Assignment: Hand Hygiene Evidence Based Practice

Assignment: Hand Hygiene Evidence-Based Practice

Hand Hygiene Compliance

Nurses as important part of the healthcare system and care provision should support interventions that improve patient safety and quality care outcomes. Hand hygiene plays a major role in reducing and eliminating the spread of germs and infections from healthcare providers to patients. Good hand hygiene is considered an effective way to prevent infections among all stakeholders, especially from providers to patients (Martos-Cabrera et al., 2019). Infectious diseases and hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are critical risks to young, the elderly, and those with preexisting conditions as well as individuals with a compromised immune system. Hand hygiene compliance among nurses is an effective way to reduce and prevent infections and promote patient safety as well as quality outcomes.

Comparison of the Pro and Con Sides of Hand Hygiene

Hand hygiene as an essential aspect of patient safety is essential with existing studies demonstrating its efficacy and effectiveness in reducing and preventing the spread and transmission of infections among patients and even providers. According to a systematic review on hand hygiene of nurses and patient safety, Malliarou (2018) asserts that nurses should wash their hands not only to prevent their contact with germs and infections that could lead to sickness but to protect their patients from getting healthcare associated infections (HAIs). The study notes that noncompliance to hand hygiene is a primary cause of nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Good hand hygiene plays a significant part in reducing and eliminating the spread of germs and infections among patients. As such, there are several benefits to hand hygiene practices by healthcare providers as opposed to possible negative effects.

A core con revealed from existing evidence is that a significant number of healthcare providers clean their hands less than half of the times that they should. As such, limited compliance to hand hygiene measures means that these providers contribute to the spread of healthcare associated infections which impact one in every 31 hospital patients on any day. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is categorical that every patient is at risk of acquiring an infection as they get treated for different diagnoses. The prevention of germs spread is essential and does not constitute any adverse effects on facilities, patients, and providers.

Impact of the Issue on Delivery of Health and Nursing Profession

Sufficient research evidence shows that hand hygiene measures affect the overall delivery of health and the nursing profession. In their systematic review of literature on hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among nursing students, Labrague et al. (2020) assert that there is low-to-moderate awareness and compliance among this group. The study shows the impact of enhancing knowledge among nursing students so that they comply with hand hygiene measures as demonstrated by higher rates among their medical counterparts.

Again, the study by Hillier (2020) emphasizes the effective use of hand hygiene practices to prevent and control infections. The study asserts that decontamination using hand hygiene is one of the most critical and effective ways for nurses and other healthcare providers to minimize and prevent the occurrence of HAIs and cross-infections among patients. The article demonstrates correct procedures that providers can use to attain effective hand hygiene. The article is categorical that nurses should be up-to-date with the evidence-based guidelines on hand hygiene like the use of hand sanitizers and hand washing approaches. The use of alcohol-based hand gels and the soap and water are considered in different measures as effective to attaining compliance on hand hygiene. The author shows that the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic raised the need for optimal hand hygiene practices to reduce cross-contamination and spread of the infectious disease.  

The study by Sandbol et al. (2022) compared the levels of hand hygiene compliance among healthcare worker before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study argues that unlike other findings that demonstrate a rise in hand hygiene compliance levels before the pandemic, it did not find any significant difference between the rates before and during the pandemic. This implies that nurses and other healthcare providers should increase their compliance to hand hygiene measures not just at times of pandemics and serious infections but all the times. Hand hygiene is essential because it reduce the rate of infections.

Personal Statement on Hand Hygiene Compliance

It is evident that hand hygiene compliance is essential for nurses and other healthcare professionals like physicians. Therefore, nurses should embrace evidence-based hand hygiene practices like the use of alcohol-based sanitizers and soap and water. Cleaning hands by rubbing alcohol-based formulation is an effective hand sanitizing technique if the hand are not visibly soiled (Martos-Cabrera et al., 2019). This approach is faster and better tolerated compared to washing hand with soap and water. However, handwashing using soap and water remains the most effective and affordable intervention despite its unpopularity among healthcare workers.


Hand hygiene measures are essential for healthcare providers, especially nurses and physicians to reduce susceptibility to infections. Compliance to hand hygiene is an effective way to enhance patient safety and improve overall care provision among nurses. As demonstrated since Nightingale’s time, hand hygiene is a core part of the nursing profession as nurses create an environment free from infections and aimed at promoting recovery from illnesses. The implication is that providers cannot attain better care delivery without following hand hygiene protocols.



Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2020). Clean Hands Count for Safe


Hillier, M. D. (2020). Using effective hand hygiene practice to prevent and control infection.

Nursing Standard, 35(5), 45-50. DOI: 10.7748/ns. 2020.e11552

Labrague, L. J., McEnroe‐Petitte, D. M., Van de Mortel, T., & Nasirudeen, A. M. A. (2018). A

systematic review on hand hygiene knowledge and compliance in student nurses. International nursing review, 65(3), 336-348. DOI: 10.1111/inr.12410

Martos-Cabrera, M. B., Mota-Romero, E., Martos-García, R., Gómez-Urquiza, J. L., Suleiman-

Martos, N., Albendín-García, L., & Cañadas-De la Fuente, G. A. (2019). Hand hygiene teaching strategies among nursing staff: a systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(17), 3039. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16173039

Malliarou, M. (2018). Hand Hygiene of Nurses and Patient Safety. International Journal of

            Nursing & Clinical Practices, 4(217).

Sandbøl, S. G., Glassou, E. N., Ellermann-Eriksen, S., & Haagerup, A. (2022). Hand hygiene

compliance among healthcare workers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. American Journal of Infection Control, 50(7), 719-723. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2022.03.014.

Question Description

I don’t know how to handle this Health & Medical question and need guidance.

PICOT: “Does compliance with hand washing measures (I) for direct care staff in a hospital setting (P), as compared to non-compliance with hand washing measures (C), help improve patient safety by decreasing healthcare associated infections (O) during hospitalization (T)?”

Write a 500-750 word paper (excluding the title and reference pages) for your proposed evidence-based practice project solution. Consider the following criteria:

(a) Describe the proposed solution (or intervention) for the problem and how it is (are) consistent with current evidence. Make extensive use of references and evidence to support your solution or intervention. (b) Consider whether the intervention is realistic in your setting, too expensive, or there is a lack of appropriate training to deliver the intervention. If the intervention is unrealistic, you may need to revise your PICOT before proceeding.
Organization Culture: Describe how the proposed solution is consistent with the culture and resources of the organization or community.
Expected Outcomes: Describe the project’s expected outcomes. The results should follow from the PICOT.
Method for Achieving Results: Create a plan for achieving the desired results. List any specific barriers that must be assessed and removed. Make a note of any assumptions or limitations that must be addressed.
Impact of Outcomes: Describe how the outcomes will affect one or more of the following indicators: quality care improvement, patient-centered quality care, process efficiency, environmental changes, and/or professional expertise.
Prepare this assignment in accordance with the APA guidelines found in the Student Success Center’s APA Style Guide. There is no need for an abstract.

rubric print format.xlsx\sreferences.docx

You should proofread your paper. However, do not rely solely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part, and your grade will suffer as a result. Papers with a high number of misspelled words and grammatical errors will be penalized. Before submitting your paper, go over it in silence and then aloud, and make any necessary changes. It is often beneficial to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Uncorrected mistakes are preferable to handwritten corrections.

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Use a standard 10 to 12 point typeface (10 to 12 characters per inch). Smaller or compressed type, as well as papers with narrow margins or single spacing, are difficult to read. It is preferable to allow your essay to exceed the recommended number of pages rather than attempting to compress it into fewer pages.

Large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are also unacceptable, waste trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced, and have a one-inch margin on all four sides of each page. When submitting hard copies, use white paper and print with dark ink. It will be difficult to follow your argument if it is difficult to read your essay.


Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.