PHI-413V Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

PHI-413V Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

PHI-413V Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

Many beliefs that affect health care and the nursing profession emanate from different worldviews shaped by religions and personal experiences and ideologies. These perspectives shaped by religions influence a person’s overall perception of care, what health care providers should do and the impacts of these views on patients’ outcomes (Latifa et al., 2020). As such, this essay provides a worldview analysis and personal inventory based on different aspects of religion that impact health care delivery.

Christian Perspective Vs. Postmodern Relativism in Relation to Health Care

The acknowledgement of God is the foundation of the Christian perspective on ethics and spirituality. Christians advance that there is significant difference between right and wrong. The Bible guides Christians concerning their perspective, which forms a point of departure from postmodern relativism, especially in health care. The objective truth or reality is the foundation of the existence of postmodern relativism. Imperatively, it is not easy to develop a perspective on this basis in relation to healthcare as it is based on definite knowledge and facts associated with disease conditions and illness. Further, healthcare providers strive to get better patient outcomes that is based on information which they incorporate into their practices (Latifa et al., 2020). However, Christian perspective is founded on personal experience and is ethical all the time. As such, it is a complete parallel of postmodern relativism perspective.

In healthcare, spirituality implies that one believes that their higher being is one who holds the key to health, wellness, and disease. To be deeply spiritual implies that one has the power to call on God whenever they are sick so that He can intervene and heal them through the medical process. However, on its part, postmodern relativism is generally cynical perspective on the reality of disease and wellness. The concept questions reason and basis and importance of scientific knowledge which informs the modern practice in health and medicine. Postmodern relativism questions nursing and medical interventions aimed at treatment of diseases since according to it, all actions possess no certainty and their effectiveness is relative (Marzband et al., 2017). Therefore, nothing absolutely certain exists in health care, including aspects like evidence-based practices. The implication is that the understanding of an illness is dependent on one’s perspective and perception.

Description and Arguments Against Scientism

Scientism is the belief that science has solutions to all questions that are meaningful or sensible. Scientism is the worldwide speculation on the universe and its meaning about the ultimate reality. Scientism advances that all knowledge in the world emanates

PHI-413V Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory
PHI-413V Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

from science and scientific endeavors. Therefore, all aspects in the world can only be explained based on the scientism philosophy. Two arguments exist against scientism by its opponents. Firstly, the free will of human beings is a phenomenon that scientism cannot explain. To demonstrate this aspect, the science of neurology and neurosurgery is still not able to explain the physiology behind human free will, morality and right and good as functions of the human brain (Hall, 2018). Further, science is still not able to explain significant areas of their brain’s functions. As such, scientism cannot purport to explain the process of human thought and free will as they appear to be extremely abstract phenomena devoid of any physiological processes.

The second argument against scientism is its dependence on the replicability of observations implying that an experiment in science can be repeated with similar outcomes obtained in different places. The whole idea of reliability and validity of research findings present plausible arguments against scientism. Further, science is limited and is not the sole source of knowledge though it is an effective wat of gaining fundamental experience (Burnett, 2020). Science remains one-sided and only provides answers to questions arising from scientific explanations.

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i). Ultimate Reality

From an Islamic perspective, my conception of ultimate reality is the absolute practical situation that remains after all beliefs, assumptions, cult and conjectures are taken away. For Muslims, the ultimate reality is to live according to Allah’s promises and rules (Marzband et al., 2017). For instance, death while fighting against non-Muslim believers is rewarded and is a reality for all belong to the only one God by following the laid down Sharia.

ii). Nature of the Universe

The universe is all that exists in whatever state it is in on the earth and even beyond the skies. As human beings, we are just part of the universe and occupy a tiny speck on Earth. Humans strive to understand what lies beyond the Earth but have not succeeded (Latifa, 2020). As such, the universe and its nature remains a mystery for human beings.

iii). A Human Being

A human being is part of the living organisms found on Earth and in the universe. Human beings remain the most intelligent of all animals and is endowed with the intellectual capacity to think and reason. Human beings were created to spread goodness and Allah’s instructions through his prophets like Mohammed and Jesus Christ. Human beings have superior brains and can use knowledge to be agents of God in different areas of their lives.

iv). Knowledge

Knowledge denotes to abstract concept whose presence is demonstrate but whose real existence cannot be proven from a physical perspective. Human beings are not born with knowledge but accumulate it through experience and learning in their lives. Human beings have a brain that has the ability to learn through knowledge acquisition.

v). My personal Basis of Ethics

My personal basis of ethics comes from the Islamic worldview of doing what is good to the world and its people. As Muslim, I believe in the teachings of Prophet Mohammed and the Quran on what one ought to do to demonstrate their ethical aspects in life (Marzband et al., 2017). I should practice justice and protect innocent from any harm, including the influence to leave the Islamic religion.

vi). Purpose of My Existence

The purpose of my existence arises from my upbringing and Islamic teachings as found in the Koran as a Holy Book. I seek the good of each person and believe in leaving the world a better place than I found it through my personal endeavors and actions, especially as a health care providers caring for patients from diverse backgrounds.


Worldviews emanate from one’s religious beliefs, their upbringing and overall perspective on what they seek to attain in the world as health care providers. In this case, my personal worldview is shaped mainly by my religion, Islam and its perspective on different issues affecting humanity.


Burnett, T. (2020). What is scientism? American Association for the Advancement of Science

(AAAS). Retrieved February 19, 2021 from

Hall, S.  (2018). The philosophical case against scientism. Quillette. Retrieved February 19, 2021


Latifa, R., Hidayat, K. & Sodiq A. (2019). Commentary on Place Spirituality: An Islamic

Perspective. Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 41(1).

Marzband, R., Hosseini, S. H. & Hamzegardeshi, Z. (2016). A Concept Analysis of Spiritual

Care Based on Islamic Sources. Religions, 7(61). doi:10.3390/rel7060061

Diverse worldviews affect how healthcare providers and their patients perceive and approach healthcare issues. Worldviews entail sets of principles and perspectives on issues based on one culture and upbringing as well as experiences in life. Healthcare practitioners should understand different worldviews to clearly define their perspectives and attitude while providing care to patients based on their perceptions and attribution to health issues, especially concerning spirituality (Bougue & Hogan, 2020). The purpose of this paper is to discuss different aspects of worldviews based on my personal perspectives and their effects on the delivery of healthcare services.

Christian Perspective and Postmodern Relativism

Christians believe that spirituality and healthcare go together since spirituality inspires and shapes the commitment of religious institutions to found and sponsor organizations and initiatives that care for the sick and offer health education to communities. Further, the practice of spiritual care has positive medical and health reasons and is a core aspect of holistic care. The Christian perspective advances that spirituality is a core component of one demonstrating their beliefs and the associated significance of spiritual practices that form the foundation of holistic care (Bougue & Hogan, 2020). The Christian perspective asserts that ethics is more than making the decision to do what is right and preventing what is considered wrong. Christians believe that ethics emanate from the Ten Commandments, the Golden Rule, and the observance of set moral principles like the bioethics principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Christians also advance that the ethical process entails one also avoiding harmful effects and presupposes the obligation and duty to act according to principles. Above all, these aspects must be guided by biblical teachings.

On its part, postmodern relativism advances that there is no absolute set of principles and rules that guide ethics and spirituality in healthcare. Postmodern relativism contends that God may or may not exist and argues that different ethical approaches can be valid or invalid (Himmelfarb, 2019). The view asserts that one’s perspectives cannot be null and void because of appearing to be contradictory. Postmodern relativism advances that all opinions and views on ethics and spirituality are relative since no absolute truth exists in the world on ethics (Sassower, 2018). For instance, “murder” as a crime may not be wrong based on one’s circumstances. According to this view, one can murder in self-defense. Therefore, in healthcare, providers should be guided by situations and not set protocols and values that may deny one the chance to make life-saving choices and decisions.

Scientism and Arguments Against It

Scientism is the belief that science explains all aspects of phenomena in the world. Scientism advances that science and scientific methods are the ones that provide reliable ways for a man to secure knowledge concerning different aspects of human survival and the existence of the planet. Scientism glorifies the use of scientific findings and evidence to address different issues that the world and humanity face. Scientism advances that complex science as disciplines that require and rely on experiments and natural laws like physics and biology (Milgrom, 2021). Proponents assert that these are reliable and objective as they depend on facts and data that can be tested and replicated in different scenarios. Arguments about scientism are propositions that oppose the idea of human beings relying on scientific knowledge to solve all their problems. The arguments against scientism are categorical that not all things evolve around science and scientific discoveries cannot verify or provide an explanation for certain components of life.

The first argument against scientism is the fundamental argument while the second one is the self-reliant incoherence argument. The fundamental argument against science is that while human beings can do science and it provides knowledge, scientism is not based on scientific things. Science can only offer tested knowledge or made by itself (Peels, 2019). For instance, scientism depends on natural processes and natural elements to make a scientific conclusion. These include the use of logic, introspection, and memory among other natural methods or approaches. Imperatively, if all sources that science depends on cannot account for knowledge, then scientism and science cannot account for knowledge in any manner. The implication is that if science provides insight, it can only do so because non-science sources offered knowledge. Therefore, it has a fundamental issue of verifiability as not all knowledge it advances is tested.

The second argument concerning scientism is self-reliant incoherence. This is a philosophical argument that advances that the thesis for scientism is that only natural things or science offer knowledge and science is a product of natural science (Hietanen et al., 2020). Consequently, the thesis fails to satisfy its criteria and cannot be relied on based on the standard set in fundamental scientific situations. The inability to think of embracing scientism rationally means that scientism cannot prove its truthfulness. Because none can determine that scientism is correct, no way exists to believe in it for effective application in all situations concerning knowledge.

Worldview on

a). Ultimate Reality

The ultimate reality entails what one feels about a higher power about things happening in their lives and to humanity. My worldview is about living based on the understanding that things happen due to reason and are driven by a higher power or entity that directs natural courses and happenings. The absolute nature of all things and the eternal principle or truth that governs and orders the universe form a critical component of my ultimate reality (Utke, 2021). As a Christian, God offers direction and implores everyone to follow their path as the ultimate reality in the world. The increasing need for diversity training shows that one gets what they focus on as God enables them to do so because of his grace and love. The ultimate reality is demonstrated when people make a decision based on the nature of their interactions and the phenomenon defining their culture and the values embodied in them.

b). Nature of the Universe

I believe that the universe is infinite and no possible explanation can define its nature. For instance, man has explored and continues to explore the world. However, he is yet to have concrete answers to some natural occurrences despite their devastating effects on human beings and life. For example, man has never offered a substantial explanation about aspects like consciousness and where the dead go in the universe. I believe that the universe entails all creations by God and the need for humans to take care of them to improve their life and survival in the world. The universe remains a mystery and even with the delegation to man by God, none can still attain the Universalist answers to questions and other components of care and life in general.

c). Human Being

Human beings are the most advanced inhabitants of the planet. From my worldview, human beings have a purpose in the world as they are God’s creations. God created man in his image to allow him to attain a moral status over all animals and other components of his creation. Therefore, human beings are created based on the moral status set by God and aimed at making contributions to the betterment of this world (Rodríguez, 2018). The human being is the most intelligent animal created by God. God created human beings to be stewards of his creation. God gives human beings the freedom to either serve him or not. The implication is that human beings enjoy God’s creation because of the special roles bestowed on them. Human beings have a consciousness that allows them to gain knowledge, have a personal identity, and express their personal feelings. Human beings are complex yet conduct their activities in an organized manner and focus on what brings the greater common good for the majority.

  1. d) Knowledge

Knowledge emanates from different approaches and aspects that impact one’s choices and actions that one takes and makes in life. Knowledge is an aspect of self-awareness and self-understanding to improve one’s approach to life situations and issues. Knowledge entails the awareness that one builds to answer the known and unknown more pragmatically. Knowledgeable individuals use perception, learning, and experiences to decipher their actions and decisions. Knowledge is an ultimate part of one developing a personality that conforms to their beliefs, practices, and worldviews on different ethical and social issues. The implication is that knowledge is the foundation of making critical care decisions and choices in any setting.

  1. e) Basis for Ethics

Ethics are moral values that one attains by learning from their family and communities. Ethics form the basis of interactions and relationships among different people in the world. Ethics guide one’s actions and decisions by advancing what is good and positive but also considering the underlying issues. The basis of my ethics is my upbringing and my Christian worldview. My upbringing entails how I was raised and the things that my parents considered critical to success; having values and thinking of harmonious existence with all people in the world. The Christian values of love, kindness, generosity, and making sacrifices on behalf of others have always guided my decisions and perspectives in life. I believe that an ethical world is possible with minimal occurrences of evil acts and meanness by individuals.

  1. f) Purpose of Existence

Individuals exist for different reasons and purposes and each person has a purpose in this world. I believe that the primary purpose of my existence is to help humanity and fulfill God’s will of having a world where sacrificial love thrives and is the reason for all types of happiness. My existence should offer inspiration and motivation to others so that they can succeed. God created man in his image implying that we possess the abilities and inherent attributes of God in different circumstances. Therefore, my existence is to focus on God’s reasons for my life, and the key among these is helping people in any manner that I can, especially in care delivery and the promotion of quality health as a nurse.


Worldviews are important and provide a chance for people, especially nurses and other healthcare providers, to understand the different attributes and aspects that define how individuals perceive the world and all that exists in it. Christianity and postmodern relativism have conflicting views on ethics and spirituality. The implication is that as health care providers, nurses should appreciate these aspects and leverage them to make effective decisions in care provision.







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