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Assignment: Short Answer Assessment

Assignment: Short Answer Assessment

Assignment Short Answer Assessment

  1. The nervous system comprises of sensory organs, spinal cord, nerves and brain. The components are classifiable into central and peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system comprises of the spinal cord and brain while the peripheral nervous system comprises of the nerves that begin from the spinal cord to innervate other body organs and structures. The neuron is considered the basic unit of the nervous system that has parts that include axons, nucleus, dendrites, nerves, and cell body. The generation of an impulse in the form of action potential is transferred from one neuron to another through the generation of action potential. The action potential is transferred through the axon where it stimulates the release of neurotransmitters that diffuses across the synapse to the adjacent neuron. The neurotransmitter bind to receptors at the neuron creating an action potential that is transferred along the axon through a similar sequence. Termination of impulse is reached when the desired action is achieved alongside repolarization of the cell (Peate & Evans, 2020).
  2. The components of the subcortical structures include cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. The amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum play the roles of memory and learning. The cerebellum is involved in addiction problem. Dopamine and acetylcholine are neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain (Peate & Evans, 2020).
  3. Glia plays a number of roles in the central nervous system. One of the functions of glia is the formation of myelin, which insulates the axons. Glia also acts as a source of nutrition such as oxygen to the neurons. The glia also has protective roles to the neurons such as destroying pathogens that could damage the neurons. The glia also acts as a source of support structure for the neurons. The glia also promotes homeostasis alongside providing the required synaptic connections and neurotransmission (Cook et al., 2020). An example of the homeostatic role of the glia can be seen from the insulation of the nerve via the myelin sheath.
  4. The part of the neuron that that enables communication between neurons is the synapse. The synapse receives and transfers information in the form of action potential from one nerve to another. The communication in the synapse is unique in that it is unidirectional in nature. The nerve impulses travel in one direction and ends with the termination of the impulse or action potential. The action potential also has uniform wavelength throughout its transmission in the nerves and axons. An example of the unidirectional flow of the action potential is the transfer of nerve impulses from the brain to the spinal cord. The transmission ends when the information is transferred from the spinal cord to the target organs (Peate & Evans, 2020).
  5. Neuroplasticity is the ability of the brain to change its neural networks through reorganization and growth. The reorganization and growth can be seen from the development of new connection pathways for the brain and cortical remapping due to systematic adjustment to new demands. Neuroplasticity occurs due to the influence of factors such as psychological stress, practice, environmental factors, and learning new skills. Neuroplasticity has a number of applications that include the treatment of brain damage, meditation and management of chronic pain. Neuroplasticity has benefits that include allowing improvements in brain functions through adaptive learning, regaining of lost brain functions, recovery from injuries to the brain, and development of new or enhancement of one’s cognitive abilities (Chaban, 2018).

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References

Chaban, V. (2018). Neuroplasticity: Insights of Neural Reorganization. BoD – Books on Demand.

Cook, N., Shepherd, A., & Boore, J. (2020). Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology for Nursing Practice. SAGE.

Peate, I., & Evans, S. (2020). Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology: For Nursing and Healthcare Students. Wiley.

 

  1. In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous system, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.

According to Javaid et al. (2020), the human brain comprises over 100 billion distinct neurons. The neuron’s cell body harbors the nucleus and serves as the point of attachment for both the dendrites and axons of the neuron. The term “soma” is sometimes used to refer to the cell body, while axon clusters, commonly referred to as nerves in some contexts, can be found throughout the body in various locations. Neurons can interact with one another even when they are separated by large distances, which is made possible by the fact that they contain dendrites and axons. Furthermore, owing to the mechanism of electrical conduction intrinsic to neurons, nerve impulses can propagate at a remarkable pace, marked by a transient electrical oscillation that traverses from the neuronal soma, through its dendrites, and culminates at the terminal end of the axon.

  1. Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):
    • What are the major components that make up subcortical structures?
      1. Basal ganglia: Pertains to a cluster of subcortical nuclei that are primarily accountable for regulating motor control (Wilfrid Jänig, 2022). Additionally, they play a crucial role in executive functions, motor learning, and emotional and behavioral regulation.
      2. Limbic structure: The limbic system is responsible for the regulation of motivation, mood, learning, and memory through its intricate network of structures and interconnected regions(Wilfrid Jänig, 2022). The interface between the subcortical structures and the cerebral cortex is located within the limbic system. The limbic system exerts its influence on the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system
      3. Thalamic structures: The structure in question comprises four distinct components, namely the thalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus, and hypothalamus. Each of the aforementioned structures plays a crucial role in the survival and optimal operation of the human body (Wilfrid Jänig, 2022). Therefore, it is imperative to familiarize oneself with their anatomy.
      4. Cerebellar: The cerebellum is a neuroanatomical structure situated in the posterior cranial fossa, superior and posterior to the pontomedullary junction, where the spinal cord merges with the brainstem. The aforementioned structure is a significant subcortical entity that has an impact not only on motor function but also potentially on cognitive and emotional processes (Wilfrid Jänig, 2022).                
    • Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?

According to Wilfrid Janig (2022), the limbic structure contributes to the capacity of the human body to acquire new information and retain it. Furthermore, it assumes a crucial function in the control of cognitive attention and behaviors that are addictive.

    • What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?
      1. Dopamine: While the activity of dopaminergic cells cannot directly dictate movements, a recent study conducted on humans has indicated that the consistent levels of dopamine present in the dorsal striatum may contribute to the facilitation of regular motion by encoding the sensitivity to the energy expenditure of a movement (Skelin et al., 2019). This implicit signal can be interpreted as a “motor motivational” cue.
      2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): It is widely distributed throughout the nervous system and plays a crucial role in inhibiting the transmission of signals. It is essential for regulating movement, both in the cortex and subcortical regions of the brain.
  1. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glial cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.

The phrase “glial cells” may refer to several different kinds of glial cells, including astrocytes, Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, and microglial cells all of which have a unique role in ensuring that the brain continues to operate normally (Yang & Zhou, 2019). Astrocytes are responsible for controlling blood flow, as well as supplying neurons with mitochondria and the components necessary to construct neurotransmitters, which are the driving force behind neuronal metabolism. Schwann cells play an essential role in the development, maintenance, functioning, and regeneration of peripheral nerves. Oligodendrocytes are chiefly accountable for the production and upkeep of the myelin sheath that envelops axons within the nervous system while microglia are enduring brain cells that govern brain maturation, the safeguarding of neural networks, and the recuperation from injuries.

  1. The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.

When an action potential is generated at the chemical synapse, the neuron at the presynaptic cleft is stimulated, which results in the release of neurotransmitters, which are the molecules that are responsible for transporting information being propagated from the presynaptic gap to the postsynaptic cleft, which is where it is accepted by another cell. The dendrite of the receiving neuron is the one that is responsible for receiving the message from the axon terminal of the transmitting neuron. Because one axon may create synapses on a large number of postsynaptic cells, it can interact with a large number of cells (Stadelmann et al., 2019). As a consequence of this, a single neuron may receive information from the other neurons since it is capable of receiving millions of synaptic inputs from a wide variety of neurons that are responsible for transmitting presynaptic signals.

  1. In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.

Neuroplasticity, commonly referred to aseither brain plasticityor neural plasticity, denotes a phenomenon wherein the brain encounters adaptive modifications in both functional and structural domains. The nervous system is capable of modifying its activity in response to both internal and external stimuli through the process of restoring its functions, pattern, or connections following events such as cerebrovascular incidents or traumatic brain injuries (Innocenti, 2022). These alterations may be helpful in that they lead to the regeneration of function after an injury, neutral in that there is no change, or pathologically detrimental with the resulting pathological consequences.The notion of neuroplasticity can be deconstructed into two primary mechanisms, which are functional reorganizationand collateral sprouting/neuronal regeneration.

 

 

References

Innocenti, G. M. (2022). Defining neuroplasticity. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, 3–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-819410-2.00001-1

Javaid, M. A., Schellekens, H., Cryan, J. F., & Toulouse, A. (2020). Evaluation of Neuroanatomy Web Resources for Undergraduate Education: Educators’ and Students’ Perspectives. Anatomical sciences education13(2), 237-249. https://doi.org/10.1002/ase.1896

Skelin, I., Kilianski, S., & McNaughton, B. L. (2019). Hippocampal coupling with cortical and subcortical structures in the context of memory consolidation. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory160, 21–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2018.04.004

Stadelmann, C., Timmler, S., Barrantes-Freer, A., & Simons, M. (2019). Myelin in the Central Nervous System: Structure, Function, and Pathology. Physiological Reviews99(3), 1381–1431. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00031.2018

Wilfrid Jänig. (2022). The Integrative Action of the Autonomic Nervous System. Cambridge University Press.

Yang, Q.-Q., & Zhou, J.-W. (2019). Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system: Symphony of glial cells. Glia67(6), 1017–1035. https://doi.org/10.1002/glia.23571

NURS_6630_Week1_Assignment_Rubric
NURS_6630_Week1_Assignment_Rubric
Criteria Ratings Pts
In 4 or 5 sentences, describe the anatomy of the basic unit of the nervous sytem, the neuron. Include each part of the neuron and a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse. Be specific and provide examples.

13 to >11.0 pts

Excellent Point range: 90–100
The response accurately and clearly describes in detail the anatomy of the neuron. The response accurately and clearly describes in detail each part of the neuron, and it includes a detailed explanation of the general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse…. Examples fully support the response provided.

11 to >10.0 pts

Good Point range: 80–89
The response accurately describes the anatomy of the neuron. The response accurately describes each part of the neuron, and it includes a general overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse…. Examples support the response provided.

10 to >9.0 pts

Fair Point range: 70–79
The response provides an inaccurate or vague description of the anatomy of the neuron. The response inaccurately or vaguely describes each part of the neuron, and it includes an inaccurate or vague overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse…. Examples vaguely support the response provided.

9 to >0 pts

Poor Point range: 0–69
The response provides an inaccurate or incomplete description of the anatomy of the neuron, or is missing. The response inaccurately or incompletely describes each part of the neuron, and it includes an inaccurate or vague overview of electrical impulse conduction, the pathway it travels, and the net result at the termination of the impulse, or is missing…. Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.
13 pts
Answer the following (listing is acceptable for these questions):a. What are the major components that make up the subcortical structures?b. Which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction?c. What are the two key neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control?

13 to >11.0 pts

Excellent Point range: 90–100
The response accurately and clearly details the major components that make up the subcortical structures…. The response accurately and clearly details which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction…. The response accurately and clearly identifies the two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

11 to >10.0 pts

Good Point range: 80–89
The response accurately identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures…. The response accurately identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction…. The response accurately identifies the two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

10 to >9.0 pts

Fair Point range: 70–79
The response inaccurately identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures…. The response inaccurately identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction…. The response inaccurately identifies two neurotransmitters located in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control.

9 to >0 pts

Poor Point range: 0–69
The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies the major components that make up the subcortical structures, or is missing…. The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies which component plays a role in learning, memory, and addiction, or is missing…. The response inaccurately and incompletely identifies two neurotransmitters in the nigra striatal region of the brain that play a major role in motor control, or is missing.
13 pts
In 3 or 4 sentences, explain how glia cells function in the central nervous system. Be specific and provide examples.

13 to >11.0 pts

Excellent Point range: 90–100
The response accurately and clearly explains in detail how glia cells function in the central nervous system…. Examples fully support the response provided.

11 to >10.0 pts

Good Point range: 80–89
The response accurately explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system…. Examples support the response provided.

10 to >9.0 pts

Fair Point range: 70–79
The response inaccurately or vaguely explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system…. Examples inaccurately or vaguely support the response provided.

9 to >0 pts

Poor Point range: 0–69
The response inaccurately and vaguely explains how glia cells function in the central nervous system, or is missing…. Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.
13 pts
The synapse is an area between two neurons that allows for chemical communication. In 3 or 4 sentences, explain what part of the neurons are communicating with each other and in which direction does this communication occur? Be specific.

13 to >11.0 pts

Excellent Point range: 90–100
The response accurately and clearly explains in detail the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

11 to >10.0 pts

Good Point range: 80–89
The response accurately explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

10 to >9.0 pts

Fair Point range: 70–79
The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs.

9 to >0 pts

Poor Point range: 0–69
The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the part of the neurons that communicate with each other and the direction in which this communication occurs, or is missing.
13 pts
In 3–5 sentences, explain the concept of “neuroplasticity.” Be specific and provide examples.

13 to >11.0 pts

Excellent Point range: 90–100
The response accurately and clearly explains in detail the concept of neuroplasticity…. Examples provided fully support the response provided.

11 to >10.0 pts

Good Point range: 80–89
The response accurately explains the concept of neuroplasticity…. Examples provided support the response provided.

10 to >9.0 pts

Fair Point range: 70–79
The response inaccurately or vaguely explains the concept of neuroplasticity…. Examples inaccurately or vaguely support the response provided.

9 to >0 pts

Poor Point range: 0–69
The response inaccurately and vaguely explains the concept of neuroplasticity, or is missing…. Examples do not support the response provided, or is missing.
13 pts
Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards: Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation

5 to >4.0 pts

Excellent Point range: 90–100
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

4 to >3.5 pts

Good Point range: 80–89
Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

3.5 to >2.0 pts

Fair Point range: 70–79
Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

2 to >0 pts

Poor Point range: 0–69
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.
5 pts
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.

5 to >4.0 pts

Excellent Point range: 90–100
Uses correct APA format with no errors.

4 to >3.5 pts

Good Point range: 80–89
Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

3.5 to >2.0 pts

Fair Point range: 70–79
Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

2 to >0 pts

Poor Point range: 0–69
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.
5 pts
Total Points: 75