NURS 8114 Using the Individual Evidence Summary Tool template document

NURS 8114 Module 4 Assignment: Investigating a Critical Practice Question Through a Literature Review

NURS 8114 Using the Individual Evidence Summary Tool template document

Part 2: Critical Practice Question Research By means of a Literature Review
Important in nursing and healthcare is the promotion of safety, quality, and efficiency in nursing. Nurses play a crucial role in the promotion of health and the implementation of interventions that treat the difficulties of a variety of health issues. In recent years, an increase in noncommunicable diseases has been observed in the majority of states. Diseases such as diabetes have placed a substantial load on the public healthcare systems of the world. The nurses are tasked with adopting diabetes-relieving measures supported by scientific data. In addition, they collaborate with other healthcare professionals to ensure that patients with diabetes receive the best possible treatment. Consequently, the objective of this research is to examine the available literature on the nursing interventions that might be used to lower the occurrence of problems associated with diabetes. The article also examines diabetes-related statistics in the United States of America.
Diabetes is one of the current public health issues in the United States. Existing data on the prevalence of the disease in the population are worrying. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around 34,2 million Americans had diabetes in 2018. The disease impacted approximately 10.5% of the population. 34.1 million of the aforementioned population consisted primarily of people older than 18 years old. Diabetes knowledge is low in the United States, as indicated by the fact that 7.3 million persons are unaware of their diabetes status. Trends in the prevalence of diabetes indicate an increase. For example, estimates of the prevalence of diabetes were 9.5% between 1999 and 2002 and 12.0% between 2013 and 2016. In 2018, the incidence rate of diabetes was reported to be 6.9 per 1000 persons, with a significant prevalence among adults aged 45 to 54 years. The highest incidence rate was among non-Hispanic blacks (8.2 per 1000 individuals), followed by those of Hispanic ancestry (9.7 per 1000 individuals) and non-Hispanic whites (5.0 per 1000 individuals) (CDC, 2020). In the United States, diabetes is associated with significant hardship. Initially, diabetes increases hospitalizations and hospital visits. According to CDC data, 16 million visits to emergency departments in 2016 were attributable to diabetes in persons aged 18 and older. Included among the primary causes of diabetes were 35 000 cases of hypoglycemia and 224 000 cases of hyperglycemia. Patients with diabetes are additionally predisposed to problems such as renal disease, eyesight loss, and diabetic foot. Existing figures indicate that between 2013 and 2016, 37.0% of patients with diabetes suffered from chronic kidney disease, with 24.9% impacted by moderate to severe chronic disease. In 2018, the rate of vision impairment related to diabetes was likewise found to be 11.7%. The mortality risk associated with diabetes is very substantial. In 2017, diabetes rated as the seventh biggest cause of mortality in the United States. In the United States, diabetes management is also expensive. In 2017, indirect and direct costs in the United States totaled $327 billion. In 2017, the per-person cost of diabetes treatment grew dramatically from $8,417 to $9,601 (ADA, 2021; CDC, 2020). Diabetes is a serious public health issue that should be addressed in the United States in order to promote public health and well-being.

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An Analysis of Nursing Interventions

The rising incidence of diabetes in the United States and worldwide has raised the need for nurses to have an active role in the prevention and management of diabetes-related complications. Therefore, nurses implement a variety of interventions to lower the risk of and prevent diabetic complications. Existing research demonstrates that nurses play a variety of roles in aiding the proper management and prevention of diabetes-related complications. In the majority of published works, the most prominent function of nurses is patient education. Traditional nursing tasks include educating patients and vulnerable populations about the causes, risk

NURS 8114 Using the Individual Evidence Summary Tool template document
NURS 8114 Using the Individual Evidence Summary Tool template document

factors, prevention, and management of diabetes. Population knowledge of the condition and its detrimental consequences on health has been the primary objective of the education. Patients and groups at risk are empowered by health education to adopt a healthy lifestyle and behavioral interventions to decrease and avoid diabetes-related problems (Daly et al., 2017). In recent years, the number of studies comparing the efficacy of nurse-led interventions to standard care for improving diabetes treatment results and reducing complications has increased significantly. According to Daly et al. (2017), nurse-led interventions are largely concerned with educating patients via face-to-face or virtual interventions via electronic modes of contact, including the telephone. The purpose of nurse-led interventions is to address one or more of the principal risk factors associated with complications of diabetes, monitor blood tests, promote medication adherence, assist patients in adopting healthy lifestyles, and titrate dosages. Due to its efficacy, nurses might use nurse-led treatments to reduce problems. For instance, Daly et al. (2017) found that nurse-led interventions contributed to significant decreases in serum triglyceride and HbA1c levels, as well as smoking cessation among diabetic patients. In this study, Coppell et al. (2017) demonstrate the significance of nurse-led interventions in reducing diabetic complications. Researchers examined the efficacy of a nursing-led nutrition intervention in preventing the advancement of pre-diabetes and diabetic complications. Compared to the control group, the intervention resulted in a 1,3-kilogram reduction in body weight in the intervention group. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the patients’ waist circumference and waist circumference, which translated to a fall in the risk for problems (Coppell et al., 2017). Therefore, nurses can apply nutritional treatments to decrease and prevent diabetes-related problems. Additionally, nurses can lead the adoption of self-management programs to reduce and prevent complications in diabetic patients. Patients with diabetes need rigorous and ongoing self-management and medical care to achieve optimal treatment outcomes (Ajibade Olapeju & Salawu Rasidi, 2020). Patients with diabetes must be provided with self-care management interventions in order to provide them with the necessary knowledge and skills to prevent and delay complications. Education about self-management is also essential for the development of the competences that will enable patients to reinforce and retain the essential coping skills for the prevention of problems (Subramanian et al., 2020). Therefore, self-management strategies led by nurses should be used to improve treatment outcomes and reduce complications in diabetic patients. Diabetes problems can be prevented by self-management education delivered by nurses, according to a number of studies. Azami et al. (2018) found that nurse-led education on diabetes self-management was linked with a significant improvement in blood pressure, HbA1c, body weight, efficacy expectation, and adoption of diabetes self-management behaviors. The research conducted by Nayeri et al. (2020) shown that nurse-led education on self-management improved both the quality of care and HbA1c levels. The improvements resulted in a considerable decrease in the disease burden among patients with diabetic foot. Ajibade Olapeju and Salawu Rasadi (2020) found that nurse-led interventions on self-management were associated with improvements in self-monitoring of blood glucose and foot care knowledge and skills. Researchers Subramanian et al. (2020) found that nurse-led interventions on self-management improved self-efficacy, fasting blood sugar levels, and post-prandial blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes. The predicted prevention and reduction in the danger and frequency of problems in diabetes individuals was the result. Additionally, nurses can collaborate with other healthcare professionals to prevent and reduce the risk of complications in diabetic patients. Consequently, nurses can collaborate with other healthcare professionals such as physicians, nutritionists, and counselors to give diabetes patients with effective, quality, and safe care (Saint-Pierre et al., 2018). Together with nutritionists, nurses can educate and encourage diabetic patients to adopt dietary modifications that reduce the risk of complications. They can also collaborate with physical activity specialists to help patients engage in exercises that prevent the progression and development of diabetes problems (Szafran et al., 2019). In diabetes management, multidisciplinary teams have been demonstrated to optimize care outcomes. Multidisciplinary teams also ensure the exploration of health-promoting therapies that are appropriate for the patient. The study by Ru et al., (2021), shown that a doctor-nurse collaboration approach was highly beneficial at preventing and lowering the risk of complications in diabetes patients. Among diabetic patients with diabetic foot and renal failure, the implementation of the doctor-nurse collaboration approach led to improvements in patient comfort, incidence of complications, and length of hospital stay (Ru et al., 2021). Wan et al. (2018) further demonstrated the significance of multidisciplinary teams in the prevention and reduction of problems. Greater reductions in the risk and rate of cardiovascular disease, microvascular complications, and mortality were associated with the adoption of a multidisciplinary risk assessment and management approach. Reductions in the rate of specialist visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations in people with diabetes indicate that there were also decreases in the cost of diabetes management. Therefore, nurses can use interdisciplinary interventions to decrease and prevent diabetes-related problems. Additionally, nurses can lower the risk of complications in diabetes by implementing interventions that promote the psychological health and well-being of patients. Patients with diabetes are extremely susceptible to non-specific emotional discomfort, which has a negative impact on their quality of life and health outcomes (Kalra et al., 2018). Emotional discomfort also generates diabetic distress, which is defined by hidden anxieties, frustrations, and worries, which patients with diabetes face on a daily basis while managing and living with diabetes. Diabetes distress predisposes patients to problems due to inadequate glucose control and low adherence to lifestyle and behavioral therapies that limit and prevent disease development (Schmidt et al., 2018; Vileikyte et al., 2020). Psychosocial therapies are useful in preventing and reducing the risk of complications in diabetic patients, according to the available evidence. Schmidt et al. (2018) found in their comprehensive review that psychological therapies are beneficial in reducing both diabetes distress and Hba1c levels. Reportedly, the changes also increased patients’ participation in self-management interventions to lower the risk of diabetic complications. Whitehead et al. (2017) revealed similar findings in their research where the use of nurse-led cognitive behavioral therapy in diabetes was connected with a reduction in HbA1c levels as well as an improvement in the quality of life for diabetic patients. Additional benefits of psychological therapies include a reduction in the risk for depression, premature death, and poor medication adherence, all of which can raise the risk of complications in diabetes (Vileikyte et al., 2020). Therefore, nurses should investigate the use of psychological therapies in diabetic patients to enhance treatment outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.


In conclusion, diabetes is one of the most pressing public health challenges not just in America but also in the United States. Diabetes is connected with negative health outcomes, including problems that diminish patients’ overall quality of life. Diabetes also raises the cost of care, as indicated by a rise in hospital visits, hospitalization, and emergency room utilization. In reducing problems connected with diabetes, nurses perform crucial responsibilities. The nurses utilize measures supported by scientific data to prevent and reduce the risk of complications in diabetic patients. This analysis has therefore indicated the severity of the diabetes problem and nurse measures that can be implemented to avert complications.