NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics

NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics

Post a cohesive response that addresses the following:

  • Identify the emerging or reemerging infectious disease you selected.
  • Discuss the investigative process used to identify the outbreak, and describe its effect using descriptive epidemiology (person, place, and time).
  • Apply the epidemiologic triangle and vector theory to your selected outbreak.
  • Evaluate how prior health care interventions, or lack thereof, created the conditions that allowed this infectious disease to emerge.
  • Discuss how the disease outbreak might have been avoided or mitigated. Include agencies, organizations, and resources that could have supported these efforts. If appropriate, consider ongoing efforts to control the outbreak.

Examining Pandemics and Epidemics

I chose the Ebola virus as the selected emerging or reemerging infectious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) designated the EVD outbreak in West Africa a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on August 8, 2014, highlighting the need for international attention and collaboration to manage the epidemic (‌Kaur et al., 2017). Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the world’s deadliest viruses, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2019). In 1976, scientists discovered two successive outbreaks of the most virulent pathogens among viral hemorrhagic fevers that primarily affect developing countries, with case fatality rates as high as 90% due to multiorgan failure and severe bleeding implications in two different locations in central Africa (‌Kaur et al., 2017).

The epidemics were ultimately caused by two genetically different viruses: the Zaire ebolavirus and the Sudan ebolavirus. The first was discovered in a village near the Ebola River in the African country of Zaire (the current Democratic Republic of Congo). A similar one wa

NURS 8310 Discussion Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics

NURS 8310 Discussion Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics

s detected 500 miles away in South Sudan; nevertheless, the disease did not have enough impact to be classified as an epidemic until it emerged in Guinea in 2014. Of the documented 28,600 cases, 11,325 people died due to the illness (Dudas et al.,2017). In Guinea, the first incidence of re-emergence was recorded in December 2013 (Dudas et al.,2017). The epidemic swiftly spread to Liberia’s and Sierra Leone’s capitals. Nigeria, Mali, Senegal, and the United States are just a handful of the countries where this has happened. With its rapid growth in 2014, Ebola was declared an epidemic in West Africa on August 8, 2014, with consequences lasting into 2016 (CDC, 2019).

The Ebola virus was initially linked to the death of a two-year-old boy in December 2013 (Marí Saéz et al.,2015; Gostin et al., 2014). The youngster is thought to be the first victim. The incident occurred in the hamlet of Meliandou in Guinea’s southern province. The virus then spread to the rest of the family, who died after exhibiting symptoms identical to the two-year-old boy. The nurses who responded to the first cases are suspected of using infected syringes and needles, which helped spread the disease northwards to the capital city and then to Liberia. The consequences were disastrous, with daily infections ranging from 300 to 600. (CDC, 2019; Gostin et al., 2014). Human-to-human transmission continues as well. A scientist traced the virus from the Philippines, who realized it was the Ebola virus identified through a study conducted on Monkey. The research was carried out in Ivory Coast, which was safe at the time. Around 10,000 people had been affected when the disease was discovered, with roughly half of them dead.

In terms of the epidemiologic triangle (agent, host, and environment), the agent that causes the Ebola virus is the Reston type of virus that survives in the host body until the host dies. The second stage of the triangle is the host. Bats can be hosts to infections pathogenic to mammals, such as the Ebola virus. The host of the Ebola virus is humans and primates like Monkeys. These two are the primary hosts. However, Fruit bats are also hosts of the virus that are not affected by the agent. They are considered natural reservoirs of the Ebola Virus (Marí Saéz et al.,2015). The final section of the triangle is where the virus or agent has the best chance of surviving. The high environment and the forest, which generated the high humidity, provide a good atmosphere for the Ebola Virus. The Ebola Virus thrived throughout the wet season. According to vector theory, fruit bats are the vector that spreads the disease, and Fruit bats spread the virus to human hosts.

The use of infected needles by the initial batch of nurses attempting to limit the spread of Ebola was the key prior intervention that contributed to the disease’s spread. Yambuku hospital nurses used contaminated needles, resulting in 600 patients becoming infected (CDC, 2019; Ilunga Kalenga et al.,2019). Aside from poor nursing practices, individuals were unaware that human-to-human transmission occurred via contact. The disease spread Because there were no quarantine procedures in place. Finally, the handling of remains during burial was decreased, allowing the illness to spread even further.

A new epidemic of the disease was averted when the afflicted nations’ Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), devised plans to prevent further spread. Some restrictions include masks and personal protective equipment to prevent people from being infected when interacting with others. The World Health Organization even offered to fund to acquire these items (Ilunga Kalenga et al.,2019). A village without cases was likewise protected by barring individuals from accessing them. Finally, residents near the forest were urged to prevent contact with fruit bats and other primates.

References

CDC. (2019). History of Ebola Virus Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/history/summaries.html

Dudas, G., Carvalho, L. M., Bedford, T., Tatem, A. J., Baele, G., Faria, N. R., Park, D. J.,

Ladner, J. T., Arias, A., Asogun, D., Bielejec, F., Caddy, S. L., Cotten, M., D’Ambrozio, J., Dellicour, S., Di Caro, A., Diclaro, J. W., Duraffour, S., Elmore, M. J., Fakoli, L. S., … Rambaut, A. (2017). Virus genomes reveal factors that spread and sustained the Ebola epidemic. Nature544(7650), 309–315. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22040

Gostin, L. O., Lucey, D., & Phelan, A. (2014). The Ebola epidemic: a global health

emergency. JAMA312(11), 1095–1096. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.11176

Ilunga Kalenga, O., Moeti, M., Sparrow, A., Nguyen, V. K., Lucey, D., & Ghebreyesus, T. A.

(2019). The Ongoing Ebola Epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2018-2019. The New England Journal of Medicine381(4), 373–383. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsr1904253

Kaur, G., Sachdeva, S., Jha, D., & Sulania, A. (2017). Ebola virus disease in the light of

epidemiological triad. Tropical Journal of Medical Research20(1), 1. https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A477728784/HRCA?u=anon~3e04ad90&sid=googleScholar&xid=7f2e0ed5

Marí Saéz, A., Weiss, S., Nowak, K., Lapeyre, V., Zimmermann, F., Düx, A., Kühl, H. S., Kaba,

M., Regnaut, S., Merkel, K., Sachse, A., Thiesen, U., Villányi, L., Boesch, C., Dabrowski, P. W., Radonić, A., Nitsche, A., Leendertz, S. A., Petterson, S., Becker, S., … Leendertz, F. H. (2015). Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic. EMBO molecular medicine7(1), 17–23. https://doi.org/10.15252/emmm.201404792

 

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Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

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Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource