NR542 W2 Discussion: Entities and Relationships SOLUTION

NR542 W2 Discussion: Entities and Relationships SOLUTION

Project Entities and Relationships

Name two-to-five entities (also known as entity classes in your text) that will be part of your database. Explain why you have chosen these entities. Using the Chen format as shown and discussed in the Oppel text, draw an entity-relationship (E-R) diagram for two entities including their relationship; for one of the entities, also name the identifier. Attach the diagram to your discussion post as a PDF document. (Hand drawn diagrams are not acceptable; you may utilize a software program or Microsoft Word symbols to depict your diagram aspects).

*My database topic is CAUTI (Catheter associated urinary tract infection) The three questions to drive my design and query of CAUTI database are
1) what is the unit compliance rate with proper urinary catheter insertion?
2) did 2 nurses verify catheter insertion?
3) is there an assessment, implementation and documentation on foley catheter care and the need for insertion/removal to prevent CAUTIs?*
Please use this for the above. Thanks.

Entities and Relationships

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) helps the business institution to organize their data and improve their management efficiency. In the healthcare sector, the providers need data for quality improvement processes and benchmarking their performances. Therefore, they ought to have an ERP system that captures the most important data to help answer the critical questions. In this case, the database is created to capture information about catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). The nurses can use the database to define key health practices in the organization and possibly determine the possible causes of medication errors. The entities needed for the CAUTIs database include the urinary catheter insertion, time, Foley catheter assessment, and safety procedures initiated.

Justification for Entities Selection

Nurses should be able to answer a series of questions based on the database. Therefore, the entities indicated must be directly related to the questions. Firstly, the nurse should determine the rate of unit compliance with the proper urinary catheter insertion. Based on this, the entity on the catheter insertion procedure is needed. Under this, the attributes such as the type of insertion and the procedure engaged will be documented. The entity on the Foley catheter insertion captures information on whether the nurses could assess the catheter and ensure that it was appropriately inserted. Finally, safety protocols are necessary to protect the patients from hospital-acquired infections during catheter insertion. Therefore, having such information will allow healthcare providers to retrieve data needed to assess performance and infection prevention practices. The nurses ought to document or chart the daily procedures. The other entity is time. Time describes the moment when the procedure was done and the estimated

NR542 W2 Discussion Entities and Relationships SOLUTION

NR542 W2 Discussion Entities and Relationships SOLUTION

period needed to change the catheter.

Commonly, the activities undertaken in the patient’s management are interrelated and procedurals. The healthcare providers are expected to complete one procedure before advancing to the next. The entity-relationship outlines the connection between the entities identified (Al-Fedaghi, 2021). In this case, the first entity will be the patients’ details, followed by the description of the catheter insertion selected, the Foley catheter assessment, the safety procedures and review, and then the time. The following diagram summarizes the relationship.

Foley catheter assessment
The details of the patient
Safety procedure assessment and review
The selected catheter insertion procedure













Fig 1. The E-R diagram

The goal of having the CAUTIs database is to prevent the incidences of infections arising from the procedure. The cases of CAUTIs continue to raise significant health concerns and alarm, especially among the patients admitted to the ICU (Letica-Kriegel et al., 2019). The patients’ details should capture attributes such as age, the gender of the patient, ward, and identification number. The number of patients receiving such interventions in a hospital may be high. The E-R system should be developed so that there are no overlaps in the data and make it easy for the users to access the information they want.


Finally, the E-R system is important for monitoring the quality indicators in the healthcare system. The systems should be designed to capture all the necessary information easily used in the continuous quality improvement processes. In this case, the selected entities included the urinary catheter insertion, time, Foley catheter assessment, and safety procedures initiated. The entities are relevant to the selected database.




Letica-Kriegel, A. S., Salmasian, H., Vawdrey, D. K., Youngerman, B. E., Green, R. A., Furuya, E. Y., Calfee, D. P., & Perotte, R. (2019). Identifying the risk factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infections: A large cross-sectional study of six hospitals. BMJ Open9(2), e022137.

Al-Fedaghi, S. (2021). Conceptual Data Modeling: Entity-Relationship Models as Thinging Machines. arXiv preprint arXiv:2109.14717.