Discussion Suicide Sociology

Discussion Suicide Sociology

Discussion Suicide Sociology

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Spirituality would serve as an essential concept in the provision of care for patients because of its crucial role in helping people who believe in its effectiveness to overcome the struggles of their illness. As a healthcare practitioner, I consider the philosophical belief of the patients that forms their spiritual perspectives as essential for making the treatment given to the work since the physical and mental are connected and work in harmony. For example, a patient who believes in praying before doing anything as part of the spiritual routine should be allowed to do so in the healthcare setting whenever he or she wants to engage in the activity. Also, patient care in the current system is defined by the willingness of the practitioner to show respect and understanding of the philosophical perspective of the individual as part of the ethical duty of respect for autonomy. Therefore, the concept of spirituality would play a large role in my care for patients since it functions as part of the framework that they consider useful for restoring their health and wellbeing.

I’m working on a sociology discussion question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

consider the various end-of-life issues that are raised–such as right-to-die, physician-assisted suicide, and prolonging life through artificial means. Also think of the hopeful side of aging.

In your small group, discuss the following questions and include how you faith informs your answers:

Should Terry Schiavo have been sustained on a feeding tube indefinitely?
Did Brittany Maynard do the right thing in choosing the time of her own death to avoid pain?
What irony do you see in Peggy Battin’s advocacy for right-to-die and her personal experience with her severely disabled husband?
Of the suggestions given to improve the aging process, which one might you adopt?

Suicide: A Study in Sociology (French: Le Suicide: Étude de sociologie) is an 1897 book written by French sociologist Émile Durkheim. It was the first methodological study of a social fact in the context of society. It is ostensibly a case study of suicide, a publication unique for its time that provided an example of what the sociological monograph should look like.

According to Durkheim,

the term suicide is applied to all cases of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of the victim himself, which he knows will produce this result. He also believes that because of high levels of anomie there are high levels of suicide.[1]

Four types of suicide
In Durkheim’s view, suicide comes in four types, which are based on the degrees of imbalance of two social forces: social integration and moral regulation.[2] Durkheim noted the effects of various crises on social aggregates—war, for example, leading to an increase in altruism, economic boom or disaster contributing to anomie.[3]

Egoistic suicide
Egoistic suicide reflects a prolonged sense of not belonging, of not being integrated in a community. It results from the suicide’s sense that they have no tether. This absence can give rise to meaninglessness, apathy, melancholy, and depression.[4]

Durkheim calls such detachment “excessive individuation.” Those individuals who were not sufficiently bound to social groups (and therefore well-defined values, traditions, norms, and goals) were left with little social support or guidance, and were therefore more likely to commit suicide. Durkheim found that suicide occurred more often among unmarried people, especially unmarried men, whom he found had less to bind and connect them to stable social norms and goals.[2]

Altruistic suicide
Main article: Altruistic suicide
Altruistic suicide is characterized by a sense of being overwhelmed by a group’s goals and beliefs.[5] It occurs in societies with high integration, where individual needs are seen as less important than the society’s needs as a whole. They thus occur on the opposite integration scale as egoistic suicide.[2] As individual interest would not be considered important, Durkheim stated that in an altruistic society there would be little reason for people to commit suicide. He described one exception: when the individual is expected to kill themself on behalf of society, for example in military service.

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Anomic suicide
Anomic suicide reflects an individual’s moral confusion and lack of social direction, which is related to dramatic social and economic upheaval.[6] It is the product of moral deregulation and a lack of definition of legitimate aspirations through a restraining social ethic, which could impose meaning and order on the individual conscience. This is symptomatic of a failure of economic development and division of labour to produce Durkheim’s organic solidarity. People do not know where they fit within their societies. Durkheim explains that this is a state of moral disorder where people do not know the limits on their desires and are constantly in a state of disappointment. This can occur when they go through extreme changes in wealth; while this includes economic ruin, it can also include windfall gains—in both cases, previous expectations from life are brushed aside and new expectations are needed before they can judge their new situation in relation to the new limits.

Fatalistic suicide
Fatalistic suicide occurs when a person is excessively regulated, when their futures are pitilessly blocked and passions violently choked by oppressive discipline.[7] It is the opposite of anomic suicide, and occurs in societies so oppressive their inhabitants would rather die than live on. For example, some prisoners might prefer to die than live in a prison with constant abuse and excessive regulation. Unlike the other concepts he developed, Durkheim believed that fatalistic suicide was theoretical and probably did not exist in reality.[8][9][10][11][12][13]

Durkheim concluded that suicide rates are higher:

in men than women (although married women who remained childless for a number of years ended up with a high suicide rate).
for those who are single than those who are in a sexual relationship.
for people without children than people with children.
among Protestants than Catholics and Jews.
among soldiers than civilians.
in times of peace than in times of war. (For example, the suicide rate in France fell after the coup d’état of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte. War also reduced the suicide rate: after war broke out in 1866 between Austria and Italy, the suicide rate fell by 14 per cent in both countries.)
in Scandinavian countries.
He also concluded that, the higher the education level, the more likely it was that an individual would choose suicide. However, Durkheim established that there is more correlation between an individual’s religion and suicide rate than an individual’s education level. Jewish people were generally highly educated but had a low suicide rate.

Topic 1 DQ 1

Oct 3-5, 2022

What would spirituality be according to your own worldview? How do you believe that your conception of spirituality would influence the way in which you care for patients?

In essence, spirituality is the quest for the meaning of life (Bogue and Hogan, 2020). This vague term takes on many meanings depending on who is asked. Worldviews have a large impact on what path spirituality takes for someone. Personally, my worldview aligns with realism and optimism. Realism in the fact that what I can perceive and what is tangible in this world is what creates the majority of my experience. My optimistic worldview allows me to rely on such ideas as faith in order to maintain a positive view of my future. These play into my spirituality by allowing me to stay grounded in the present and accepting that the future is still unknown but has so much potential to be better than what I can comprehend now. My worldview allows my spirituality to be fluid and less of a daily burden mentally. The combination of my worldview and spirituality allow me to be present for my patients in their times of need, maintain positivity, be open to external experiences and worldviews, all while maintaining a tangible awareness of the physical ailments they are experiencing. Faith without realism does not benefit the patient because even if a grim prognosis exists, realism allows us to deal with the now and continue to move forward. Even if moving forward towards a terminal diagnosis, solace can be found in working through the physical realm to eventually be at peace in faith; knowing all that can be done in the now has been addressed.


Bogue, D. W. and Hogan, M. (2020). Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics. Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in health care. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/1

The contact hypothesis can be described as a psychological theory that suggests that having contact with another group can help reduce prejudices between the two social groups (Paluck et al., 2019). The contact hypothesis applies to most people frequently in different situations ranging from racial cues to gender differences among other differentiating factors (Zhou et l., 2019). The purpose of this discussion is to analyze an example of a life encounter when the contact hypothesis was applied to me.

In high school, we moved to a new town next to Canes place. We were both the same age but went to different schools. Canes school and ours used to compete in several games and activities. Students from Canes school, and those from mine used to hate each other. I ended up avoiding Cane even back at home just because he belonged to that school. However, in our senior year, our parents suggested that we form a study group to boost our grades. We ended up spending so much time with Cane when I realized that he was actually a nice person. I had a wrong judgment about him initially because of the school he went to.

Psychologists have tried for several years to figure out ways to overcome prejudice (Bužarovska, 2020). This led to the development of the contact hypothesis which claims that bringing people from two different groups together can help reduce prejudice (Abrams et al., 2018). In the example, I demonstrated prejudice against Cane’s school when I decided not to like him just because he belongs to that school (Kende et al., 2018). However, when we got an opportunity to spend time together, my opinion changed and the prejudice disappeared.




Abrams, J. R., McGaughey, K. J., & Haghighat, H. (2018). Attitudes toward Muslims: A test of the parasocial contact hypothesis and contact theory. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research47(4), 276-292. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2018.1443968

Bužarovska, E. (2020). The Contact Hypothesis Revised: DOM in the South Slavic Periphery. Journal of Language Contact13(1), 57-95. https://doi.org/10.1163/19552629-bja10003

Kende, J., Phalet, K., Van den Noortgate, W., Kara, A., & Fischer, R. (2018). Equality revisited: A cultural meta-analysis of intergroup contact and prejudice. Social Psychological and Personality Science9(8), 887-895. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550617728993

Paluck, E. L., Green, S. A., & Green, D. P. (2019). The contact hypothesis re-evaluated. Behavioral Public Policy3(2), 129-158. https://doi.org/10.1017/bpp.2018.25

Zhou, S., Page-Gould, E., Aron, A., Moyer, A., & Hewstone, M. (2019). The extended contact hypothesis: A meta-analysis on 20 years of research. Personality and Social Psychology Review23(2), 132-160. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868318762647

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