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NRS 429 Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children

NRS 429 Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children

NRS 429 Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children

Mrs. Jones, a widow, is no longer able to live independently and is requiring more and more help with her self-care. Her daughter, Susie, who is married with three school-aged children, agrees to let her mother move in with her. Susie is concerned with balancing the demands of her career and the needs of her family, especially now that her elderly and chronically ill mother will need assistance. She is also unsure about how she feels with the reversal of roles, having to now be the primary caregiver of her mother. How can the nurse, caring for this family, assist with the changes they are about to undergo? How can both the family structural theory and the family developmental theory be applied to this scenario? How can health education enhance health promotion for this family?

The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:

  1. Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.
  2. Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age.
  3. Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies you would use to gain cooperation, and potential findings from the assessment.

Traditionally, nutrition programs were targeted to the indigent and poor populations in developing countries. Many of today’s Americans are malnourished also, but they are inundated with unhealthy foods and require a multidisciplinary approach to nutrition education. What would be the three most important points to include in a public nutrition program? Provide current literature to support your answer and include two nutritional education community resources.

What is the importance of cultural competency in nursing practice? Support your response.

Diversity among individuals, as well as cultures, provides a challenge for nurses when it comes to delivering meaningful health promotion and illness prevention-based education. How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both nurses and patients), and teaching methodologies impact the approach to education? How do health care providers overcome differing points of view regarding health promotion and disease prevention? Provide an example.

In the assigned reading, “How to Write Learning Objectives That Meet Demanding Behavioral Criteria,” Kizlik explained that “objectives that are used in education, whether they are called learning objectives, behavioral objectives, instructional objectives, or performance objectives are terms that refer to descriptions of observable behavior or performance that are used to make judgments about learning.” How do health providers design educational programs to clearly articulate objectives to engage both patients as well as families?

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According to the assigned article, “Health Disparity and Structural Violence: How Fear Undermines Health Among Immigrants at Risk for Diabetes,” narratives tell the story of the interconnectedness between fear and health. Thematically, the issue of fear is a dominant feature that affects how an individual approaches day-to-day living and health. Explain the relationship between fear and health identified by the researchers in the article. Do you agree that structural violence perpetuates health disparity?

Diversity among individuals, as well as cultures, provides a challenge for nurses when it comes to delivering meaningful health promotion and illness prevention-based education. How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both nurses and patients), and teaching methodologies impact the approach to education? How do health care providers overcome differing points of view regarding health promotion and disease prevention? Provide an example.

What is the importance of cultural competency in nursing practice? Support your response.

Traditionally, nutrition programs were targeted to the indigent and poor populations in developing countries. Many of today’s

Americans are malnourished also, but they are inundated with unhealthy foods and require a multidisciplinary approach to nutrition

education. What would be the three most important points to include in a public nutrition program? Provide current literature to support your answer and include two nutritional education community resources.

Using the family structural theory (see the textbook as a model) how can families created following second marriages learn to function as one?

Which theoretical perspective, that guides the nursing process with assessment of the family, do you find to be the most helpful and effective? Why is this theory more appealing to you than the others?

How could you use the family structural theory to determine if a family is dysfunctional or not? Provide evidence to support your answer.

 

School-aged children’s developmental assessment mainly entails the collection of information relating to the expected emotional, physical, and mental abilities of a child between the age of 5 and 12 years. The essential aspects of the collected information include learning approaches, socioemotional, physical/motor, language, and cognitive abilities among others (Scheuer et al., 2019). The main aim of this procedure is to gain a record of the child’s growth in all areas for early identification of developmental health complications to promote timely interventions. It is also necessary to identify and address the child’s special needs based on the assessment outcome. The purpose of this paper is to examine the developmental needs of school-aged children between the ages of 5 and 12 years and the application of developmental theories such as Erickson.

Comparison of Physical Assessment Among School-Aged Children

As our age advances, so is our needs, hence the difference in assessment data obtained at every age.How the data is collected is also different among children of different ages. For example, the developmental assessment of a child who is just joining school, like a 5-year-old, mainly involves the parent or guardian as the main historian, as they are unable to express themselves effectively, whereas the assessment of an older student, 12 years of age, will involve the child as the main historian given their coherent ability to express themselves. Clinicians normally decide on the assessment method by observing the child determine their ability to express themselves. Additional assessment tools include standardized tests, portfolios, care provider rating scales, and parent rating scales (Klingberg et al., 2019).

These assessment tools can however be modified to match the age of the child and their developmental stage(Erdei et al., 2020). For instance, a 5-year-old will require the questions on the standardized test to be read out loud and filled by the clinician. On the other hand, a 12-year-old will be given the chance to read and fill out the questionnaire by themselves.

Typical Assessment for a Child of a Specific Age

L.P is an 11-year-old white male who was born before the 37th week with only 2.5kgs through the spontaneous vaginal delivery. The child stayed in the newborn unit for about 2 weeks following complications such as birth asphyxia (Erdei et al., 2020). The child however gained about 450g when he was leaving the ward. For the developmental assessment of L.P, it is necessary to identify the physical, emotional, social, and cognitive milestones appropriate for his age. Physically, he is expected to show signs of puberty, improved handwriting, and the need to eat and sleep more. Emotionally, L.P is expected to display key milestones such as starting to question authority figures, developing better decision-making skills, and beginning to resist physical affection from parents. Socially, he is expected to be able to form a complex and strong friendship and explore new hobbies. Lastly, the key cognitive milestones expected for the child include experiencing a great sense of responsibility and increased attention span among others.

Developmental Assessment of a Child Using a Developmental Theory (Erickson, Piaget, Kohlberg)

            The psychologist Erik Erikson classified the human developmental stages into 8 different categories. The patient described above appropriately fits in the 4th stage which is named “Industry vs. Inferiority” for children between the ages of 5 and 12 years (Gross, 2020). The basic virtue crucial among children within this age group as described by Erikson is competency. As such, with the utilization of Erikson’s theory of development, the assessment of L.P should mainly focus on his reading and writing abilities. At this age, L.P is expected to display coherent cognitive skills improved through school experience. How he related with his peers is also vital at this age to promote his self-esteem.

The assessment process will thus involve the mother, teachers, and his best friend to provide additional information on how he relates with other people in different situations. At this point in the assessment process, the provider will discuss with the parent any complications or unusual events during pregnancy and explain whether their child’s developmental milestones are age-appropriate (Erdei et al., 2020). To gain cooperation from the child, it is necessary to conduct the assessment when he is together with his friends. Some children may display delays in their development like delays in reading or writing.

Conclusion

The developmental assessment of school-aged children is vital in determining their welfare in school and at home. The assessment process utilizes age-appropriate tools to determine whether the child has grown appropriately emotionally, physically, and socially. Erikson’s theory of development which describes 8 different developmental stages is normally utilized to help with the assessment process for the identification of special needs among children that must be addressed.

References

Erdei, C., Austin, N. C., Cherkerzian, S., Morris, A. R., & Woodward, L. J. (2020). Predicting school-aged cognitive impairment in children born very preterm. Pediatrics145(4). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-1982

Gross, Y. (2020). Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. The Wiley Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences: Models and Theories, 179-184. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118970843.ch31

Klingberg, B., Schranz, N., Barnett, L. M., Booth, V., & Ferrar, K. (2019). The feasibility of fundamental movement skill assessments for pre-school-aged children. Journal of Sports Sciences37(4), 378-386. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1504603

Scheuer, C., Herrmann, C., & Bund, A. (2019). Motor tests for primary school-aged children: A systematic review. Journal of sports sciences37(10), 1097-1112.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1544535