NURS 8200 Post your research question. Describe the independent and dependent variables

NURS 8200 Post your research question. Describe the independent and dependent variables

NURS 8200 Discussion 1: Levels of Measurement


Polit reports that a variable is an amount, quantity or number that can vary as well as change (2020). It is to some degree, that the variable will fluctuate to take on different values and can be characterized in several methods (2010). In my opinion, the variable is critical in research, because it is utilized to look at change or affect in the investigation (Gray, Grove, and Sutherland, 2017). With that being said, variables can dependent or independent and it can be described as manipulated, and controlled (2020).

Independent variables are something that can be manipulated in a research study. It is checking to see if you make changes to the study will it have the same/different effect. (Cherry 2020). For example, if you are doing a medication study giving a high dose, low dose, and placebo, you are manipulating the outcome of the study because you are controlling the outcome. A dependent variable is something that is being tested in a study, the dependent variable would be measuring blood pressures against medication use, the dependent would be blood pressure results. (Cherry 2022) The dependent and independent variable works together for example the independent would be the amount of blood pressure medications given to the person and the dependent is blood pressure results. The change comes with the manipulated variable if the patient receives a high dose of blood pressure meds the blood pressure will be lower compared to not receiving any and having no change.

The extraneous variable is any variable that is not being tested but it can affect the outcome of the study, it is uncontrolled and can lead to not valid results. (Zach 2020) for example like the other example blood pressure meds and results of blood measure, the extraneous variable would be if the participants are diets and exercising that can affect the results or if the patient is consuming extra salt, you didn’t plan on including that in your research, but it can change results if these things are happening. To controlled extraneous variables, you must know what type of study is being done. One method is random sampling which you will divide up the controlled group and experimental group by doing a random name draw. They can also do the standardized procedure which can basically equal out the environment for everyone. For example, with the blood pressure and medication study, the participants can either start diets and exercising or that can make another controlled group.

Describe the independent and dependent variables.

There is a relationship between independent and dependent variable (McCrindle, 2010). To that end, an independent variable is a factor that has an impact on the dependent variable (2020).  As a Doctor of Nursing Practice Student, I would utilized an independent variable in my research to manipulate it to evaluate the dependent variable for change. McCrindle (2010), describes the independent variables as factors for which a connection with the dependent variables is desired. These variables can include subject features and interventions, but sometimes there results may be predictive of other outcomes. With that in mind, the research question should define the primary independent variable, which is commonly a specific treatment (2017). The independent variable is the one the experimenter controls.

The dependent variable is the variable that changes in response to the independent variable. The two variables may be related by cause and effect. The dependent variable is the variable a researcher is interested in (2017). The changes to the dependent variable are what the researcher is trying to measure (2010). As a beginner of this journey of research, it is easier for me to identify dependent variables as the outcome or results (2010).

Post Your Research Question

What standard of practices can Intensive Care Nurses implement to reduce the incidence of delirium in the critically ill patients?

P: Intensive Care Nurses

I: Implementation of an ICU Delirium education program for ICU nurses

C: N/A

O: Decrease the incidence of delirium in the critically ill patients.

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: NURS 8200 Post your research question. Describe the independent and dependent variables

Dependent Variable

The ICU nurses have access to screen delirium with the use of The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (Ely, Shintani, Truman, 2004). These screening processes are diagnostic algorithm derived from DSM-III-R criteria for delirium that has been validated against a psychiatrist’s diagnosis (2004). The CAM diagnostic algorithm involves four criteria: 1) an acute change in mental status with a fluctuating course, 2) inattention, 3) disorganized thinking, and 4) an altered level of consciousness. The RASS is a well validated and highly reliable 10-point scale with scores from +1 to +4 assigned for levels of agitation through combativeness, 0 assigned for alert and calm state, and –1 to –5 assigned for successive levels of depressed arousal or coma (2004). Monitoring for delirium with the CAM-ICU, which is easily incorporated by nurses into the daily work routine and takes only 1 to 2 minutes. The use of these tools could allow the medical team to consider causes and modifications in their treatment of the patient experiencing this organ dysfunction (2004).

Independent Variables

In this case, delirium is the independent variable and it will be measured using a well validated and highly reliable instrument called the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). The results of the CAM-ICU assessment yield a positive outcome if patients demonstrated an acute change or fluctuation in the course of their mental status (as determined by abnormalities or fluctuations in the RASS scores), plus inattention and either disorganized thinking or an altered level of consciousness (2004).

Analyzing Statistical data

According to Boslaugh, a variable has one of four different levels of measurement that includes Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, or Ratio (2021). Interval and Ratio levels of measurement are sometimes called Continuous or Scale (Laureate Education, 2016).  Boslaugh points out that it is important for the researcher to understand the different levels of measurement, as these levels of measurement, together with how the research question is phrased, dictate what statistical analysis is appropriate (2021). It is vital to keep in mind that every system of measurement has its flaws, researchers often use several approaches to measure the same thing (2021).


Boslaugh, S., (2021). Basic Concepts of Measurement. Retrieved From

Ely E.W, Shintani A, Truman B, et al. (2004). Delirium as a Predictor of Mortality in Mechanically Ventilated Patients in the Intensive Care Unit. JAMA. 291 (14):1753–1762. doi:10.1001/jama.291.14.1753

Gray, J.R., Grove, S.K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2016). Descriptive statistics [Video File]. Baltimore, MD: Author. Retrieved from

McCrindle, B.W., (2010). Description and Analysis of Data and Critical Appraisal of the Literature. Third Edition. Retrieved From

Polit, D. (2010). Statistics and data analysis for nursing research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.


A dependent variable is a variable whose value depends on the value of one or more other variables (the independent variables). In other words, the dependent variable is a function of the independent variables (Diel et al., 2021). For example, in the study, levels of depression, fatigue, aerobic endurance, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) among patients with cancer (the dependent variable) depended on the level of participation in a 12-session exercise program (independent variable).

From the study, A 12-session cancer rehabilitation exercise program was found to result in significant improvements in self-reported physical and psychological functioning, including vitality, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. The study also showed a decrease in IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP levels (indicators of inflammation) (Smith & Broomhall, 2016). The results of this study suggest that a 12-session cancer rehabilitation exercise program is an effective intervention for improving the self-reported physical and psychological functioning of cancer patients. It is important to note that the results of this study are correlational; therefore, it cannot be determined whether the improvements in self-reported physical and psychological functioning were due to the exercise program or some other factor.

From the study, the independent variable is the level of participation in a 12-session exercise program while the dependent variables include levels of depression, fatigue, aerobic endurance, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) among patients with cancer. The level of measurement is a way of classifying data according to the type of information they represent. There are three levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, and interval/ratio. From the above case, the dependent variable is ordinal while the independent variable is nominal. For the independent variable, the measurement was done during a 6- to 10-week exercise program that occurred twice weekly (Smith & Broomhall, 2016). In particular, the six-minute walk test was conducted using the track in the exercise room; each lap was 90 feet. For the dependent variable, aerobic endurance was measured with the six-minute walk test (Smith & Broomhall, 2016). On the other hand, Muscular strength was measured with the hand grip strength test and muscular endurance with the 30-second sit-and-stand test while depression was measured using PHQ-9 scale.

In conclusion, from the study, the independent variable had significant impacts on the dependent variables. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that participating in a 12-session exercise program will improve depression, fatigue, aerobic endurance, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cancer.


Diel, A., Weigelt, S., & MacDorman, K. F. (2021). A Meta-analysis of the Uncanny Valley’s Independent and Dependent Variables. ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction (THRI)11(1), 1-33.

Smith, T. M., & Broomhall, C. N. (2016). Physical and psychological effects of a 12-session cancer rehabilitation exercise program. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing20(6), 653.