hygiene using handwashing with soap and water and sanitizer
Comparison-Handwashing with soap and water alone
Outcome- Reduced Hospital acquired infections
Time- in Six months
Refined PICOT Question
The refined PICOT question for the EBP project is “Among healthcare workers in pediatric setting (P), does hand hygiene practices that include handwashing with soap and water alongside hand sanitizer (I) compared to handwashing with soap and water alone (C) reduce hospital acquired infections (O) within six months (T)?”
Organizational Culture and Readiness
The culture of an organization is essential in implementing changes and it impacts its overall vision, mission and values and employees’ perception in embracing new ways of executing tasks. A culture entails employees with strong norms and values, management and approaches to overall way of doing things. A culture that involves employees, possesses strong values and norms, and encourages an open-door policy with decentralized approach is important in achieving set change objectives in an organization (Real et al., 2017). To effectively implement this EBP project proposal, pediatric healthcare settings and practitioners should use a decentralized organizational and leadership structure. The model is effective in enhancing motivation of subordinates and enhancing growth and increased diversification. Decentralization in healthcare organizations leads to better communication and adoption of innovative practices, ideas and strategies to improve quality of care. Through decentralization, the management leads a transformational approach to enhance agility and respond to new and best practices in care delivery.
The implementation of this EBP project proposal requires organizational culture that focuses on patient-centered care delivery. Through being patient-centered, an organization can support change programs to improve patient safety, quality and access while minimizing the occurrence of hospital acquired infections (HAIs). Increasing patient engagement and promoting inter-professional collaboration leads to a competitive advantage for healthcare organizations.
The evaluation of an organization’s readiness for change based on its culture is essential in implementing evidence-based practice projects. Readiness demonstrates the level to which organizational members are prepared to implement and embrace change, behaviorally and psychologically. Dearing (2018) opines that readiness is a psychological state of the mind that shows commitment to certain course of actions. As such, this EBP project proposal will leverage the Organizational Capacity Assessment Tool developed by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) that assesses an organization’s readiness in promoting and enhancing the use of global health interventions. Through the tool, organizations identify substantive capacities and strengths that are present and the required one to attain their set objective. In this case, pediatric settings that aim to implement this EBP recommendations should demonstrate exemplary capacities in their attributes, have a superb and influential culture based on their missions, purposes and better values (De la Perrelle et al.., 2020). The capacity assessment tool looks at the various capabilities that include human resources, processes, financial resources, and systems as critical components of readiness for change implementation. Ready organizations possess sufficient strengths that include having the best skills, effective communication and adequate resources, availability of sufficient nurse workforce and effective engagement of their stakeholders.
The organizational readiness also evaluates the process and systems that require improvement to effectively implement the requisite changes (Vax et al., 2021). For instance, the improvement that pediatric care settings require include their patient handling process, the need for healthcare workers to adhere to hand hygiene measures and protocols, and delivery of patient-centered quality care. The organization will need quality improvement and collaborative approaches to enhance implementation. These organizations will also require quality data assessment tools for better and accurate analysis of their respective data (Dearing, 2018). The readiness will also include engagement of stakeholders and integration of information and communication technologies to ensure that all components to implement the project proposal are present. Using selected technologies, the project team and practitioners will pursue outcomes based on patient needs through enhanced alerts, reminders, and notifications on the need to comply with set hand hygiene protocols and measures that include effective handwashing and use of hand sanitizers to reduce hospital acquired infections in the pediatric settings.
The proposal is the plan for an evidence-based practice project designed to address a problem, issue, or concern in the professional work setting. Although several types of evidence can be used to support a proposed solution, a sufficient and compelling base of support from valid research studies is required as the major component of that evidence. Proposals must be submitted in a format suitable for obtaining formal approval in the work setting. Proposals will vary in length depending upon the problem or issue addressed (3,500 and 5,000 words). The cover sheet, abstract, references pages, and appendices are not included in the word count.
Section headings for each section component are required. Evaluation of the proposal in all sections will be based upon the extent to which the depth of content reflects graduate-level critical thinking skills.
This project contains seven formal sections:
Section A: Organizational Culture and Readiness Assessment
Section B: Proposal/Problem Statement and Literature Review
Section C: Solution Description
Section D: Change Model
Section E: Implementation Plan
Section F: Evaluation of Process
Each section (A-F) will be submitted as a separate assignment in Topics 1-6 so your instructor can provide feedback (refer to applicable topics for complete descriptions of each section).
The final paper submission in Topic 7 will consist of the completed project (with revisions to all sections), title page, abstract, compiled references list, and appendices. Appendices will include a conceptual model for the project, handouts, data and evaluation collection tools, a budget, a timeline, resource lists, and approval forms, as previously assigned in individual section assignments.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.
The healthcare sector, healthcare professionals, and other stakeholders have, in the past and present, focused on improving patient outcomes using various strategies. Such strategies aim at improving the efficiency of patient care and the safety of patients while in the patient care environment. The efforts and initiatives aimed at improving care outcomes are usually triggered by a host of incidences happening in the care settings, such as patient falls, patient injuries, pressure ulcers, and healthcare-acquired infections, among other incidences. (Jaul et al.,2018) Among the most common healthcare-acquired infections are catheter-associated urinary infections (CAUTIs). CAUTIs have been shown to cause various negative impacts, such as increased healthcare spending, longer hospital stays, and other adverse impacts, such as death. Therefore, this evidence-based practice project focuses on lowering the rates of CAUTI among patients in admission settings and using indwelling catheters(Shadle et al.,2021). As such, the purpose of this paper is to formulate aproposal for the EBP. Various aspects which will be explored include the problem statement, the organizational culture, the literature review, the change framework, and the implementation and evaluation plans.
Hospital-acquired infections have been shown to be on the rise in the past and present. One of the most common types of such infections is catheter-acquired urinary tract infections caused by the use of urinary catheters, especially indwelling ones. According to Flores-Mireles.(2019), CAUTIs lead to various adverse impacts. Even though the condition is largely preventable, it continues to cause havoc as it leads to increased patient morbidity and mortality, longer hospital stay, and increased healthcare spending (Kranz et al.,2020). This problem can, however, be prevented by applying various nursing interventions. It is important to note that, while various nursing interventions have been implemented, especially single activity-based interventions, the problem still persists hence calling for the use of more robust approaches which can integrate various interventions such as the use of CAUTI bundle.
Organizational Culture and Readiness
The process of evidence-based practice is impacted by various aspects, some of which are organizational aspects. The implication is that the EBP implementers should take their time and assess the nature of the organization, such as its culture related to EBP implementation and the readiness of various staff. Such a step is key in determining how easy or difficult the process of implementing an EBP project can be since a positive culture is needed for a successful implementation to occur (Cleary‐Holdforth et al.,2021). The assessment revealed that the organization’s leaders support patient improvement initiatives such as the EBP process for better patient outcomes. The organization also focuses on gaining magnet status, which has made them support various change initiatives. The assessment of the organization’s aim and mission showed that it focuses on offering exemplary and excellent patient services by using the latest care strategies at affordable costs. In addition, it was also noted that the organization adores interprofessional collaborations and teams in the provision of care. Therefore, it is evident that the organization’s culture is ready for change and also supports EBP.
The organization’s culture and readiness were assessed using a chosen tool, the System-Wide Integration of the EBP survey tool. This tool has widely been applied, especially to assess an organization’s capacity to adapt to and cope with change (Melnyk et al.,2022). This tool was used to explore the staff’s and the leader’s understanding of the proposed change of application of the CAUTI bundle to control the CAUTI rates. The survey tools showed that up to 91% of the staff support the proposed change, which is a majority. In addition, the majority of the leaders also supported the initiative, as up to 80% indicated that they were ready for the change. Therefore, this tool also revealed that the organization’s culture could support and sustain the proposed change.
Even though the culture supports the proposed change, it is worth noting that there are potential barriers and weaknesses that may derail implementation. For example, lack of support by minority leaders as staff can be a major drawback. The assessment will also be key in exploring the staff knowledge in using the proposed CAUTI bundle, which will then help to formulate strategies for improving their knowledge. The leaders supporting the initiative will play an important role in availing the required resources and supporting the project through making effective decisions and formulating change champions who can then help on driving the change initiative as appropriate. It was also important to identify the relevant stakeholders (Melnyk et al.,2022). Therefore, various stakeholders were identified, stakeholders include physicians, nurses, unit leaders, nurse managers, patients, and their families
The identified problem which informed the formulation of this project is increased rates of CAUTI in patient care settings. Therefore, the use of CAUTI bundles has been proposed as a potential EBP intervention. As such, it was important to perform a literature review to explore the existing evidence on the use of CAUTI bundles to reduce the rates of CAUTIs among patients admitted to the hospital and using indwelling urinary catheters. A PICOT question formulated earlier was used in the literature search. The formulated PICOT was: Among patients using indwelling urinary catheters, what is the efficacy of using CAUTI bundle care as compared to no intervention in lowering the rates of CAUTI by at least 60% within six months?
An article search strategy was also used to access the most relevant articles and evidence as appropriate. The search was accomplished in various article databases such as PubMed, google scholar, CINHAL, and Cochrane databases. The search also focused on peer-reviewed articles published in the last five years. Various search terms were also used in the search for relevant articles, including CAUTI, CAUTI bundles, intervention, and prevalence. Even though the search yielded several articles, the most relevant was chosen, and the literature review of the ten articles was performed and presented in the next section.
Elkbuli et al.(2018) conducted a study on the prevention of CAUTI among the trauma population. This study aimed at determining the efficacy of using a 5-S CAUTI bundle in the reduction of CAUTI rates among trauma patients. In a quantitative study, the researchers recruited a total of 2926 trauma patients. The analysis of the data showed that the use of the 5-S bundle led to a significant reduction in CAUTI rates among trauma patients (p-value of 0.002).
Davies et al.(2018) also conducted a study to explore the impact of using a CAUTI bundle. In a pre-and-post-study design, the researchers recruited a total of 6236 patients to take part in the study. The analysis of the data compared the rates of infections before the application of the CAUTI bundle and after its implementation. The results showed that the rates of CAUTI after the implementation of the CAUTI bundle were significantly lower compare as compared to the rates before, showing the efficacy of the CAUTI bundle.
Recently, Reynolds et al. (2022) conducted research that aimed at exploring the impact and sustainability of a multifaceted intervention in lowering CAUTI rates. This study was conducted in three large adult intensive care units among patients using urinary catheters. The analysis of the data showed a significant impact of bundle care. For example, the researchers noted a drop in CAUTI rates and the use of indwelling catheters. The positive impacts were directly associated with the implementation of the CAUTI bundle care as a strategy.
In a similar study, Mundle et al. (2020) explored the effectiveness of implementing a CAUTI bundle in preventing CAUTI incidences. The researchers conducted the study in internal medicine units where every patient admitted during the study took part in the study. The analysis of the data showed significant results relevant to this study as the researchers observed a 79% reduction in the rates of CAUTI among the patients, showing that the implementation of the CAUTI bundle care positively impacted CAUTI rates.
Sultan et al. (2022) explored the effect of using a CAUTI bundle to help prevent CAUTI occurrence among critically ill patients. In a quantitative study, the researcher recruited a total of eighty patients admitted to the intensive care units. The analysis of the data showed that the implementation of the CAUTI bundle led to a significant reduction in CAUTI rates. For example, they noted that upon the implementation of the CAUTI bundle, the CAUTI rates among the ICU patients were reduced by 50%, showing the efficacy of the intervention.
Another relevant study was conducted by Tyson et al. (2020), which focused on implementing a nurse-driven protocol designed to support catheter removal approaches to help reduce CAUTI rates. The aim of the study was to compare the CAUTI rates and the use of indwelling urinary catheters before and after implementing a nurse-driven CAUTI bundle among patients admitted to the surgical trauma intensive care unit. The analysis of the collected data led to significant results. For example, upon the implementation of the protocol, the researchers noted a significant reduction in the rates of catheter use. In addition, they also found that the protocol led to a reduction in CAUTI rates.
Shadle et al. (2021) also conducted a study to determine the impact of using a CAUTI bundle to reduce CAUTI rates. In a quantitative study design, the researchers collected data using electronic health records. The analysis of the collected data also showed relevant results. For example, the researchers realized that during the study, no CAUTI cases or incidences were reported showing that the CAUTI bundle implemented was highly effective in preventing and controlling the CAUTI rates.
More recently, Pajerski et al. (2022) carried out research that explored the impact of using CAUTI bundles in controlling the rates of CAUTI. This study was conducted in a trauma brain injury rehabilitation unit. Upon the analysis of the data, the researchers noted that there was a reduction in the CAUTI rates when the CAUTI bundle care approach was implemented. Soundaram et al. (2020) also carried out research with the aim of exploring the impact of implementing a CAUTI bundle in the control and prevention of CAUTI rates and incidence. The researchers carried out the study in adult intensive care units. The analysis of the data showed that upon the use of the CAUTI bundles, the cases of CAUTI were observed to reduce significantly by sixty percent. As such, this is another study that shows the efficacy of using a CAUTI bundle in controlling and preventing CAUTI incidences and rates.
Another study was conducted by Ravi and Joshi (2018). This study was conducted with the major aim of exploring the efficacy of a CAUTI care bundle in lowering CAUTI rates. The researchers used a bundle care approach which included training and educating the nursing staff on how to appropriately use and manage the indwelling catheters. Upon the analysis of the data, the researchers also noted a significant reduction in the rates of CAUTI among admitted patients. Therefore, this is another study that shows the efficacy of using CAUTI bundles in the prevention and control of CAUTI.
Change Model or Framework
Change models play a crucial role in the implementation of evidence-based practice projects since they offer foundations upon which the project is implemented (Jayatilleke & Lai, 2018). As such, the selected change model for this project is Kurt Lewin’s change model. According to Lewin change occurs in three distinct faces, and there are two major forces involved in a change process, the driving and restraining forces. The driving forces are known to enhance the change process, while the restraining forces oppose the change. As such, the driving forces have to overcome the restraining forces for the change process to occur successfully.
The three phases include unfreezing, change, and refreezing. In the first phase, which is refreezing, the major activity is creating an urgent need for change by pointing out the evidence of why the change should urgently be undertaken (Hussain et al.,2018). Letting the stakeholders know that there is a need for change requires effective communication. The second phase, which is the change phase, is associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention, where the change implementers implement the initiatives to help solve the identified clinical issue. The third phase is known as refreezing. This stage entails using various efforts to ensure that the implemented change becomes part of the organization’s culture and supporting the staff to accept and sustain the change.
The stages of the model will be applied to implement the CAUTI bundles. In the unfreezing stage, the stakeholders will be alerted to the urgent need for change to help reduce the rates of CAUTI in the care setting. Appropriate communication channels will be used to inform the staff of the need to address the issue of rising CAUTI cases. The second phase, which is the change phase, will involve training the nursing staff on the proposed new bundle and how to use it. The process will then be followed by the implementation of the CAUTI bundle to help reduce the rates of CAUTI. Effective communication will also be key in this phase(Hussain et al.,2018). The last phase, which is the refreezing stage, will entail sustaining the implemented change and ensuring that the CAUTI bundle becomes part of the organization’s protocol for preventing CAUTI incidence.
Implementation is one of the most important phases of an EBP project cycle. Therefore, a conducive environment should be created to enhance the implementation process. It is also important to explore various aspects, such as the setting and how to access the potential subjects. As discussed earlier, this project involves using CAUTI bundles to reduce or lower the rates of CAUTI among patients using indwelling urinary catheters (Elkbuli et al.,2018). Therefore, the targeted setting for the project is the admission wards with patients who used indwelling urinary catheters. The patients to be considered are those who will be admitted to the admission units and using the indwelling catheters. The other targeted population is the nurses who offer nursing care to the patients in these settings. The data for evaluating the project will be obtained from electronic health records. Therefore, there will be no need to obtain informed consent. Nonetheless, the organization leaders will need to offer permission to allow the implementation process.
It is also important to consider a suitable timeline for the proposed project. A timeline acts as a guide to knowing when particular activities should be accomplished (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019). Therefore, a period of six months has been proposed for the project. It is hoped that this duration will be sufficient to cover various project phases such as project, initiation, literature review, project implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. This duration will also be used in obtaining project feedback from the stakeholders, such as indications of carrying out corrective measures to help solve various identified problems.
The Budget and Resource List
The success of a project heavily depends on the availability of needed resources; therefore, it is important to procure the necessary resources in time. There will be a need to train the staff on the use of the new CAUTI bundle. Therefore, both material and financial resources will be required to support such an education and training process (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019). Besides, additional resources will also be needed to help in the development of the CAUTI bundle protocol to be used in controlling and preventing the CAUTI rates. Human resources will also be required to help accomplish the project goals. The budget implication is that the project team will need to get sufficient resources that can help in training and educating the nursing staff, purchasing the training materials, hiring the educators, collecting data, data analysis, project monitoring, and well as outcome evaluation. It has been projected that the cost of the project will be $36,000, and the detailed budget and resource list have been included in the appendix.
The Study Design
A study design is important in guiding a project; therefore, it is important to choose various aspects of study design appropriately. As such, the design chosen for this project is the quantitative design which will be used in both data collection and analysis. This design has been chosen since the targeted project data is quantitative. Statistical tests will also be used as part of the project to analyze the project data, which further corroborates the use of the quantitative study design as compared to the qualitative study approach (Jolley, 2020). The quantitative study approach also supports easier data collection and analysis. The quantitative study approach is also relatively cheaper in comparison to the qualitative study design and approaches.
Methods and Instruments
Instruments and methods are a crucial part of the implementation plan, and they are important for various activities such as data collection, data analysis, and data evaluation. One of the instruments to be used in this project is the questionnaire. Questionnaires will be applied to test the nurse’s knowledge of CAUTI prevention and management. The nurses’ knowledge will be assessed before and after the education (Gunawan et al.,2021). The rationale for choosing questionnaires is that they are easier to use in collecting data. Another instrument is electronic health records which will be used to obtain the baseline data on CAUTI rates. The same instrument will also be used to obtain data on CAUTI incidences after the implementation of the proposed CAUTI bundle care.
The Process of Delivering the Intervention
The success of the implementation process hinges on the process of delivering the intervention. As part of the plan, the intervention will be delivered in various phases. In the initial phase, an assessment of the clinical setting is to be undertaken through a needs assessment approach to explore the nature of the needs (Grove & Gray, 2018). The assessment involves studying the CAUTI statistics within the organization, including the impacts and trends among patients admitted to the facility. The assessment also involves assessing the nurses’ levels of knowledge and awareness regarding CAUTI and control of CAUTI using CAUTI bundles. The process will be key in coming up with relevant strategies to use in the project. The next step will entail educating and training the nurses on the use of the proposed CAUTI bundles to help reduce the rates of CAUTI. The next step will then involve the implementation of the intervention, where the efficacy of the intervention will be tested. As part of the plan, the staff will be closely supervised for a considerable duration to ensure that they are correctly and adequately implementing the bundle elements. The next part involves collecting the data associated with the intervention and analyzing the data to determine the efficacy of the intervention in reducing the CAUTI rates.
The Stakeholders Required to Complete the Project
Stakeholders form a crucial part of the project. As such, it is crucial that they be identified in time so that they can be involved from the onset of the project (Lehane et al.,2018). Early involvement of stakeholders helps in limiting the chances of resistance. The following stakeholders have been identified; the chief executive officer, the nurse manager, the unit managers, the hospital finance officer, the nursing staff working in the admission wards, and the physicians. The hospital’s chief executive officer will give permission to accomplish the project in the organization. The nurse manager will play a critical role in coordinating the unit activities related to the project implementation. The unit managers will discharge duties related to each unit. The finance officer will also help with feasibility assessment, financial viability, and the best ways to acquire the needed resources. The nurses are at the forefront of the project and will help in the active implementation of the intervention. The physicians also take part in the treatment of the patients admitted to the wards and, therefore, will support the nursing team in implementing the proposed CAUTI bundle.
Potential Barriers or Challenges to The Plan
Implementing an evidence-based practice project may face various challenges or barriers which may need to be mitigated if the project implementation process is to be a success. The implication is that appropriate strategies should be formulated in time to help overcome the challenges or barriers. Among the potential challenges are potential difficulties in obtaining the resources needed, especially financial resources (Lehane et al.,2018). Project failure may be the result if sufficient funds are not obtained. Therefore, a solution should be explored. One of the solutions is writing funding proposals to potential sponsors or financiers. The other expected barrier or challenge is resistance by the leadership or the nursing staff. The nursing staff may offer resistance to the use of the proposed bundle since it may need more time. The resistance can be reduced by training the nurses to help them have a better understanding of the proposed initiative to reduce the chances of resistance.
Evaluation is one of the most important stages and the last stages of evidence-based practice project initiatives. As such, it is crucial to come up with an evaluation plan which can be applied in assessing the impact of the implemented intervention. This phase is also crucial in exploring how effective the strategies or methods used in the project have been (Dang et al.,2021). As part of the evaluation plan, it is important to explore the expected outcomes as far as the project is concerned. In the previous sections, it was indicated that the nursing staff would need training regarding the use of the proposed CAUTI bundle. Therefore, among the expected outcomes is improved nurse knowledge and skills in the use of CAUTI bundles to control the rates of CAUTI (Elkbuli et al.,2018). The next expected project outcome is the reduction in CAUTI rates. It is hoped that the implementation of the CAUTI bundle will lead to a reduction in CAUTI rates by at least 60%. Such a feat will be used as a reflection of the efficacy of the intervention. Another expected outcome is that the organization will adopt the CAUTI bundle protocol as a standard intervention for preventing and managing CAUTI in the organization. Such an expectation will be made easier by positive project outcomes.
The Data Collection Tools
Data collection tools are important in the project phases, especially the evaluation phase in obtaining project data to be used in evaluating the efficacy of the implemented intervention. One of the data collection tools is electronic health records. The electronic health records will be applied to obtain data on the rates of CAUTI after implementing the CAUTI bundle protocol. This data will then be compared with the baseline data which was obtained at the start of the project. Such a comparison will ventilate more on whether the intervention has been effective or not.
The next targeted tool is the questionnaires. The questionnaires will be used to assess the nurses’ skills and knowledge concerning the use of the CAUTI bundle to prevent and control CAUTI. The knowledge gained after education will be compared with the baseline knowledge to determine the efficacy of the education program. Questionnaires will also be used to assess the attitude of patients and nurses concerning the implementation of the new CAUTI bundle. Questionnaires will be appropriate as the project utilizes a quantitative design approach. The tool is also valid as they have been validated and shown to be effective in measuring knowledge (Yaddanapudi& Yaddanapudi, 2019). The tool is reliable since the same set of questions will be used
The Statistical Tests
Statistical tests are used in the data analysis process to help determine the efficacy of the intervention. The major thrust of this project is to compare the rates of CAUTI in the admission units before and after the implementation of a CAUTI bundle. Therefore, one of the most appropriate statistical tests to use in this case is paired t-test. The paired t-test has been chosen since it has been shown to be effective in measuring the variation between a set of paired samples. This project will focus on the pre and post-test rates scores and CAUTI rates. Therefore, the chosen statistical test will help in determining the significance of the considered set of scores. Mean will also be used, especially in the nurse knowledge scores regarding the use of CAUTI bundles to control the rates of CAUTI.
The Methods of Use and the Evaluation of the Outcomes
Methods and strategies used in the project may impact project outcomes; hence it is important to explore them. The questionnaire to be applied in the project, as part of the plan, is expected to have scaling questions, multiple-choice questions, and dichotomous questions. It is important to use different formats and approaches to questions since the project should determine various changes associated with the implemented initiative. Various validated scales will be used in formulating the scaling questions and use scales, such as 1 to 5. On the other hand, the dichotomous questions require the research subjects to either answer a yes or a no. It is important to use these kinds of questions for a complete evaluation of the project (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2022).
Strategies to Be Taken If the Outcomes Do Not Provide Positive Results.
Quality improvement projects and evidence-based practice projects are usually designed with the hope and aim of positive outcomes. Indeed, positive outcomes are usually achieved under normal circumstances (Linsely et al.,2019). It is important to note that in some cases, positive outcomes may not be the results observed. Hence the project team should always put measures in place that can be used as part of the mitigation process in the event that the results obtained are not positive. As part of the plan, among the strategies to be used in the event that the results are not positive is the do a reexamination of the implemented intervention. Reexamination can be vital in offering insights into particular or specific areas which might have led to the observed failure. Another expected strategy is the extension of the project timeline. Extending the project timeline can be necessary to help the project team identify areas of weakness, revise vital parts of the project and implement corrective measures to help in improving the chances of the project succeeding.
The Plans to Maintain, Extend, Revise, and Discontinue the Proposed Solution
An implemented evidence-based practice project can lead to various outcomes; in some cases, the outcomes can be desirable, while in other cases, the outcomes may not be desirable. Therefore, it is important to put in place an appropriate plan to maintain, extend, revise, or discontinue the implemented solution or initiative as part of the overall plan; the project will be maintained if the outcomes turn out to be as expected. In other words, the project will be maintained if the outcomes are positive and the implemented solution is positively affecting or impacting the patients.
As part of the plan, the project will also be maintained if it is cost-effective. Healthcare cost has recently become an important point in the healthcare environment as the costs have been going up. As such, any quality improvement projects or evidence-based practice projects should be cost-effective. Therefore, this project will not be different and will, therefore, be maintained if it is cost-effective. In some cases, the evaluation phase may produce or give results that are not conclusive. In such cases, there may be a need to get appropriate results that can be used in evaluating the project outcomes. Such cases require that the project be extended. Therefore, the project will be extended if the outcomes and inconclusive (Melnyk & Fine-Overholt, 2022). The major purpose of extending the project is to obtain appropriate additional data that can then be applied to determine the effectiveness of the project.
Under certain conditions, the project may need to be revised. A revision will be pursued if the strategies do not align with the project outcomes. The revision will be undertaken to get more time which can be used in adopting improvement interventions. Such improvement interventions will increase the chances of the project succeeding. As part of the plan, the project may also be discontinued under particular instances or circumstances. For example, discontinuation will occur in the case that the project causes harm to the patients and the staff. The solution will also be discontinued if it pauses a risk to the lives of the staff and the patients.
The adverse impacts of CAUTI have led to research efforts over the years to help control and prevent these infections. Therefore, various evidence-based interventions exist. However, it is worth noting that these evidence-based interventions have shown varied efficacy; in addition, the problem still persists in the patient care setting. As such, the proposed evidence-based approach or intervention is the use of a CAUTI bundle. As opposed to single interventions which can be applied to prevent and reduce the rates of CAUTI, a bundle-based care approach entails combining or integrating various interventions for better outcomes. Therefore, the bundle care approach chosen entails various activities that can have a synergistic effect of reducing CAUTI rates or preventing them. It is expected that the proposed evidence-based practice solution of using a CAUTI bundle will lead to a significant reduction in the number of patients acquiring CAUTI in hospital settings. The literature review performed showed that the use of CAUTI bundles in controlling the rates of CAUTI could largely be effective when appropriately applied. This write-up has also explored various aspects of the project, such as literature review, organizational culture and readiness for change, the change framework, project implementation, and project evaluation.
Cleary‐Holdforth, J., O’Mathúna, D., & Fineout‐Overholt, E. (2021). Evidence‐based practice beliefs, implementation, and organizational culture and readiness for EBP among nurses, midwives, educators, and students in the Republic of Ireland. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 18(6), 379-388. https://doi.org/10.1111/wvn.12543
Davies, P. E., Daley, M. J., Hecht, J., Hobbs, A., Burger, C., Watkins, L., … & Brown, C. V. (2018). Effectiveness of a bundled approach to reduce urinary catheters and infection rates in trauma patients. American Journal of Infection Control, 46(7), 758-763 ttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2017.11.032
Elkbuli, A., Miller, A., Boneva, D., Puyana, S., Bernal, E., Hai, S., & McKenney, M. (2018). Targeting catheter-associated urinary tract infections in a trauma population: a 5-S bundle preventive approach. Journal of Trauma Nursing| JTN, 25(6), 366–373. 10.1097/JTN.0000000000000403
Flores-Mireles, A., Hreha, T. N., & Hunstad, D. A. (2019). Pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 25(3), 228-240. https://doi.org/10.1310/sci2503-228
Grove, S. K., & Gray, J. R. (2018). Understanding nursing research e-book: Building an evidence-based practice. Elsevier health sciences.
Gunawan, J., Marzilli, C., & Aungsuroch, Y. (2021). Establishing an appropriate sample size for developing and validating a questionnaire in nursing research. Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(5), 356-360. https://doi.org/10.33546/bnj.1927
Hussain, S. T., Lei, S., Akram, T., Haider, M. J., Hussain, S. H., & Ali, M. (2018). Kurt Lewin’s change model: A critical review of the role of leadership and employee involvement in organizational change. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 3(3), 123-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2016.07.002
Jaul, E., Barron, J., Rosenzweig, J. P., & Menczel, J. (2018). An overview of co-morbidities and the development of pressure ulcers among older adults. BMC Geriatrics, 18(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-018-0997-7
Jayatilleke, S., & Lai, R. (2018). A systematic review of requirements changes management. Information and Software Technology, 93, 163-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infsof.2017.09.004
Jolley, J. (2020). Introducing Research and Evidence-Based Practice for Nursing and Healthcare Professionals. Routledge
Kranz, J., Schmidt, S., Wagenlehner, F., & Schneidewind, L. (2020). Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult patients: Preventive strategies and treatment options. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International, 117(6), 83. https://doi.org/10.3238%2Farztebl.2020.0083
Lehane, E., Leahy-Warren, P., O’Riordan, C., Savage, E., Drennan, J., O’Tuathaigh, C., … & Hegarty, J. (2018). Evidence-based practice education for healthcare professions: an expert view. BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjebm-2018-111019
Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2019). Evidence-based Practice in Nursing & Healthcare: A Guide to Best Practice. Wolters Kluwer.
Melnyk, B. M., Hsieh, A. P., & Mu, J. (2022). Psychometric properties of the Organizational Culture and Readiness Scale for System‐Wide Integration of Evidence‐Based Practice. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 19(5), 380-387. https://doi.org/10.1111/wvn.12603
Mundle, W., Howell-Belle, C., & Jeffs, L. (2020). Preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection: A multipronged collaborative approach. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 35(1), 83-87. Doi: 10.1097/NCQ.0000000000000418
Pajerski, D. M., Harlan, M. D., Ren, D., & Tuite, P. K. (2022). A clinical nurse specialist–led initiative to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates using a best practice guideline. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 36(1), 20-28. Doi: 10.1097/NUR.0000000000000643.
Ravi, P. R., & Joshi, M. C. (2018). Role of “bladder care bundle” and “infection control nurse” in reducing catheter-associated urinary tract infection in a peripheral hospital. Journal of Marine Medical Society, 20(2), 116. Doi: 10.4103/jmms.jmms_8_18
Reynolds, S. S., Sova, C. D., Lewis, S. S., Smith, B. A., Wrenn, R. H., Turner, N. A., & Advani, S. D. (2022). Sustained reduction in catheter-associated urinary tract infections using multifaceted strategies led by champions: a quality improvement initiative. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 43(7), 925-929. https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2021.135
Shadle, H. N., Sabol, V., Smith, A., Stafford, H., Thompson, J. A., & Bowers, M. (2021). A bundle-based approach to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infections in the intensive care unit. Critical Care Nurse, 41(2), 62-71.https://doi.org/10.4037/ccn2021934
Soundaram, G. V., Sundaramurthy, R., Jeyashree, K., Ganesan, V., Arunagiri, R., & Charles, J. (2020). Impact of care bundle implementation on the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection: A comparative study in intensive care units of a tertiary care teaching hospital in South India. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine: Peer-reviewed, Official Publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine, 24(7), 544. https://doi.org/10.5005%2Fjp-journals-10071-23473
Sultan, M. A., Ahmed, H., & Kandeel, N. A. (2022). The Effect of Implementing CAUTIs Bundle on Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections among Critically Ill Patients. Mansoura Nursing Journal, 9(1), 141-153. https://mnj.journals.ekb.eg/article_259013_7bf12c0832ee68848bd1ddcedfa1e4f7.pdf
Tyson, A. F., Campbell, E. F., Spangler, L. R., Ross, S. W., Reinke, C. E., Passaretti, C. L., & Sing, R. F. (2020). Implementation of a nurse-driven protocol for catheter removal to decrease catheter-associated urinary tract infection rate in a surgical trauma ICU. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, 35(8), 738-744. https://doi.org/10.1177/0885066618781304
Yaddanapudi, S., & Yaddanapudi, L. N. (2019). How to design a questionnaire. Indian Journal of Anesthesia, 63(5), 335–337. https://doi.org/10.4103/ija.IJA_334_19
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.