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Benchmark – Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

Benchmark-Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

Benchmark-Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

One of the workplace issues that has been there for a long time and has refused to go is workplace bullying. With various initiatives used over the years to contain the situation, one would imagine or guess that workplace bullying would diminish or be eliminated. However, in nursing, data shows that it has been on the rise. In one of the reports, some nurses opined that their workplace is comparable to a battlefield and that the environment is a professional turmoil. To make matters worse, the harmful effects of the problem have not received the attention it deserves, and therefore it is troubling (Karatuna et al., 2020). Workplace bullying is one of the aggressive acts usually taking the form of enduring and repetitive actions towards an individual or group of individuals by another person or group of people having power over their target. Some of the known forms of workplace bullying include threats, information retention, and sometimes rumor spreading. The perpetrator can be subordinate, colleague, or superior of the victim.

Workplace bullying in clinical settings can have adverse effects on both the affected individuals and the patients under the nurses’ care. Bullying has been connected to mental health impairment and physical health impairment. Besides, bullying can also lead to work-related issues such as diminished job satisfaction, lower job commitment, higher chances, and enhanced intention to lead. It is vital to note that the negative impacts of bullying on the nurses, in turn, have adverse effects on patient care as nurse poor performances may lead to other things like medical and medication errors.

Advanced practice nurses play a critical role in policy advocacy. They influence policy formation and implementation. They become part of the advocacy process in diverse ways. According to Hajizadeh et al. (2021), when elaborating on health policies, there must be a motivation for nurses to participate in health policy-making processes. For example, advanced practice nurses can influence their experiences on policies, laws, and regulations that govern the healthcare system. Thus, they know the critical procedures to utilize when pushing for some regulations and the techniques that fail to work. Advanced practice nurses are expected to identify the issues deliberately and work with other decision-makers to advance health care policies. They should understand the levels of power and resource allocation that impact policymaking procedures (Hajizadeh et al., 2021). Resource availability is a critical part of policymaking. Thus, advanced practice nurses need to advocate for the allocation of sufficient resources to support policy passage and implementation.

Professional Standards of Practice and Bullying.

The substantial effects of bullying in clinical settings have promoted various nursing professional bodies to draft standards that can help in dealing with the issue. Besides, there are various local, State, and Federal standards of professional behavior that guide nurses on, among other things, workplace bullying and violence. One of such nursing professional bodies is the American nurse Association (ANA). ANA has various statements on workplace bullying, violence, and incivility. ANA affirms that nurses should strive to create an ethical culture and environment of kindness and civility and treat employees, co-workers, colleagues, and others with respect and dignity (Kim et al., 2019). On the other hand, nurses need to afford a similar level of dignity and respect. Such standards of practice can effectively be used to help in reducing workplace bullying in a clinical setting. Nurses should always be reminded of the professional standards of practices of showing respect to one another, and if followed, then bullying can be reduced and eliminated.

Role of Nursing Leaders and Nursing Managers in Controlling Bullying

Apart from professional bodies, local, State, and Federal regulations and efforts in controlling bullying in clinical settings, nursing leaders and nursing managers are expected to play roles and are playing various roles in the fight against bullying. One of the roles of nursing leaders and nursing managers is to confront the individual perpetrating bullying and discuss with him/her why he/she is doing such and if he/she knows that it is against the standards of nursing practice (Blackwood et al., 2017). The other method is supporting the bullying target through coaching and counseling. Such an action will help the victim to better deal with bullying better and cope with it in case it occurs again.

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In coaching, the nurse managers encourage the bullying target to actively get involved in efforts that can help resolve bullying. Nursing leaders and nurse managers can also act as mediators and provide mediation conversations between the conflicting parties. Mediation can effectively help the perpetrator to realize his/her mistake, stop it and reconcile with the victim (Blackwood et al., 2017). Nurse leaders and managers try to solve the bullying cases with their minds focused on helping the target regain trust in the system and be productive in their work hence ensuring patient safety. Some leadership theories can also explain the type of nurse leader who is likely to control better and manage workplace bullying. For example, in cases of transformational leaders, there are low levels and chances of harassment and bullying because they offer greater power, independence, and autonomy in the people that they lead.

Additional Aspects that Leaders and Managers Should Initiate

Even though nurse leaders have used various interventions to try and control workplace bullying in healthcare settings, there are various additional aspects that the leaders can initiate to help in better management of bullying. One of the methods is mandatory training. In mandatory training, the leaders and managers can set up a quarterly or yearly training session that every employee must attend (Fink-Samnick, 2015). In training, various topics on workplace bullying and repercussions should be covered. Another method is to improve the internal incident recording. Documenting various incidences of bullying can be invaluable when resolving later cases as it is possible to know whether a bully is repeating the mistake again, and therefore sterner measures can be taken in such instances. Provision of appropriate equipment such as attack alarms can also help in controlling bullying as potential perpetrators can easily be deterred from the action by knowing that their actions will not go unnoticed (Fink-Samnick, 2015). The nurse leaders and managers should also create additional codes of conduct to define what appropriate and acceptable behaviors are and what inappropriate and disruptive behaviors such as bullying entail, and the potential consequences of going against such codes of conduct.

Leadership Style That Can Help Deal with Bullying

From the leadership theories and qualities of various leaders as discussed by the theories, it is possible to identify the kind of leadership style that can best deal with bullying in clinical settings. Indeed, managers and leaders can permit, stop, engage in or prevent bullying based on the kind of behaviors that they hold back or show. So, they can only shape the progress of bullying in a workplace in various ways, just as their style of leadership impacts the bullying behavior. As indicated earlier, various research efforts have shown that transformational leadership positively impacts the well-being of employees (Woodrow & guest, 2017). Besides, the leadership style has been associated with reduced cases and chances of workplace bullying since the leaders themselves act as role models of positive working environment behaviors. Transformational leaders are in contrast with the influence of the Laissez-faire leadership style that has been shown to create health problems, burnout, and diminished job satisfaction. More importantly, the leadership style is connected to higher complaints of workplace bullying exposure. In the healthcare setting, a transformational leader can be hugely successful in managing bullying since a transformational leader is supportive and appreciate the employees. He/she would offer the necessary tools for copying the ever-demanding work stressors.

Conclusion

The management and dealing with workplace bullying in settings such as healthcare should be given priority as bullying has been associated with poor work performance by the nurses hence poor patient care. Nurse leaders and managers have a vital role to play in dealing with workplace bullying. So they need to be supportive and attentive so that they can calmly and soberly moderate demanding and complex situations that can easily escalate into workplace bullying and tension.

References

Blackwood, K., Bentley, T., Catley, B., & Edwards, M. (2017). Managing workplace bullying experiences in nursing: the impact of the work environment. Public Money & Management, 37(5), 349-356. Doi: 10.1080/09540962.2017.1328205.

Fink-Samnick, E. (2015). The new age of bullying and violence in health care: the interprofessional impact. Professional case management, 20(4), 165-174. Doi: 10.1097/NCM.0000000000000099

Karatuna, I., Jonsson, S., & Muhonen, T. (2020). Workplace bullying in the nursing profession: a cross-cultural scoping review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 103628. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103628.

Kim, Y., Lee, E., & Lee, H. (2019). Association between workplace bullying and burnout, professional quality of life, and turnover intention among clinical nurses. PLoS one, 14(12), e0226506. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226506.

Woodrow, C., & Guest, D. E. (2017). Leadership and approaches to the management of workplace bullying. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(2), 221-233. Doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2016.1243529

Addressing Nurse Turnover

High turnover rates in nursing remain one of the most critical determinants of a healthcare organization. The rate and frequency that nurses or hospital workers join and leave affect the provision of healthcare directly or indirectly. The nursing profession is unique and demands practical as well as strategic leadership and management skills and approaches that will ensure new hires and experienced nurses are retained in a healthcare facility or organization (Wood, 2017). Imperatively, to tackle this issue, nursing leaders and managers need to interrogate the causes of high turnover and contributing situations. The high turnover rate of nurses emanates from a host of factors that require leaders in the profession as well as institutional managers to seek effective methods to minimize their occurrences. These include career advancement, retirement, increased workload, lack of life and work balance, rescheduling, and low nurse staffing ratios, among other issues (Hughe, 2017). Imperatively, this paper focuses on how leaders can deal with the issue of turnover and address it through an appropriate leadership style.

Nurse Turnover

An increasing recognition exists that the attainment of a health system’s objectives, including sustenance of efficient delivery of quality patient outcomes, requires an adequate and effective nurse workforce (Carlson, 2018). As such, organizations should have effective retention of their nursing staff and ensure that they possess the right skills within the sustainable workforce. Different studies and reports demonstrate the extent and the effects of a high nurse turnover that affects almost the entire global healthcare industry and nursing sector (Hughe, 2017). Nurse attrition results in different and high costs to healthcare organizations.

In their article, Ellrich and Nelson (2020) observe that the industry registered the highest levels of nurse turnover in 2019, and the most affected nurses are mainly those with less than two-year period in an organization. The authors note that the industry registered about 17% in turnover rates and costing every hospital about $4.4 million each year. The authors are pessimistic that with the current problem of COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals will continue to register increased workforce instability than ever before. According to Wood (2017), high turnover rates are costly to the healthcare system and harm the quality outcomes for patient care. Carlson (2018) asserts that nurse attrition has enormous impacts on both organizations and employees, especially nurses in units like emergency departments and rooms. The adverse effects include reducing overall morale, chaos in the scheduling process, loss of resources, and a stretched human resource capacity as well as overwhelming the human resource teams and their ability to have effective recruitment. Carlson notes that the staffing process is the worst hit by attrition, and it becomes harder for nurses to perform their duties usefully due to increased burden and long shifts.

As such, overworking the nursing staff that is retained may be the prudent move in the short term for nurse managers. However, it increases the nurse-patient ratios, which can lead to burnout, possible medication errors, and even more turnover. The replacement of a nurse costs a health institution between $22,000 and $65,000. Further, reports show that a hospital can lose close to $8 million each year indirect costs related to nursing turnover (Wood, 2017; Ellrich & Nelson, 2020). The implication is that high nurse turnover can result in a loss of essential memories by affected nurses about an institution. Imperatively, leaders and nurse managers need to get strategic solutions through better leadership approaches and management interventions to address this critical problem.

Roles of Leaders and Managers Based on different Approaches to the Issue

Nurse turnover is a critical issue that has attracted the attention of all stakeholders in the healthcare industry and even policymakers within the government. Turnover is an important determinant of organizational output, especially in the healthcare sector that is transforming and also dealing with unique situations like pandemics and infectious diseases (Heidari, Seifi & Gharebagh 2017). While different initiatives, programs, and strategies have been proposed by different players, right from nursing and other medical professionals, as well as scholars and policymakers in government, nurse leaders and managers, remain critical at having these solutions work.

Leaders and managers must establish retention initiatives as practical approaches to dealing with the problem. Having retention strategies means that the leaders and managers should apply critical leadership as well as management skills, competencies, and abilities to ensure that the issues raised by nurses or leading to attrition are addressed collaboratively. According to Heidari et al. (2017), nurse leaders and managers need to understand the reasons for nurses leaving their employment and mitigate the factors that lead to the intentions of these professionals leaving the workplace. For instance, studies demonstrate that most nurses leave because of job dissatisfaction, especially when a nurse requires career progression and empowerment. The implication is that leaders should advocate for nurses to get better training and career progression opportunities in the organization. Nurse leaders need to ensure that bedside nurses have a manageable workload and get chances to increase their competence and skills for better service delivery.

Additional Aspects by Leaders and Managers to enhance Professionalism

According to Wood (2017), nurse leaders and managers should develop effective approaches in their efforts to address the problem by getting an excellent fit to mitigate the turnover, right from the hiring process. Leaders should engage the nurses to avoid burnout. At the same time, the management should institute an effective hiring process which allows an organization to attain the best fit based on an individual’s attitude and ability to stay. Managers can establish retention policies when hiring nurses. For instance, a strategy that requires a nurse to spend at least a certain amount of time at the organization can mitigate turnover (Ellrich & Nelson, 2020). Managers should develop retention strategies like the creation of growth opportunities for nursing staff, recognizing nurses for meaningful performance and achievement, and improving the work environment.

Effective Leadership Style and Advocacy

On their part, nurse leaders should develop and nurture the collaborative working relationships with the nurses and ensure that the professional code of conduct and ethical principles guide how they deal with bedside RNs in their units. According to Hughes (2017), specific leadership strategies can promote the retention of nurses. These include trust, loyalty, having integrity through the use of both aesthetic and authentic leadership models. As nurse advocates, nurse leaders should ensure that their staff work in a secure and safe environment for effective service delivery to patients. The leaders should also support the nurses and use team-building strategies to attain a coherent and high performing team.

The implication is that nurse leaders should use a transformational leadership approach to inspire their nurses, encourage them to attain career goals, and ensure that they deliver the best quality outcomes to retain them (Maxwell, 2017). Studies show that a positive relationship exists between transformational leaders and nurse performance and retention in healthcare organizations. From a Christian and biblical perspective, leaders and managers have to protect their employees and ensure that they are treated well to offer better services to patients (Maxwell, 2017). Transformational leadership ensures that nurses develop professionally, and organizations use effective strategies to solve problems facing them.

Conclusion

Nurse leaders, as well as managers, need to develop responsive and practical models to deal with the issue of nurse turnover to ensure that they mitigate costs and adverse effects associated with the problem. The use of a transformational leadership approach and application of ethical as well as professional code of conduct principles should the starting points.

References

Carlson, K. (2018). Avoiding the organizational pain of high nurse turnover. Retrieved from

http://exclusive.multibriefs.com/content/avoiding-the-organizational-pain-of-high-nurse-turnover/healthcare-administration

Ellrich, M. & Nelson, B. (2020 March 23). Nurse Turnover, Part 1: How to Retain Your Best.

Retrieved from https://www.gallup.com/workplace/296198/nurse-turnover-part-retain-best.aspx

Heidari M, Seifi B, Gharebagh Z. A (2017). Nursing staff retention: Effective factors. Annals of

Tropical Medicine and Public Health, Vol. 10, No.6, pp.1467-73.

Hughe, V. (2017).  Review Article: Leadership Strategies to Promote Nurse Retention. Scientific

 Journal of Nursing & Practice.

Maxwell, E. (2017). Good leadership in nursing: what is the most effective approach? Nursing

            Times [online]; Vol.113, No. 8, pp.18-21.

Wood, D. A. (2017). Employers need to address nursing turnover. Retrieved from

https://mediakit.nurse.com/employers-need-to-address-nursing-turnover/

Nurse staffing ratio is one of the major issues in the healthcare system. Most healthcare institutions are always concerned with the number of healthcare professionals who can give adequate and quality services to the patients. Also, patients are always attracted to the healthcare settings where there are enough nurse-to-patient ratios. The more the number of nurses, the higher the likelihood of receiving effective and efficient care from a healthcare institution. One of the critical topics discussed in the field of nursing is the increase in nurse-to-patient ratios. Generally, for the most healthcare institutions, nurse are asked to care for more patients at a given time; this happens due to the lack of enough number of nurses as well as the high costs of employing more nurses for a given healthcare institution (Aiken et al., 2015). Also, a high number of patients for one nurse is attributed to the increase in the number of patients seeking medical services from various hospitals and healthcare institutions. When nurses are assigned to fewer patients to care for at a time, there is always higher level of job satisfaction.

Nurse staffing ratio often impacts the quality of care and patient safety. With the appropriate number of nurses, there is always higher likelihood of attaining effective patient care leading to quality outcome. Healthcare institutions that adhere to the correct nurse to patient rations often tend to achieve the highest quality healthcare outcome. On the other hand, clinical or healthcare settings with less nurse to patient ratio often deliver low quality healthcare, a scenario that negatively impacts the health and wellbeing of the people within the community. Where there is huge number of patients compared to the number of nurses or healthcare professionals, the treatment processes are often compromised as nurses become overwhelm leading to low quality health outcome. Also, with the few number of nurses, there is always high possibility of nurse burnout. All these factors interfere with effective health outcome.

How Professional Standards of Practice Should Be Demonstrated

In This Situation to Help Rectify the Issue

Professional standards should always be observed in every treatment process. In every healthcare institution, healthcare professionals are required adhere to the required professional standards. Even though some healthcare institutions have low nurse-to-patient ratios, healthcare professionals are required to adhere to the professional standards to ensures that they deliver quality healthcare. Nurses need to stick to their commitment to serve; this is one of the professional standards required that leads to problems with the nurse staffing ratios. Serving patients irrespective of their number will overcome the problems that often arise as a result of low nurse-to-patient ratios (Griffiths et al., 2018). For instance, adherence to the quality standards in healthcare provision will ensure that there are effective treatment outcomes. The professional standards of practice in nursing also stipulate that the right number of patients should be assigned to one nurse so as to ensure that there is delivery of the required services at the right time. Adherence to ethical practices will also ensure that nurses perform their roles as required amidst the problems associated with the nurse staffing ratios. One of the professional roles of a nurse is to ensure that patients get the right care and to ensure effective or quality health outcomes. The application of all the above professional standards of practice would help in rectifying the issues or problems associated with the nurse staffing ratios.

 

 

 

Roles of Nursing Leaders and Nursing Managers

Nurse leaders and nurse managers play critical roles in ensuring that nurses act professionally in line with healthcare’s required standards. Nurse leaders guides healthcare workers especially the nurses in undertaking their roles under different situations. Nurse managers are always responsible for supervising the nursing staff including nurses, clinical officers, doctors, physicians and other healthcare workers who ensure the safety and wellbeing of the patients (Branden & Sharts-Hopko, 2017). One of the principles that nursing leadership should portray in ensuring correct nurse staffing ratio is the commitment to excellence. To ensure excellence in the treatment process, nurse leaders ensure that nurses are committed to quality treatment processes irrespective of their numbers and the rate of flow of patients into the hospital. Adhering to the principle of excellence will ensure that nurses work to provide safety and quality care to all the patients.

Nurse leaders should also possess leadership skills to be able to influence the operational processes geared towards achieving effective outcomes irrespective of the problems associated with the nurse staffing ratios. Nurse managers are always responsible for supervising nurse staff in clinical setting and in hospitals. Nurse managers also take part in overseeing patient care, make budgetary and management decision, set work schedules, make decision about personnel and coordinate meetings where decisions are made about the roles of healthcare workers (Branden & Sharts-Hopko, 2017). The key principle of nurse managers is building of a strong culture around the healthcare provision services. The above principle can therefore enhance the solution towards the problems associated with the nurse staffing ratios.

 

 

 

Additional Aspects Managers and Leaders Would Need

Nursing managers and leaders would need to initiate different management or operational processes to ensure the provision of solution to the issues associated with the nurse staffing ratio. Some of the additional aspects or activities in the nursing practices that managers and leaders would need to initiate include regulation of the number of patients during admission; the practice will ensure that nurses and other healthcare professionals do not experience burnout or excessive work that may lead to low quality outcomes (Driscoll et al., 2018). Another aspect of treatment that managers and nurse leaders need to initiate include adherence to the evidence-based practices whereby nurses are able to work in line with the patient’s demands to ensure effective or quality healthcare outcome. To ensure high level of professionalism there is a need for the management and nurse leadership to ensure continuous training processes so as nurses can observe professional practices in taking care of patients.  The above will also reduce problems associated with low nurse-to-patient ratio (Driscoll et al., 2018). Finally, nurse managers and leaders need to ensure that all healthcare professionals adhere to the ethical requirements, which is one aspect of professionalism required in the healthcare practices.

Leadership Style That Would Best Address the Nurse Staffing Ratio

Democratic leadership style would best address the issue of nurse staffing ratio. With this form of leadership, there is a high possibility that all the staff members will contribute towards achieving best practices in ensuring that there is quality outcome in the healthcare delivery processes. Also, the democratic leadership style would ensure that the medical staff members including nurses adhere to high levels of professionalism when dealing with patients. With the democratic leadership style, finding a solution to the problems associated with the nurse staffing ratio is easier as each of the member will be able to communicate the challenges they face as a result of the increasing number of patients in the healthcare settings.

References

Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., Bruyneel, L., Van den Heede, K., Griffiths, P., Busse, R., … & McHugh, M. D. (2015). Nurse staffing and education and hospital mortality in nine European countries: a retrospective observational study. The lancet383(9931), 1824-1830.

Branden, P. S., & Sharts-Hopko, N. C. (2017). Growing clinical and academic nursing leaders: Building the pipeline. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 41(3), 258-265.

Driscoll, A., Grant, M. J., Carroll, D., Dalton, S., Deaton, C., Jones, I., … & Astin, F. (2018). The effect of nurse-to-patient ratios on nurse-sensitive patient outcomes in acute specialist units: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing17(1), 6-22.

Griffiths, P., Recio‐Saucedo, A., Dall’Ora, C., Briggs, J., Maruotti, A., Meredith, P., … & Missed Care Study Group. (2018). The association between nurse staffing and omissions in nursing care: a systematic review. Journal of advanced nursing74(7), 1474-1487.

Benchmark – Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management – Rubric

Rubric Criteria

Total 150 points

Criterion

1. Unsatisfactory

2. Less Than Satisfactory

3. Satisfactory

4. Good

5. Excellent

Professional Standards of Practice to Rectify Issue or Maintain Professional Conduct (B)

Professional Standards of Practice to Rectify Issue or Maintain Professional Conduct (D3.4)

0 points

How professional standards of practice should be demonstrated in this situation to help rectify the issue or maintain professional conduct is not discussed.

16.88 points

A summary of how professional standards of practice should be demonstrated in this situation to help rectify the issue or maintain professional conduct is presented. The summary is incomplete. More information is needed. There are significant inaccuracies.

17.78 points

A general discussion of how professional standards of practice should be demonstrated in this situation to help rectify the issue or maintain professional conduct is presented. There are some gaps in the discussion; some information is needed. There are minor inaccuracies. Rationale is needed for support.

20.03 points

A discussion of how professional standards of practice should be demonstrated in this situation to help rectify the issue or maintain professional conduct is presented. Minor detail is needed for clarity or accuracy. Rationale provides adequate support.

22.5 points

A through discussion of how professional standards of practice should be demonstrated in this situation to help rectify the issue or maintain professional conduct is presented. An understanding of the importance of professional standards of practice in resolving issues and maintaining professional conduct is demonstrated. Strong rationale supports discussion.

Ensuring Professionalism Through Diverse Health Care Settings (B)

Ensuring Professionalism Through Diverse Health Care Settings (C1.1)

0 points

Discussion on what additional aspects managers and leaders would need to initiate to ensure professionalism throughout diverse health care settings while addressing the selected issue is omitted. The discussion fails to meet the assignment criteria.

22.5 points

A partial summary on what additional aspects managers and leaders would need to initiate to ensure professionalism throughout diverse health care settings while addressing the selected issue is presented. The summary contains significant omissions. There are inaccuracies.

23.7 points

A general discussion on what additional aspects managers and leaders would need to initiate to ensure professionalism throughout diverse health care settings while addressing the selected issue is presented. It is unclear how some of the aspects continue to address the selected issue, or the aspects do not appear to relate to a diverse health care setting.

26.7 points

A discussion on what additional aspects managers and leaders would need to initiate to ensure professionalism throughout diverse health care settings while addressing the selected issue is presented. Overall, the aspects presented address the selected issue and relate to a diverse health care setting. The items proposed in the discussion generally support professionalism in diverse health care settings.

30 points

A detailed discussion on what additional aspects managers and leaders would need to initiate to ensure professionalism throughout diverse health care settings while addressing the selected issue is presented. The aspects presented clearly continue to address the selected issue and relate to a diverse health care setting. The items proposed in the discussion support the exemplification of professionalism in diverse health care settings.

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

0 points

Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

2.25 points

Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent.

2.37 points

Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

2.67 points

Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

3 points

All format elements are correct.

Argument Logic and Construction

Argument Logic and Construction

0 points

Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.

5.63 points

Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.

5.93 points

Argument is orderly but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.

6.68 points

Argument shows logical progression. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.

7.5 points

Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

0 points

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.

5.63 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied.

5.93 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed.

6.68 points

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech.

7.5 points

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Leadership Style to Address Issue

Leadership Style to Address Issue

0 points

A leadership style to address the chosen issue is omitted. The proposed item is not a leadership style.

16.88 points

A leadership style to address the chosen issue is partially summarized. The characteristics of the leadership style are vaguely presented. It is unclear why this style could be successful in this setting.

17.78 points

The characteristics of the identified leadership style are described. A general explanation of why this style could be successful in this setting is presented. There are some gaps in the explanation. More information or rationale is needed.

20.03 points

The characteristics of the identified leadership style are described. An explanation of why this style could be successful in this setting is presented. Some rationale is needed for support.

22.5 points

The characteristics of the identified leadership style are clearly described. A detailed explanation of why this style could be successful in this setting is presented. Strong rationale is provided for support.

Selected Issue, Setting, and Impact on Patient Safety

Selected Issue, Setting, and Impact on Patient Safety

0 points

The issue described does not meet the assignment criteria. The description of the issue and its impact to quality of care and patient safety is omitted.

16.88 points

A partial summary of the issue is presented. How it impacts quality of care and patient safety is unclear. There are omissions of key information.

17.78 points

A general description of the issue is presented. A summary of how it impacts quality of care and patient safety is presented; more information is needed. There are some inaccuracies.

20.03 points

A description of the issue is presented. How the issue impacts quality of care and patient safety is presented. Some detail is needed for clarity or accuracy.

22.5 points

A clear description of the issue is presented. How the issue impacts quality of care and patient safety is detailed and accurate.

Differing Roles and Approaches of Nursing Leaders and Nursing Managers (B)

Differing Roles and Approaches of Nursing Leaders and Nursing Managers (C1.3)

0 points

Explanation of the differing roles and approaches for nursing leaders and nursing managers is omitted.

16.88 points

A partial explanation of the differing roles and approaches for nursing leaders and nursing managers is presented. It is unclear how the roles and approaches relate to the selected issue, or how they would promote patient safety and quality care. Rationale using theories, principles, skills, and nursing manager or nursing leader roles is not used.

17.78 points

A general explanation of the differing roles and approaches for nursing leaders and nursing managers is presented. A general summary of how the roles and approaches relate to the selected issue, and how they would promote patient safety and quality care, is provided. Some rationale using theories, principles, skills, and nursing manager or nursing leader roles is used.

20.03 points

An explanation of the differing roles and approaches for nursing leaders and nursing managers is presented. An explanation of how the roles and approaches relate to the selected issue, and how they would promote patient safety and quality care, is provided. Rationale using theories, principles, skills, and nursing manager or nursing leader roles is used. Some detail is needed for accuracy or clarity. More rationale is needed in some areas. The explanation demonstrates a general understanding of the of nursing leadership and management roles in the promotion of patient safety and quality care.

22.5 points

A detailed explanation of the differing roles and approaches for nursing leaders and nursing managers is presented. A well-developed explanation of how the roles and approaches relate to the selected issue, and how they would promote patient safety and quality care, is provided. Rationale using theories, principles, skills, and nursing manager or nursing leader roles is used. The explanation demonstrates insight into exercising the roles of professional nursing leadership and management in the promotion of patient safety and quality care.

Thesis Development and Purpose

Thesis Development and Purpose

0 points

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

5.63 points

Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.

5.93 points

Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.

6.68 points

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

7.5 points

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

Documentation of Sources

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

0 points

Sources are not documented.

3.38 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

3.56 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

4.01 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

4.5 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.