Essay: Benchmark – Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

NRS-451V Benchmark – Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

Essay: Benchmark – Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

The realization of safety and quality outcomes in care are the aims of health organizations in the modern world. Healthcare providers should strive to ensure that culture of patient safety is created in their organizations. Organizational factors however influence the realization of the desired safety and quality goals of care in nursing. For example, vices such as bullying affect the health and wellbeing of the healthcare providers, which hinder the provision of care that meets the safety and quality needs of the patients. Therefore, this paper examines the differing approaches that nursing leaders and managers use in addressing the issue of bullying in nursing practice.

Description of the Selected Issue

The selected issue for analysis is bullying. Bullying is an expression of workplace violence that can exist in forms such as verbal, emotional and physical abuses. Bullying occurs persistently with the aim of damaging one’s professional and personal relationships through actions such as harassment and social exclusion. Bullying in nursing and healthcare has adverse consequences on patient care and safety in settings where it occurs (Hartin et al., 2018). Accordingly, bullying has psychophysical consequences to the victims that may affect their ability to provide high quality care to their patients. Nurses who are victims of bullying experience mental health problems such as alteration in their mood and attention, which affect the safety and quality of patient care. The risk of post-traumatic stress disorder is also elevated in nurses who are victims of bullying. Evidence also shows that bullying is a predictor of burnout among nurses. As a result, there is a decline in productivity, which predisposes nurses to committing errors in care provision, hence, raising safety and quality concerns (Bambi et al., 2019). Additional evidence also shows that bullying contributes to decrease in the job satisfaction among victims of bullying. The rate of staff turnover also increases with bullying (Johnson & Benham‐Hutchins, 2020). Cumulatively, the above effects of bullying affect the quality and safety care that patients receive in healthcare.

Professional Standards of Practice

Professional standards of practice should be applied in addressing the issue of bullying in nursing. Accordingly, professional standards obtained from institutions such as the American Nurses Association (ANA) should be applied in addressing bullying. Nurses should abide with the professional standards set by ANA such as not tolerating violence of any form in their workplace and collaborating with other healthcare providers and their employers to create culture of respect in their organizations. Nurses and other healthcare providers should work together in identifying effective interventions that minimize and prevent factors contributing to bullying in the workplace. The best practices that prevent incivility and bullying should also be incorporated into the existing organizational practices for culture of safety in health. Nurses should also advocate the adoption of evidence-based interventions that are effective in mitigating and preventing incivility, workplace violence and bullying. The approach to addressing the issue of workplace bullying in nursing should also be objective in nature. In this case, professionalism should be demonstrated using facts to examine and develop effective solutions to address the issue.

Roles of Nurse Leaders and Managers

Nurse leaders and managers have differing roles to play in addressing the issue of workplace bullying. Nurse leaders have a role to

Essay Benchmark - Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management
Essay Benchmark – Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

play in preventing the occurrence of workplace bullying. Nurse leaders identify the potential risk factors for bullying within the organization and implement interventions to address it (Hampton et al., 2019). Nurse leaders also have the responsibility of being aware of the existence of possible triggers for bullying and embracing anticipatory interventions to prevent it. Nurse leaders also demonstrate empathy in seeking facts related to bullying from the victims and perpetrators. Empathy promotes the acquisition of accurate information that can aid the development of effective solutions to bullying incidents. Nurse leaders also act as role models of effective behaviors that minimize bullying in nursing practices (Edmonson et al., 2017).

Nurse Managers also have a role to play in addressing the issue of workplace bullying. The managers set workplace policies and standards that regulate employee behavior. The nurse managers also implement preventive interventions against workplace bullying. They use the information obtained from workplace assessment and observation of staff performance to develop responsive interventions to prevent bullying. Nurse Managers also play a role of creating awareness among the nurses on bullying, workplace violence and incivility. For example, they provide training opportunities to their staffs to raise their level of awareness about the causes, effects, and prevention of bullying in the workplace (Vessey & Williams, 2021). Therefore, both nurse managers and leaders have critical roles in addressing bullying in nursing.

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Effective Leadership Style

An effective leadership style that can be applied in addressing the issue of workplace bullying is democratic leadership style. Democratic leadership is a type of leadership style where the leader prioritizes active participation of the team members. Nurse leaders utilizing this approach seek input from those they lead prior to making decisions. The implementation of interventions is done collectively to achieve optimum outcomes in undertaking the assigned tasks. There is also the utilization of open channels of communication where the team members can express their views and concerns. The use of this leadership style is appropriate in addressing bullying because it enables active participation of the healthcare providers in examining the causes and effects of bullying (Hassmiller & Pulcini, 2020). The leadership approach also promotes empowerment of the participants, hence, its applicability to the issue.


Overall, bullying in nursing has a negative effect on safety and quality of patient care. Bullying predisposes victims to health problems such as changes in mood and attention, which increases the risk of errors in nursing care. Professional standards of practice should be applied in addressing the issue of workplace bullying. In addition, nurse leaders and managers should play a proactive role in addressing and preventing bullying in nursing. Nurse leaders and managers can achieve the goal of bullying prevention through the adoption of effective leadership styles such as democratic leadership, which strengthen provider empowerment and creation of culture of safety in an organization.


Bambi, S., Guazzini, A., Piredda, M., Lucchini, A., Marinis, M. G. D., & Rasero, L. (2019). Negative interactions among nurses: An explorative study on lateral violence and bullying in nursing work settings. Journal of Nursing Management, 27(4), 749–757.

Edmonson, C., Bolick, B., & Lee, J. (2017). A Moral Imperative for Nurse Leaders: Addressing Incivility and Bullying in Health Care. Nurse Leader, 15(1), 40–44.

Hampton, D., Tharp‐Barrie, K., & Rayens, M. K. (2019). Experience of nursing leaders with workplace bullying and how to best cope. Journal of Nursing Management, 27(3), 517–526.

Hartin, P., Birks, M., & Lindsay, D. (2018). Bullying and the nursing profession in Australia: An integrative review of the literature. Collegian, 25(6), 613–619.

Hassmiller, S. B., & Pulcini, J. (2020). Advanced Practice Nursing Leadership: A Global Perspective. Springer Nature.

Johnson, A. H., & Benham‐Hutchins, M. (2020). The Influence of Bullying on Nursing Practice Errors: A Systematic Review. AORN Journal, 111(2), 199–210.

Vessey, J. A., & Williams, L. (2021). Addressing Bullying and Lateral Violence in the Workplace: A Quality Improvement Initiative. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 36(1), 20–24.

Nurse staffing ratio is one of the major issues in the healthcare system. Most healthcare institutions are always concerned with the number of healthcare professionals who can give adequate and quality services to the patients. Also, patients are always attracted to the healthcare settings where there are enough nurse-to-patient ratios. The more the number of nurses, the higher the likelihood of receiving effective and efficient care from a healthcare institution. One of the critical topics discussed in the field of nursing is the increase in nurse-to-patient ratios. Generally, for the most healthcare institutions, nurse are asked to care for more patients at a given time; this happens due to the lack of enough number of nurses as well as the high costs of employing more nurses for a given healthcare institution (Aiken et al., 2015). Also, a high number of patients for one nurse is attributed to the increase in the number of patients seeking medical services from various hospitals and healthcare institutions. When nurses are assigned to fewer patients to care for at a time, there is always higher level of job satisfaction.

Nurse staffing ratio often impacts the quality of care and patient safety. With the appropriate number of nurses, there is always higher likelihood of attaining effective patient care leading to quality outcome. Healthcare institutions that adhere to the correct nurse to patient rations often tend to achieve the highest quality healthcare outcome. On the other hand, clinical or healthcare settings with less nurse to patient ratio often deliver low quality healthcare, a scenario that negatively impacts the health and wellbeing of the people within the community. Where there is huge number of patients compared to the number of nurses or healthcare professionals, the treatment processes are often compromised as nurses become overwhelm leading to low quality health outcome. Also, with the few number of nurses, there is always high possibility of nurse burnout. All these factors interfere with effective health outcome.

How Professional Standards of Practice Should Be Demonstrated

In This Situation to Help Rectify the Issue

Professional standards should always be observed in every treatment process. In every healthcare institution, healthcare professionals are required adhere to the required professional standards. Even though some healthcare institutions have low nurse-to-patient ratios, healthcare professionals are required to adhere to the professional standards to ensures that they deliver quality healthcare. Nurses need to stick to their commitment to serve; this is one of the professional standards required that leads to problems with the nurse staffing ratios. Serving patients irrespective of their number will overcome the problems that often arise as a result of low nurse-to-patient ratios (Griffiths et al., 2018). For instance, adherence to the quality standards in healthcare provision will ensure that there are effective treatment outcomes. The professional standards of practice in nursing also stipulate that the right number of patients should be assigned to one nurse so as to ensure that there is delivery of the required services at the right time. Adherence to ethical practices will also ensure that nurses perform their roles as required amidst the problems associated with the nurse staffing ratios. One of the professional roles of a nurse is to ensure that patients get the right care and to ensure effective or quality health outcomes. The application of all the above professional standards of practice would help in rectifying the issues or problems associated with the nurse staffing ratios.




Roles of Nursing Leaders and Nursing Managers

Nurse leaders and nurse managers play critical roles in ensuring that nurses act professionally in line with healthcare’s required standards. Nurse leaders guides healthcare workers especially the nurses in undertaking their roles under different situations. Nurse managers are always responsible for supervising the nursing staff including nurses, clinical officers, doctors, physicians and other healthcare workers who ensure the safety and wellbeing of the patients (Branden & Sharts-Hopko, 2017). One of the principles that nursing leadership should portray in ensuring correct nurse staffing ratio is the commitment to excellence. To ensure excellence in the treatment process, nurse leaders ensure that nurses are committed to quality treatment processes irrespective of their numbers and the rate of flow of patients into the hospital. Adhering to the principle of excellence will ensure that nurses work to provide safety and quality care to all the patients.

Nurse leaders should also possess leadership skills to be able to influence the operational processes geared towards achieving effective outcomes irrespective of the problems associated with the nurse staffing ratios. Nurse managers are always responsible for supervising nurse staff in clinical setting and in hospitals. Nurse managers also take part in overseeing patient care, make budgetary and management decision, set work schedules, make decision about personnel and coordinate meetings where decisions are made about the roles of healthcare workers (Branden & Sharts-Hopko, 2017). The key principle of nurse managers is building of a strong culture around the healthcare provision services. The above principle can therefore enhance the solution towards the problems associated with the nurse staffing ratios.




Additional Aspects Managers and Leaders Would Need

Nursing managers and leaders would need to initiate different management or operational processes to ensure the provision of solution to the issues associated with the nurse staffing ratio. Some of the additional aspects or activities in the nursing practices that managers and leaders would need to initiate include regulation of the number of patients during admission; the practice will ensure that nurses and other healthcare professionals do not experience burnout or excessive work that may lead to low quality outcomes (Driscoll et al., 2018). Another aspect of treatment that managers and nurse leaders need to initiate include adherence to the evidence-based practices whereby nurses are able to work in line with the patient’s demands to ensure effective or quality healthcare outcome. To ensure high level of professionalism there is a need for the management and nurse leadership to ensure continuous training processes so as nurses can observe professional practices in taking care of patients.  The above will also reduce problems associated with low nurse-to-patient ratio (Driscoll et al., 2018). Finally, nurse managers and leaders need to ensure that all healthcare professionals adhere to the ethical requirements, which is one aspect of professionalism required in the healthcare practices.

Leadership Style That Would Best Address the Nurse Staffing Ratio

Democratic leadership style would best address the issue of nurse staffing ratio. With this form of leadership, there is a high possibility that all the staff members will contribute towards achieving best practices in ensuring that there is quality outcome in the healthcare delivery processes. Also, the democratic leadership style would ensure that the medical staff members including nurses adhere to high levels of professionalism when dealing with patients. With the democratic leadership style, finding a solution to the problems associated with the nurse staffing ratio is easier as each of the member will be able to communicate the challenges they face as a result of the increasing number of patients in the healthcare settings.






















Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., Bruyneel, L., Van den Heede, K., Griffiths, P., Busse, R., … & McHugh, M. D. (2015). Nurse staffing and education and hospital mortality in nine European countries: a retrospective observational study. The lancet383(9931), 1824-1830.

Branden, P. S., & Sharts-Hopko, N. C. (2017). Growing clinical and academic nursing leaders: Building the pipeline. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 41(3), 258-265.

Driscoll, A., Grant, M. J., Carroll, D., Dalton, S., Deaton, C., Jones, I., … & Astin, F. (2018). The effect of nurse-to-patient ratios on nurse-sensitive patient outcomes in acute specialist units: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing17(1), 6-22.

Griffiths, P., Recio‐Saucedo, A., Dall’Ora, C., Briggs, J., Maruotti, A., Meredith, P., … & Missed Care Study Group. (2018). The association between nurse staffing and omissions in nursing care: a systematic review. Journal of advanced nursing74(7), 1474-1487.