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Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

Walden University  Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children-Step-By-Step Guide

 

This guide will demonstrate how to complete the Walden University   Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children assignment based on general principles of academic writing. Here, we will show you the A, B, Cs of completing an academic paper, irrespective of the instructions. After guiding you through what to do, the guide will leave one or two sample essays at the end to highlight the various sections discussed below.

 

How to Research and Prepare for  Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

 

Whether one passes or fails an academic assignment such as the Walden University   Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children depends on the preparation done beforehand. The first thing to do once you receive an assignment is to quickly skim through the requirements. Once that is done, start going through the instructions one by one to clearly understand what the instructor wants. The most important thing here is to understand the required format—whether it is APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.

 

After understanding the requirements of the paper, the next phase is to gather relevant materials. The first place to start the research process is the weekly resources. Go through the resources provided in the instructions to determine which ones fit the assignment. After reviewing the provided resources, use the university library to search for additional resources. After gathering sufficient and necessary resources, you are now ready to start drafting your paper.

 

How to Write the Introduction for   Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

 

The introduction for the Walden University   Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children is where you tell the instructor what your paper will encompass. In three to four statements, highlight the important points that will form the basis of your paper. Here, you can include statistics to show the importance of the topic you will be discussing. At the end of the introduction, write a clear purpose statement outlining what exactly will be contained in the paper. This statement will start with “The purpose of this paper…” and then proceed to outline the various sections of the instructions.

 

How to Write the Body for   Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children 

 

After the introduction, move into the main part of the   Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children assignment, which is the body. Given that the paper you will be writing is not experimental, the way you organize the headings and subheadings of your paper is critically important. In some cases, you might have to use more subheadings to properly organize the assignment. The organization will depend on the rubric provided. Carefully examine the rubric, as it will contain all the detailed requirements of the assignment. Sometimes, the rubric will have information that the normal instructions lack.

 

Another important factor to consider at this point is how to do citations. In-text citations are fundamental as they support the arguments and points you make in the paper. At this point, the resources gathered at the beginning will come in handy. Integrating the ideas of the authors with your own will ensure that you produce a comprehensive paper. Also, follow the given citation format. In most cases, APA 7 is the preferred format for nursing assignments.

 

How to Write the Conclusion for   Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

 

After completing the main sections, write the conclusion of your paper. The conclusion is a summary of the main points you made in your paper. However, you need to rewrite the points and not simply copy and paste them. By restating the points from each subheading, you will provide a nuanced overview of the assignment to the reader.

 

How to Format the References List for   Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

 

The very last part of your paper involves listing the sources used in your paper. These sources should be listed in alphabetical order and double-spaced. Additionally, use a hanging indent for each source that appears in this list. Lastly, only the sources cited within the body of the paper should appear here.

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Discussion NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children 

When seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.

Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture-among other factors-are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.

In this Discussion, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.

To prepare:

Review this week’s learning resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. We will also review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI.

This week you will be assigned one of the following DB by your instructor.

Select one of the following assessment tools or diagnostic tests to explore for the purposes of this Discussion:

Mammogram

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test

Body-mass index (BMI) using waist circumference for adults

Select one of the examples on which to focus for this Discussion. What health issues and risks may be relevant to the child you selected?

Overweight 5-year-old boy with overweight parents

5-year-old girl of normal weight with obese parents

Severely underweight 12-year-old girl with underweight parents

Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you selected. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather?

What does the literature discuss regarding the validity, reliability, and are there any issues with sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool?

Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: Discussion: NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Discussion NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.

By Day 3

Post a description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you selected is used in health care. Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include references in appropriate APA formatting.

OR

Post an explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you selected. Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health. Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information. Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.

Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

By Day 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues who selected a different tool test, or child health example than you, using one or more of the following approaches:

Critique your colleague’s evaluation of the validity and reliability of the tool or test selected.

Suggest alternative or additional tools or tests that should be considered when gathering information about specific conditions or symptoms.

Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.

Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.

Suggest additional health risks or issues that could be relevant to the child.

Critique your colleagues’ questions, and suggest how the parents or caregivers might interpret these questions. Provide alternate or additional questions.

Suggest an additional strategy for gathering patient information or promoting proactivity

Also Read:

Discussion: NURS 6512 Effective Communication

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NURS 6512 Effective communication is required needed in any patient-healthcare provider interaction

NURS 6512 Primary care is a critical aspect of patient care

NURS 6512 Cultural beliefs played a key role in patient health

NURS 6512 Research the health-illness continuum and its relevance to patient care

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NURS 6512 Cultural and linguistic competence

NURS 6512 it is important to treat all patients with respect and dignity despite any differences in race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, or belief systems

NURS 6512 Assessment tests and tools play an important role in the diagnosis of various diseases conditions in both adults and children

NURS 6512 Allergies

NURS 6512 Health assessment of the skin, hair and nails

NURS 6512 Asthma Diagnosis

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NURS 6512 Congestive Heart Failure

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NURS 6512 Discussion comprehensive health history for a patient is important in developing a treatment plan for them

Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children 

Assessment tests and tools play an important role in the diagnosis of various diseases conditions in both adults and children. In adults, the role of protein-specific antigen test vis-à-vis the diagnosis of prostate cancer cannot be underestimated. According to statistics, prostate cancer afflicts more people from the age of 65 and above in the United States (Adhyam & Gupta, 2012). Further, genetics play a role in the prevalence of the disease as more African-Americans have been found with the condition compared to their white counterparts whereas family history also predisposes men to it. Given that prostate cancer can advance either slowly or rapidly, screening plays an important role in its management. The purpose of this paper therefore is to examine the prostate-specific antigen test from the provided list of tools.  

Description of the Tool 

  Prostate cancer is primarily screened through a blood-test referred to as the prostate-specific antigen-test (PSA). PSA is thus the biomarker for prostate cancer and is actually a protein produced by both malignant and non-malignant tissues in the affected region. The PSA test works through drawing of blood from a patient’s artery or vein, which will be sent to the laboratory for examination (Adhyam & Gupta, 2012). If the level of the PSA in the blood sample is more than 4 mg/ml, then cancer could be diagnosed. However, the utilization of this PSA level is still shrouded in controversy since such results may also indicate the presence of other diseases such as inflamed or enlarged prostate. Thus, in order to truly conclude the presence of prostate cancer, additional tests such as biopsy, ultrasound, prostate exams and even the recent multiparametric-prostate-magnetic resonance imagining (MP-MRI) become necessary (Stamatakis & Pinto, 2014).  

PSA Test’s Validity, Reliability, Sensitivities, and Predictive Values 

The validity of the PSA Test for screening cancer patients has always been a subject of discussion. Whereas the test is valid when it comes to cancer screening, particularly in early stages, its overall validity does not inspire confidence since its effect on mortality has not been determined (Leal, Welton, & Martin, 2018). Further, the PSA test’s reliability has also been called into question. Whereas the tool can detect abnormal levels of PSA in the blood, it does not offer an accurate diagnostic information concerning the state of one’s prostate. Thus, one needs to adopt the usage of other tests in order to achieve this objective. Also, it is not useful in screening early stages of this cancer as mentioned above without proving useful for late stage prostate cancer.  

Moreover, the usage of PSA test has been characterized by diametrically different opinions from doctors and studies. For instance, while the tool has provided early detection of prostate cancer, its usefulness as regards saving lives has no clear cut answer. Also, the existence of the PSA levels of more than 4mg/ml has generated controversy in the scientific circles as it does not necessarily appear as a biomarker for prostate cancer (Laine, 2012).  Recommendations have also been made to use the upper range of values of normal when it comes to PSA for older adults. However, this only serves to reduce the sensitivity of the PSA tool for older adults’ prostate screening. Therefore, whereas the PSA cut off 4 ng/mL has expressed low sensitivities in studies, its specificity has increased as incidences of false positive tests are almost negligible.  

 

References 

Adhyam, M., & Gupta, A. K. (2012). A Review on the Clinical Utility of PSA in Cancer Prostate. Indian journal of surgical oncology, 3(2), 120-9. 

Laine, C. (2012). High-value testing begins with a few simple questions. Annals of Internal Medicine, 156(2), 162–163. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. 

Leal, J., Welton, N., & Martin, R. (2018). Estimating the sensitivity of a prostate cancer screening programme for different PSA cut-off levels: A uk case study. Cancer Epidemiology, 52, 99-105.         

Stamatakis, L., & Pinto, P. A. (2014). Diagnostic value of biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based detection of prostate cancer in men without prior biopsies. BJU International, 115(3), 381-388. doi:10.1111/bju.12639