Assignment: Critically Appraising Quantitative Studies

Assignment: Critically Appraising Quantitative Studies

Assignment Critically Appraising Quantitative Studies

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What factors must be assessed when critically appraising quantitative studies?
Which is the most important? Why?

The percentage of suicide attempters with risk factors, pro- tective factors, and diagnosis of mental illness are presented in Table 1. In addition to risk and protective factors, features of the attempt, such as prior planning (11.0% Yes, 89.0% No), attempt to hide (30.3% Yes, 69.7% No), and place of suicide attempt (80.1% Home, 2.2% Workplace, 9.3% Public place, 2.8% Friend’s house, .6% Public building) were also included in the analysis.

Mascret, et al. studied older adults on their acceptance level of a virtual reality headset to determine if this type of technology could be useful in fall prevention. A link for the study is here: . The study sample included 271 men and women over the age of 65 who were able to walk independently and had never used the virtual reality headset before. They were given information about the headset. Researchers questioned perceived usefulness, ease of use, and enjoyment using a Likert scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). This scale is valid as it tests the participants’ opinions toward the device. It may lack reliability as participants may be inclined to give a higher score to appear accepting of technologies (Mascret, et al., 2020). The researchers tested reliability using McDonald omegas, a statistical technique that checks reliability. Participants were also asked to rate their confidence to perform daily tasks without falling and physical activity goals toward fall prevention using similar scales. Participants were found to have less acceptance of the device if they were more confident in daily activities. Participants who had personal goals toward increased physical ability were more likely to accept the headset. All results were self-reported, but the scales remained consistent throughout the testing.Assignment Critically Appraising Quantitative Studies

Direct logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of available variables, namely, risk factors, protective factors, and features of the suicide attempt on the likelihood that suicide attempters were diagnosed with mental illness. Logistic regression was used in similar studies for a large number of predictors [25, 26] and is typically used to develop a subset of variables useful for predicting the criterion, by eliminating superfluous variables. Our sample size is sufficiently large and representative for statistical regression [47]. The full model (see Table 2) containing all available predictors was statistically significant, ?2 (23, N = 462) = 83.40, p < .001, indicating that the model was able to distinguish between attempters with and without diagnosis of mental illness.Themodel as awhole explained between 16.5% (Cox and Snell?2) and 24.4% (Nagelkerke?2) of the variance inmental illness and correctly classified 79.0% of the cases. As shown in Table 3, only six of the independent variables made a unique statistically significant contribution to the model (unemployment, mental illness or suicide in family, alcohol or drug abuse, habitual poor coping, willing to seek help, and positive future planning). The strongest predictor of mental illness was mental illness or suicide in family, with an odds ratio of 2.75. This indicated that attempters who had mental illness or suicide in family were 2.75 times more likely to have a diagnosis of mental illness than those without mental illness, controlling for all other predictors in the model. The second strongest predictor was unemployment with an odds ratio of 2.43. This indicated that attempters who were unemployed were 2.43 times more likely to have diagnosis of mental illness. The third strongest predictor was willing to seek help, with an odds ratio of 2.28. This indicated that attempters who were willing to seek help were 2.28 times

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Anyone who wants to make informed decisions or improve the quality of healthcare delivery needs critical evaluation abilities. 
good critical assessment will tell you whether or not study is credible and beneficial. 
The assessment process, on the other hand, is frequently disregarded, and properly evaluating quantitative research can be intimidating for both researchers and doctors. 
This chapter explains what critical appraisal is and why it’s important in evidence-based practice. 
The reader is then exposed to the most popular quantitative study designs as well as crucial questions to ask while evaluating each one. 
Systematic reviews, experimental studies (randomized controlled trials and non-randomized controlled trials), and observational studies are all examples of these studies (cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies). 
This chapter also includes the most frequent strategies for assessing the methodological and reporting quality of quantitative research. 
This chapter serves as step-by-step guide to evaluating quantitative research in healthcare settings.
Practicing health educators frequently don’t have the time to read published studies in depth. 
Some health educators may become irritated when they try to understand research language, techniques, and approaches due to lack of time to study scientific articles. 
The goal of scientific publication appraisal is to determine whether the study’s research questions (hypotheses), methods, and conclusions (findings) are legitimate enough to yield relevant information (Fowkes and Fulton, 1991; Donnelly, 2004; Greenhalgh and Taylor, 1997; Johnson and Onwuegbuze, 2004; Greenhalgh, 1997; Yin, 2003; and Hennekens and Buring, 1987). 
In results-oriented environment where there are increasing demands and expectations for enhanced program outcomes and solid reasons for program emphasis and direction, the ability to deconstruct and reassemble scientific papers is vital talent. 
Health educators must strengthen their confidence in their own ability to assess the quality of published scientific research rather than relying entirely on the judgments of researchers. 
If health educators who have little experience reading and evaluating scientific publications: 1) become more familiar with the key components of research publication, and 2) use the questions presented in this article to critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of published research, they may find this task easier.

Spirituality is the way to find meaning, hope, comfort, and inner peace in life. Many people find spirituality through religion. Some people find it through music, art, or a connection with nature. Others find it in their values and principles. Spirituality involves the recognition of a feeling or sense or belief that there is something greater than myself, something more to being human than sensory experience, and that the greater whole of which we are part is cosmic or divine in nature.

Healthy spirituality gives a sense of peace, wholeness, and balance among the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual aspects of our lives. However, for most people, the path to such spirituality passes through struggles and suffering and often includes experiences that are frightening and painful. Positive beliefs, comfort, and strength gained from religion, meditation, and prayer can contribute to well-being. It may even promote healing. Improving your spiritual health may not cure an illness, but it may help you feel better.

Patients who are spiritual may utilize their beliefs in coping with illness, pain, and life stresses. Some studies indicate that those who are spiritual tend to have a more positive outlook and a better quality of life (Bogue, 2020).

Similar to other caring activities and procedures, spiritual care improves people’s spiritual well-being and performance as well as the quality of their spiritual life. Spiritual care has positive effects on individuals’ stress responses, and spiritual well-being such as the balance between physical, psychosocial, and spiritual aspects of self, a sense of integrity and excellence, and interpersonal relationships. Spiritual well-being is important for an individual’s health potential and the experience of illness/hospitalization can threaten the optimum achievement of this potential. Professional nursing embraces spiritual care as a dimension of practice.

Nurses’ practice patterns in the area of spiritual care can be grouped into two categories including religious and nonreligious interventions. Religious interventions include treating patients’ religious beliefs without prejudice, providing them with opportunities for connecting with God and expressing their values and beliefs, helping them practice their religion, and referring them to clerical and religious leaders (O’Brien, et al., 2019). Nonreligious interventions include nurses’ presence for patients and their families, making direct eye contact when communicating with patients, sympathizing with patients and their families, listening to patients and their families attentively, and having love and enthusiasm for patients.

Although spiritual care is meant to help people, I frequently gain as a nurse. Interpersonal trust and a connection with the patient require high emotional intelligence. It’s important to realize that spirituality isn’t always theological care (Ross et al., 2018). Whereas the healthcare industry easily incorporates spirituality into therapy, spiritual care is essential in all sectors of operation. For the sake of our clients, we as caregivers must respect spiritual support, learn the required skills, and schedule time to satisfy these needs.


Bogue, D. W., & Hogan, M. (2020). Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in Health Care. Retrieved from

O’Brien, M., Kinloch, K., Groves, K., & Jack, B. (2019, August 9). Meeting patients’ spiritual needs during end of life care: A qualitative study of nurses’ and healthcare professionals’ perceptions of spiritual care training. Edge Hill University. Retrieved from

Ross , L., McSherry, W., Giske, T., Van Leeuwen, R., Schep-Akkerman, A., Koslander, T., Hall, J., Ostergaard Steenfeldt , V., & Jarvis, P. (2018, August). Nursing and midwifery students’ perceptions of spirituality, spiritual care, and spiritual care competency: A prospective, Longitudinal, correlational European study. Nurse education today. Retrieved from