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NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two

NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two

Chamberlain University NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two– Step-By-Step Guide

 

This guide will demonstrate how to complete the Chamberlain University   NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two  assignment based on general principles of academic writing. Here, we will show you the A, B, Cs of completing an academic paper, irrespective of the instructions. After guiding you through what to do, the guide will leave one or two sample essays at the end to highlight the various sections discussed below.

 

How to Research and Prepare for  NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two                                

 

Whether one passes or fails an academic assignment such as the Chamberlain University   NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two    depends on the preparation done beforehand. The first thing to do once you receive an assignment is to quickly skim through the requirements. Once that is done, start going through the instructions one by one to clearly understand what the instructor wants. The most important thing here is to understand the required format—whether it is APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.

 

After understanding the requirements of the paper, the next phase is to gather relevant materials. The first place to start the research process is the weekly resources. Go through the resources provided in the instructions to determine which ones fit the assignment. After reviewing the provided resources, use the university library to search for additional resources. After gathering sufficient and necessary resources, you are now ready to start drafting your paper.

 

How to Write the Introduction for  NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two                                

 

The introduction for the Chamberlain University   NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two    is where you tell the instructor what your paper will encompass. In three to four statements, highlight the important points that will form the basis of your paper. Here, you can include statistics to show the importance of the topic you will be discussing. At the end of the introduction, write a clear purpose statement outlining what exactly will be contained in the paper. This statement will start with “The purpose of this paper…” and then proceed to outline the various sections of the instructions.

 

How to Write the Body for  NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two                                

 

After the introduction, move into the main part of the  NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two       assignment, which is the body. Given that the paper you will be writing is not experimental, the way you organize the headings and subheadings of your paper is critically important. In some cases, you might have to use more subheadings to properly organize the assignment. The organization will depend on the rubric provided. Carefully examine the rubric, as it will contain all the detailed requirements of the assignment. Sometimes, the rubric will have information that the normal instructions lack.

 

Another important factor to consider at this point is how to do citations. In-text citations are fundamental as they support the arguments and points you make in the paper. At this point, the resources gathered at the beginning will come in handy. Integrating the ideas of the authors with your own will ensure that you produce a comprehensive paper. Also, follow the given citation format. In most cases, APA 7 is the preferred format for nursing assignments.

 

How to Write the Conclusion for  NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two                                

 

After completing the main sections, write the conclusion of your paper. The conclusion is a summary of the main points you made in your paper. However, you need to rewrite the points and not simply copy and paste them. By restating the points from each subheading, you will provide a nuanced overview of the assignment to the reader.

 

How to Format the References List for  NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two                                

 

The very last part of your paper involves listing the sources used in your paper. These sources should be listed in alphabetical order and double-spaced. Additionally, use a hanging indent for each source that appears in this list. Lastly, only the sources cited within the body of the paper should appear here.

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What is the etiology of bronchitis?

There are two kinds of Bronchitis: Acute Bronchitis, that is caused by “Infections or lung irritants,” and Chronic Bronchitis, that is caused by “repeatedly breathing in fumes that irritate and damage lung and airway tissues” (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2018). This could be like smoking or inhaling second-hand smoke. The etiology of bronchitis is the same that causes upper respiratory infections. The names of the viruses that cause bronchitis are coronavirus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus. Most cases of bronchitis come from a virus instead of bacteria. Current smoking is associated with a more goblet cell hyperplasia and number, and chronic bronchitis is associated with more goblet cells, independent of the presence of airflow obstruction. This provides clinical and pathologic correlation for smokers with and without COPD (Kim et al., 2015).

 

Describe in detail the pathophysiological process of bronchitis.

The pathophysiological process of bronchitis is very simple. The symptoms of acute bronchitis are due to acute inflammation of the bronchial wall, which causes increased mucus production along with edema of the bronchus (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2018). This leads to the productive cough that is the hallmark of a lower respiratory tract infection. While the infection may clear in several days, repair of the bronchial wall may take several weeks. During the period of repair, patients will continue to cough. Pulmonary function studies of patients with acute bronchitis demonstrate bronchial obstruction similar to that in asthma. As th

NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two
NR 507 Week 2 Discussion Part Two

e symptoms of acute bronchitis subside, pulmonary function returns to normal.  Most patients will cough for less than 2 weeks with the illness.  If a patient coughs longer than 1 month then the term is post bronchitis syndrome (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2018). The bronchial walls are trying to repair after the clearance of the infection.

 

Identify hallmark signs identified from the physical exam and symptoms.

The hallmark sign and symptoms are duration of cough less than 30 days, productive cough, no history of chronic respiratory illness, and fever. Production of mucus (sputum), which can be clear, white, and yellowish-gray or green in color can occur in acute bronchitis.  Acute bronchitis is caused by a virus.  Cough from the irritated and inflamed bronchial epithelium and increased mucus production (McCance, Huether, Brashers and Rote, 2013).

 

Describe the pathophysiology of complications of bronchitis.

As with most diseases, complications can arise from bronchitis. Around one person in 20 with bronchitis may develop a secondary infection in the lungs leading to pneumonia. The infection is commonly bacterial although the initial infection that caused the bronchitis may be viral.  The infection affects the tiny air sacs known as alveoli in the lungs (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2018). Although a single episode of bronchitis usually isn’t cause for concern, it can lead to pneumonia in some people. Repeated bouts of bronchitis, however, may mean that you have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD. Chronic bronchitis can lead to long term COPD with progressively diminishing lung reserves and breathing difficulties. COPD further raises the risk of occasional flare ups and increased risk of recurrent and frequent chest infections. When you breathe, air moves in your trachea through two tubes called bronchi.  The bronchi branch out into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the ends of the bronchioles are little air sacs called alveoli. And at the end of alveoli are capillaries, which are tiny blood vessels.  Oxygen moves around in the lungs to the bloodstream through the capillaries. Carbon dioxide moves from the blood into the capillaries and then into the lungs and exhaled. The fibers in the walls of the lungs can become damage (Kim et al, 2015). They are not able to expand and make them less elastic when you exhale.

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What teaching related to her diagnosis would you provide?

I would educate Tammy about second-hand exposure to smoke.  This could make her bronchitis even worse if exposed.  Tammy would most likely be prescribed an inhaler that would open up her bronchioles, helping her breath better.  Most people should drink at least 8 eight-ounce cups of water a day. You may need to drink more liquids when you have acute bronchitis. Liquids help keep your air passages moist and help you cough up mucus.  I would encourage Tammy to get plenty of rest to help fight the infection.  Tammy could use a cool mist humidifier to decrease her cough and make it easier for her to breath (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2018).

 

References

Kim, V., Oros, M., Durra, H., Kelsen, S., Aksoy, M., Cornwell, WD., et al. (2015) Chronic Bronchitis and Current Smoking Are Associated with More Goblet Cells in Moderate to Severe COPD and Smokers without Airflow Obstruction. PLoS ONE 10(2). Doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116108

McCance, K. L., Huether, S. E., Brashers, V. L., & Rote, N. S. (2013). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2018). Bronchitis. National Institute of Health. Retrieved from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/bronchitis

You really identified the pathological hallmark, the pathological complication of bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is a transient inflammation of the trachea and major bronchi (Wark, 2011). Clinically, it is diagnosed on the basis of a cough and occasionally sputum, dyspnoea, and wheeze. Pathogens and allergen expose are factors that trigger acute bronchitis. Bronchitis is a self-limiting illness, but times the illness do not go away and can lead to complication such as a chronic cough, chronic bronchitis, and pneumonia

As nurse practitioners (NPs) it is very important that we are quick in diagnosing acute bronchitis on time by paying attention to the hallmark signs of the disease to prevent the complication of the disease such as pneumonia and chronic bronchitis, which has been linked to impaired lung function and decrease in oxygenation to tissues and organs.  These complications if not well managed can lead to death. NPs must treat patient with the right medication mucolytic drugs and antibiotics for those that develop an infection. It is also important to educate the patient on the importance of life style changes such quitting tobacco use and smoking cessation as well as teaching patients the importance of proper hand hygiene to prevent reoccurrence

 

Wark, P. (2011). Bronchitis (acute). BMJ Clinical Evidence2011, 1508. Retrieved from,

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I enjoyed reading your post. I can relate to your teaching about ensuring that individuals with bronchitis wear a mask when around fumes and individuals with cold or flu symptoms. I was once diagnosed with bronchitis when I moved to West Virginia in 2009. I remember having a cold and I was very congested. Right after the cold subsided I started coughing like crazy every day all day. I coughed non-stop and would throw up from coughing too much for two months, I kept thinking it will go away. Every time I would fly I would be so embarrassed because I would cough non-stop on the plane. I took every over the counter cough suppressant and none of them worked. I finally went to the doctor and they prescribe bronchial dilator inhalers, but none of them worked. I went to the doctor the second time and she prescribed codeine which finally cleared my cough. I have learnt to wear a mask whenever I go outside due to high levels of pollen, once I moved Georgia and I sleep with a cool mist Humidifier. The doctors did not prescribe antibiotics because they told me it was a viral infection. They did some blood work and the blood work came back negative.

According to Smith (2017), a systematic review shows that there was limited evidence of clinical benefit to support the utilization of antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Some patients treated with antibiotics recovered a bit more quickly with reduced cough-related outcomes. Unfortunately surveys show that 80% of patients with acute bronchitis receive antibiotics. Antibiotic overuse contributes to emergence of drug-resistant organisms.

References

Smith, S. M., Fahey, T., Smucny, J., & Becker, L. A. (2017). Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. The Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews, 6,