Discussion Poisoning Research

Discussion Poisoning Research

Discussion Poisoning Research

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Spirituality would serve as an essential concept in the provision of care for patients because of its crucial role in helping people who believe in its effectiveness to overcome the struggles of their illness. As a healthcare practitioner, I consider the philosophical belief of the patients that forms their spiritual perspectives as essential for making the treatment given to the work since the physical and mental are connected and work in harmony. For example, a patient who believes in praying before doing anything as part of the spiritual routine should be allowed to do so in the healthcare setting whenever he or she wants to engage in the activity. Also, patient care in the current system is defined by the willingness of the practitioner to show respect and understanding of the philosophical perspective of the individual as part of the ethical duty of respect for autonomy. Therefore, the concept of spirituality would play a large role in my care for patients since it functions as part of the framework that they consider useful for restoring their health and wellbeing.

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Research additional information on one of the following topics and share your findings with your group as well as any personal experience you’ve had with the topic: Texting & Driving, Choking, Fire, Active Shooter, Earthquakes, Poisoning, and Drowning.
Explore the different risk factors

Poisoning is a significant public health problem worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for visiting emergency departments (EDs), but factors that help to predict overall poisoning-related fatality have rarely been elucidated. Using 1512 subjects from a hospital-based study, we sought to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of poisoning patients and to identify predictors for poisoning-related fatality.

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Between January 2001 and December 2002 we prospectively recruited poisoning patients through the EDs of two medical centers in southwest Taiwan. Interviews were conducted with patients within 24 hours after admission to collect relevant information. We made comparisons between survival and fatality cases, and used logistic regressions to identify predictors of fatality.

A total of 1512 poisoning cases were recorded at the EDs during the study period, corresponding to an average of 4.2 poisonings per 1000 ED visits. These cases involved 828 women and 684 men with a mean age of 38.8 years, although most patients were between 19 and 50 years old (66.8%), and 29.4% were 19 to 30 years. Drugs were the dominant poisoning agents involved (49.9%), followed by pesticides (14.5%). Of the 1512 patients, 63 fatalities (4.2%) occurred. Paraquat exposure was associated with an extremely high fatality rate (72.1%). The significant predictors for fatality included age over 61 years, insufficient respiration, shock status, abnormal heart rate, abnormal body temperature, suicidal intent and paraquat exposure.

In addition to well-recognized risk factors for fatality in clinical settings, such as old age and abnormal vital signs, we found that suicidal intent and ingestion of paraquat were significant predictors of poisoning-related fatality. Identification of these predictors may help risk stratification and the development of preventive interventions.

Topic 1 DQ 1

Oct 3-5, 2022

What would spirituality be according to your own worldview? How do you believe that your conception of spirituality would influence the way in which you care for patients?

In essence, spirituality is the quest for the meaning of life (Bogue and Hogan, 2020). This vague term takes on many meanings depending on who is asked. Worldviews have a large impact on what path spirituality takes for someone. Personally, my worldview aligns with realism and optimism. Realism in the fact that what I can perceive and what is tangible in this world is what creates the majority of my experience. My optimistic worldview allows me to rely on such ideas as faith in order to maintain a positive view of my future. These play into my spirituality by allowing me to stay grounded in the present and accepting that the future is still unknown but has so much potential to be better than what I can comprehend now. My worldview allows my spirituality to be fluid and less of a daily burden mentally. The combination of my worldview and spirituality allow me to be present for my patients in their times of need, maintain positivity, be open to external experiences and worldviews, all while maintaining a tangible awareness of the physical ailments they are experiencing. Faith without realism does not benefit the patient because even if a grim prognosis exists, realism allows us to deal with the now and continue to move forward. Even if moving forward towards a terminal diagnosis, solace can be found in working through the physical realm to eventually be at peace in faith; knowing all that can be done in the now has been addressed.


Bogue, D. W. and Hogan, M. (2020). Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics. Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in health care. Retrieved from

  1. Salad Bar
    ill exposed/total ill = 9/30
    well exposed/total well = 36/100
Odds ratio 0.7619
95 % CI: 0.3156 to 1.8391
z statistic 0.605
Significance level P = 0.5453


Salad bar is not the cause of poisoning.
2. Soup
Ill exposed/total ill = 12/30

Well exposed/total well = 28/100

Cases with a bad outcome: Ill from exposed – 12, ill from the non-exposed group – 18

Cases with a good outcome: Healthy from exposed – 28, healthy from non-exposed – 72

Odds ratio 1.7143
95 % CI: 0.7320 to 4.0146
z statistic 1.241
Significance level P = 0.2144


Although the odds ratio is greater than 1, the significance value indicates that there is no statistically significant difference in the two groups. Therefore, the soup bar is not the cause of illness.
3. Pizza

Ill exposed/total ill = 7/30

Well exposed/total well = 35/100

Cases with a bad outcome: Ill from exposed – 7, ill from the non-exposed group – 23

Cases with a good outcome: Healthy from exposed – 35, healthy from non-exposed – 65

Odds ratio 0.5652
95 % CI: 0.2207 to 1.4478
z statistic 1.189
Significance level P = 0.2345


The odds ratio and the p-value (no statistically significant difference) indicate that the pizza bar is not the problem.

  1. Pasta

Ill exposed/total ill = 2/30

Well exposed/total well = 40/100

Cases with a bad outcome: Ill from exposed – 2, ill from the non-exposed group – 28

Cases with a good outcome: Healthy from exposed – 40, healthy from non-exposed – 60

Odds ratio 0.1071
95 % CI: 0.0242 to 0.4751
z statistic 2.939
Significance level P = 0.0033


The p-value (p-value is less than 0.05) indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between the two groups. However, from the odds ratio, the conclusion is that pasta is not the problem.

  1. Sandwich

Ill exposed/total ill = 18/30

Well exposed/total well = 18/100

Cases with a bad outcome: Ill from exposed – 18, ill from the non-exposed group – 12

Cases with a good outcome: Healthy from exposed – 18, healthy from non-exposed – 82


Odds ratio 6.8333
95 % CI: 2.8034 to 16.6562
z statistic 4.228
Significance level P < 0.0001


Both the odds ratio and the p-value indicate that the sandwich is likely to be the cause of the problem. The p-value is less than 0.001 indicating that there is a significant difference in risk between the groups.

Therefore, the conclusion is that the source of poisoning was the sandwich

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