DQ: Describe two middle range theories that are most valuable in addressing this issue and explain why

DQ: Describe two middle range theories that are most valuable in addressing this issue and explain why

DQ Describe two middle range theories that are most valuable in addressing this issue and explain why

Practice Issue

Awareness of Mental Health within the refugee population is a practice issue I would like to address.  I live in a community that has a diverse population.  There is a refuge center located in the city of where I see patients for mental health issues.  I have found that many of these refugees have had an extreme abusive and traumatic past.  Some of the refugees have limited resources, do not speak English, have financial stressors and physical and mental illnesses that are not being addressed. There could be many reasons why the refugees are not seeking mental health services.

Two Middle Range Theories

Theories have molded the way in which one looks at nursing and caring for patients. One middle range theory is the Health Belief Model.  This theory explains reasons why people would seek out medical attention.  The theory hypothesizes that people go to medical treatment for (perceived susceptibility) such as the thought that an illness could be contracted, (perceived severity) that the problem will interfere with everyday life or result in significant consequences, (perceived benefits) believing that getting treatment will decrease symptoms and (perceived barriers) that there are little barriers to move forward with care (Henshaw & Freedman-Doan, 2009).  Refugees may not be seeking mental health care due to lack of knowledge.  Our Behavioral Health Clinic is trying to increase the awareness to primary care providers to assess each of these individuals for mental health care needs.  I believe that it is more likely for the refugees to seek out care from primary care providers for various reasons.  Examples includes thoughts of having Covid, abdominal pain, rashes or sore throats.  When the refugees come in for these simple visits it is a good time to do a quick survey of the patient’s mental health.

Another middle range theory is the Theory of Watson’s Human Caring.  This theory focuses on not treating the human as an object and the person is apart of themselves and their surrounds such as nature and the larger universe (Ozan et al., 2015, p. 26). Primary care providers can treat simply mental health issues.  The problems that I see is that the primary care visits are limited and shorter in time than mental health visits.  The patient sees their primary care provider for a variety of reasons and if mental health is addressed there is not enough time to fully evaluate the patient’s symptoms or there is sometimes a lack of knowledge of the medications that can be used to treat their symptoms.  Having the refugee see a mental health specialist allows more time with the patient, the use of an interpreter, a less chaotic environment and the chance to fully focus on the patient’s mental health.  This would provide a decreased chance of the patient being treated like an object and look at the patient as whole.


Henshaw, E. J., & Freedman-Doan, C. R. (2009).  Conceptualizing Mental Health Care

Utilization Using the Health Belief Model. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice,

16(4), 420-439. 

Ozan, Y. D., Ocumus, H., & Lash, A. A. (2015). ORIGINAL PAPER. Implementation of Watson’s

Therory of Human Caring: A Case Study. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 8(1),

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Great information! Mental Health is definitely an important area to address in nursing. Mental stability affects all areas of health. Also to add to the great choices related to theories. I felt like Barker’s Tidal Model of Mental Health Recovery is a middle-range theory of nursing that can be used as the basis for interdisciplinary health care. The main focus of the model is on helping individual patients create their own voyage of discovery.Phil Barker defines the Tidal Model as “a philosophical approach to the discovery of mental health. It emphasises helping people reclaim the personal story of mental distress, by recovering their voice. By using their own language, metaphors and personal stories people begin to express something of the meaning of their lives. This is the first step towards helping recover control over their lives.” It provides a nursing care practice framework for the exploration of the patient’s need for nursing and the provision of individually-tailored care plans. The theory states that an individual’s mental well-being is dependent on his or her individual life experiences, including his or her sense of self, perceptions, thoughts, and actions (           ) . This is a great tool for nurses to use to promote mental wellness.


Petiprin, A (2020). Barkers Tidal Mode of Mental Health. Retrieved from: /’s%20Tidal%20Model%20of

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