NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics

NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics

Walden University NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics-Step-By-Step Guide


This guide will demonstrate how to complete the Walden University NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics  assignment based on general principles of academic writing. Here, we will show you the A, B, Cs of completing an academic paper, irrespective of the instructions. After guiding you through what to do, the guide will leave one or two sample essays at the end to highlight the various sections discussed below.


How to Research and Prepare for NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics  


Whether one passes or fails an academic assignment such as the Walden University NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics depends on the preparation done beforehand. The first thing to do once you receive an assignment is to quickly skim through the requirements. Once that is done, start going through the instructions one by one to clearly understand what the instructor wants. The most important thing here is to understand the required format—whether it is APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.


After understanding the requirements of the paper, the next phase is to gather relevant materials. The first place to start the research process is the weekly resources. Go through the resources provided in the instructions to determine which ones fit the assignment. After reviewing the provided resources, use the university library to search for additional resources. After gathering sufficient and necessary resources, you are now ready to start drafting your paper.


How to Write the Introduction for NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics  

The introduction for the Walden University NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics  is where you tell the instructor what your paper will encompass. In three to four statements, highlight the important points that will form the basis of your paper. Here, you can include statistics to show the importance of the topic you will be discussing. At the end of the introduction, write a clear purpose statement outlining what exactly will be contained in the paper. This statement will start with “The purpose of this paper…” and then proceed to outline the various sections of the instructions.


How to Write the Body for NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics  


After the introduction, move into the main part of the NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics  assignment, which is the body. Given that the paper you will be writing is not experimental, the way you organize the headings and subheadings of your paper is critically important. In some cases, you might have to use more subheadings to properly organize the assignment. The organization will depend on the rubric provided. Carefully examine the rubric, as it will contain all the detailed requirements of the assignment. Sometimes, the rubric will have information that the normal instructions lack.


Another important factor to consider at this point is how to do citations. In-text citations are fundamental as they support the arguments and points you make in the paper. At this point, the resources gathered at the beginning will come in handy. Integrating the ideas of the authors with your own will ensure that you produce a comprehensive paper. Also, follow the given citation format. In most cases, APA 7 is the preferred format for nursing assignments.


How to Write the Conclusion for NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics  


After completing the main sections, write the conclusion of your paper. The conclusion is a summary of the main points you made in your paper. However, you need to rewrite the points and not simply copy and paste them. By restating the points from each subheading, you will provide a nuanced overview of the assignment to the reader.


How to Format the References List for NURS 8310 Discussion: Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics  


The very last part of your paper involves listing the sources used in your paper. These sources should be listed in alphabetical order and double-spaced. Additionally, use a hanging indent for each source that appears in this list. Lastly, only the sources cited within the body of the paper should appear here.

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Post a cohesive response that addresses the following:

  • Identify the emerging or reemerging infectious disease you selected.
  • Discuss the investigative process used to identify the outbreak, and describe its effect using descriptive epidemiology (person, place, and time).
  • Apply the epidemiologic triangle and vector theory to your selected outbreak.
  • Evaluate how prior health care interventions, or lack thereof, created the conditions that allowed this infectious disease to emerge.
  • Discuss how the disease outbreak might have been avoided or mitigated. Include agencies, organizations, and resources that could have supported these efforts. If appropriate, consider ongoing efforts to control the outbreak.

Examining Pandemics and Epidemics

I chose the Ebola virus as the selected emerging or reemerging infectious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) designated the EVD outbreak in West Africa a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on August 8, 2014, highlighting the need for international attention and collaboration to manage the epidemic (‌Kaur et al., 2017). Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the world’s deadliest viruses, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2019). In 1976, scientists discovered two successive outbreaks of the most virulent pathogens among viral hemorrhagic fevers that primarily affect developing countries, with case fatality rates as high as 90% due to multiorgan failure and severe bleeding implications in two different locations in central Africa (‌Kaur et al., 2017).

The epidemics were ultimately caused by two genetically different viruses: the Zaire ebolavirus and the Sudan ebolavirus. The first was discovered in a village near the Ebola River in the African country of Zaire (the current Democratic Republic of Congo). A similar one wa

NURS 8310 Discussion Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics
NURS 8310 Discussion Investigating Pandemics and Epidemics

s detected 500 miles away in South Sudan; nevertheless, the disease did not have enough impact to be classified as an epidemic until it emerged in Guinea in 2014. Of the documented 28,600 cases, 11,325 people died due to the illness (Dudas et al.,2017). In Guinea, the first incidence of re-emergence was recorded in December 2013 (Dudas et al.,2017). The epidemic swiftly spread to Liberia’s and Sierra Leone’s capitals. Nigeria, Mali, Senegal, and the United States are just a handful of the countries where this has happened. With its rapid growth in 2014, Ebola was declared an epidemic in West Africa on August 8, 2014, with consequences lasting into 2016 (CDC, 2019).

The Ebola virus was initially linked to the death of a two-year-old boy in December 2013 (Marí Saéz et al.,2015; Gostin et al., 2014). The youngster is thought to be the first victim. The incident occurred in the hamlet of Meliandou in Guinea’s southern province. The virus then spread to the rest of the family, who died after exhibiting symptoms identical to the two-year-old boy. The nurses who responded to the first cases are suspected of using infected syringes and needles, which helped spread the disease northwards to the capital city and then to Liberia. The consequences were disastrous, with daily infections ranging from 300 to 600. (CDC, 2019; Gostin et al., 2014). Human-to-human transmission continues as well. A scientist traced the virus from the Philippines, who realized it was the Ebola virus identified through a study conducted on Monkey. The research was carried out in Ivory Coast, which was safe at the time. Around 10,000 people had been affected when the disease was discovered, with roughly half of them dead.

In terms of the epidemiologic triangle (agent, host, and environment), the agent that causes the Ebola virus is the Reston type of virus that survives in the host body until the host dies. The second stage of the triangle is the host. Bats can be hosts to infections pathogenic to mammals, such as the Ebola virus. The host of the Ebola virus is humans and primates like Monkeys. These two are the primary hosts. However, Fruit bats are also hosts of the virus that are not affected by the agent. They are considered natural reservoirs of the Ebola Virus (Marí Saéz et al.,2015). The final section of the triangle is where the virus or agent has the best chance of surviving. The high environment and the forest, which generated the high humidity, provide a good atmosphere for the Ebola Virus. The Ebola Virus thrived throughout the wet season. According to vector theory, fruit bats are the vector that spreads the disease, and Fruit bats spread the virus to human hosts.

The use of infected needles by the initial batch of nurses attempting to limit the spread of Ebola was the key prior intervention that contributed to the disease’s spread. Yambuku hospital nurses used contaminated needles, resulting in 600 patients becoming infected (CDC, 2019; Ilunga Kalenga et al.,2019). Aside from poor nursing practices, individuals were unaware that human-to-human transmission occurred via contact. The disease spread Because there were no quarantine procedures in place. Finally, the handling of remains during burial was decreased, allowing the illness to spread even further.

A new epidemic of the disease was averted when the afflicted nations’ Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), devised plans to prevent further spread. Some restrictions include masks and personal protective equipment to prevent people from being infected when interacting with others. The World Health Organization even offered to fund to acquire these items (Ilunga Kalenga et al.,2019). A village without cases was likewise protected by barring individuals from accessing them. Finally, residents near the forest were urged to prevent contact with fruit bats and other primates.


CDC. (2019). History of Ebola Virus Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Dudas, G., Carvalho, L. M., Bedford, T., Tatem, A. J., Baele, G., Faria, N. R., Park, D. J.,

Ladner, J. T., Arias, A., Asogun, D., Bielejec, F., Caddy, S. L., Cotten, M., D’Ambrozio, J., Dellicour, S., Di Caro, A., Diclaro, J. W., Duraffour, S., Elmore, M. J., Fakoli, L. S., … Rambaut, A. (2017). Virus genomes reveal factors that spread and sustained the Ebola epidemic. Nature544(7650), 309–315.

Gostin, L. O., Lucey, D., & Phelan, A. (2014). The Ebola epidemic: a global health

emergency. JAMA312(11), 1095–1096.

Ilunga Kalenga, O., Moeti, M., Sparrow, A., Nguyen, V. K., Lucey, D., & Ghebreyesus, T. A.

(2019). The Ongoing Ebola Epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2018-2019. The New England Journal of Medicine381(4), 373–383.

Kaur, G., Sachdeva, S., Jha, D., & Sulania, A. (2017). Ebola virus disease in the light of

epidemiological triad. Tropical Journal of Medical Research20(1), 1.

Marí Saéz, A., Weiss, S., Nowak, K., Lapeyre, V., Zimmermann, F., Düx, A., Kühl, H. S., Kaba,

M., Regnaut, S., Merkel, K., Sachse, A., Thiesen, U., Villányi, L., Boesch, C., Dabrowski, P. W., Radonić, A., Nitsche, A., Leendertz, S. A., Petterson, S., Becker, S., … Leendertz, F. H. (2015). Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic. EMBO molecular medicine7(1), 17–23.


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Lopes Write Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to Lopes Write, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.

Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.

Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?

Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.

Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.

If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.

I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.

As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:

Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.

Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource