EC Introduction to Health Care Delivery Systems Paper

EC Introduction to Health Care Delivery Systems Paper

EC Introduction to Health Care Delivery Systems Paper

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Research Paper – From Federal Health Care Reform to State-Level Implementation

You will submit a research paper on federal and state level health reform initiatives. Your research paper should include the following:

Describe a federal health care reform initiative undertaken in the past decade. It may be the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act or another federal reform. Describe what this reform initiative is, the intent of this initiative, and the current state of federal reform.
Broadly describe how this federal health care reform initiative has been implemented in your state of residence ( I live in Texas)
Then provide an in-depth description of one state-level reform emanating from the federal reform initiative that you have selected. Address how this state reform initiative has impacted your state’s health care

delivery system in regards to cost and access to both health and public health services.
As you write this research paper, incorporate information using the perspective of your degree program (public health, health sciences, or nursing) or current/planned discipline.

A health system, also known as health care system or healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

There is a wide variety of health systems around the world, with as many histories and organizational structures as there are nations. Implicitly, nations must design and develop health systems in accordance with their needs and resources, although common elements in virtually all health systems are primary healthcare and public health measures.[1] In some countries, health system planning is distributed among market participants. In others, there is a concerted effort among governments, trade unions, charities, religious organizations, or other co-ordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve. However, health care planning has been described as often evolutionary rather than revolutionary.[2][3] As with other social institutional structures, health systems are likely to reflect the history, culture and economics of the states in which they evolve. These peculiarities bedevil and complicate international comparisons and preclude any universal standard of performance.

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According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system, healthcare systems’ goals are good health for the citizens, responsiveness to the expectations of the population, and fair means of funding operations. Progress towards them depends on how systems carry out four vital functions: provision of health care services, resource generation, financing, and stewardship.[4] Other dimensions for the evaluation of health systems include quality, efficiency, acceptability, and equity.[2] They have also been described in the United States as “the five C’s”: Cost, Coverage, Consistency, Complexity, and Chronic Illness.[5] Also, continuity of health care is a major goal.[6]

Often health system has been defined with a reductionist perspective. Some authors[7] have developed arguments to expand the concept of health systems, indicating additional dimensions that should be considered:

Health systems should not be expressed in terms of their components only, but also of their interrelationships;
Health systems should include not only the institutional or supply side of the health system but also the population;
Health systems must be seen in terms of their goals, which include not only health improvement, but also equity, responsiveness to legitimate expectations, respect of dignity, and fair financing, among others;
Health systems must also be defined in terms of their functions, including the direct provision of services, whether they are medical or public health services, but also “other enabling functions, such as stewardship, financing, and resource generation, including what is probably the most complex of all challenges, the health workforce.

World Health Organization definition
The World Health Organization defines health systems as follows:

A health system consists of all organizations, people and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health. This includes efforts to influence determinants of health as well as more direct health-improving activities. A health system is, therefore, more than the pyramid of publicly owned facilities that deliver personal health services. It includes, for example, a mother caring for a sick child at home; private providers; behaviour change programmes; vector-control campaigns; health insurance organizations; occupational health and safety legislation. It includes inter-sectoral action by health staff, for example, encouraging the ministry of education to promote female education, a well-known determinant of better health.