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NRS 434 Compare the physical assessment of a child to that of an adult

NRS 434 Compare the physical assessment of a child to that of an adult

NRS 434 Compare the physical assessment of a child to that of an adult

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Physical assessment of the child and that of an adult is done similarly yet differently. The act of auscultation, palpation, taking the vital signs to get the objective data are done the same but the normal range limits are different. For example, the healthy adult blood pressure normal range is from 90/60 mmHg – 120/80 mmHg, pulse rate 60-100 beats per minute and temperature of 97.8 ‘F to 98.6″F whereas to a 1-11-year-old child has a heart rate of 70-120 bpm, blood pressure of 90-110 systolic and 55-75 diastolic.

Physical assessment of the child and that of an adult is done similarly yet differently. The act of auscultation, palpation, taking the vital signs to get the objective data are done the same but the normal range limits are different. For example, the healthy adult blood pressure normal range is from 90/60 mmHg – 120/80 mmHg, pulse rate 60-100 beats per minute and temperature of 97.8 ‘F to 98.6″F whereas to a 1-11-year-old child has a heart rate of 70-120 bpm, blood pressure of 90-110 systolic and 55-75 diastolic.

In using Erikson’s theory, an adult’s stage of development is focused on the fear of loneliness if there is no long-lasting relationship and adult contemplates their contribution to society with their achievements or lack of, and for a school-aged child, the focus is more on establishing trust and self-esteem (Grand Canyon University, 2018).

Communication and approach with these two different age groups also differ. A caring and comfortable environment is needed for a school-aged child in order to extend their trust from their parents to the healthcare provider. The questions are also formulated so that the child is able to answer. Whereas for the adult, a more factual and straightforward questioning is done. Utilizing the evidence-based practice tools provided to the health care team, a thorough and effective assessment is done to promote health and have an effective nursing process.

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Introduction

Child development assessment is defined as a process of getting data about their growth and development. The Nurse aims at getting a

record growth in all areas while collecting the information. The data being collected include language, cognitive and social-emotional and approaches to learning. Child assessments is important in ascertaining children with special needs that may require extra support (Kaufman, 2018).

Comparing physical assessments of a child to an adult

Obtaining data is different at each age because human needs vary with age. In addition, the mode of assessment used is dynamic. For example, piece of information is obtained from the parent or care giver in a 5-year-old compared to the nineteen-year-old that can express themselves coherently. The Nurse uses Observation as one of the techniques used in the assessment. Here, the care provider interacts with the child and concludes based on their conduct. The other methods include standard test, portfolios, care provider ratings and parent ratings. However, all methods are best applicable for different ages. There is need to modify the techniques in some situation. For example, reading out questions on a standardized test for a five-year-old and writing out the answers for them. However, when the same approach is used on a twelve-year-old, they are left to read, interpret, and even answer the questions on the test with minimal assistance,

NRS 434 Compare the physical assessment of a child to that of an adult

Communication strategies a nurse would use to encourage engagement

Nine-year-old Ben was born at 37 weeks with 2600grams via safe vaginal delivery and was admitted for 2 weeks due to birth asphyxia. He had gained 300grams on discharge. He was breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months and was weaned with different soft foods. He could roll over at 4 months and began sitting at 6. He was hospitalized for severe malnutrition for a month while he was 9 months old. This delayed his milestone and he only crawled when he was 16 months. He could say four-letter words at 6 months and could say complete simple sentences at 24 months. He has good relationship with his family members. He started school at 4 years, is obedient, has average performance, loved by teacher and friends at school. Ben fits into the 4th stage of Erikson developmental theory, known as Industry vs. Inferiority. The basic virtue at this stage is competency (Cherry, 2018). Based on Erikson`s theory, the nurse should focus on his ability to read, do simple sums, and write. The assessor will obtain information on Ben`s friends and this assessment done with he is with his friends. The friends he does not like will make him feel inferior.

Conclusion

Child development assessment is important because it provides opportunity for the care provider to establish any special needs that the child may require. Moreover, the assessment provides a ground where both the care provider and the parents can provide support for the child. However, the needs of the child change with time and hence the mechanisms used in assessing as well as the results (Kaufman, 2018).

Taking a physical assessment on a child is very similar to an adult. Nurses use observation/inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation techniques to assess the patient from head to toes to gather necessary information from their patients (The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, 2017). However, there are some differences between child and adult physical assessments. When taking the physical assessment for children, nurses need to consider the age and developmental stage of the child; check the baby’s head circumference; check speech, hearing, and vision problems. Physical assessment for infants is more different from adults. Nurses need to assess the mouthing reflexes, grasp reflex, stepping reflex, landau reflex, and so on.

Every child develops and progresses differently, but there are basic abilities that are expected to be achieved by certain ages (Falkner, 2018). When nurses offer instruction during the assessment with children, nurses can use some hints from developmental psychologists. Nurses can modify the language and communication style to get the children’s intention and follow the instruction. Giving choices for the children is better than asking permission. Let the child examine the equipment and show them how to use it for the assessment. It also can help decrease the child’s fear and follow the direction during the assessment.

 

To be successful when communicating, nurses must be able to build relationships, get on the level of patients, and even have a little fun. Being attuned to the unique needs of pediatric patients and their parents will help nurses build-essential nurse communication skills (NurseChoice, 2020). To improve the outcome and encourage engagement, nurses also can use age-appropriate toys and questions when communicating with the child, establish trust with the child by showing interest in the child and be honest when answering the child’s questions. The child’s comments and parents’ reports should be important for the assessment as well.

 

References

 

Falkner, A. (2018). Grand Canyon University (E.D). Age-Appropriate Approach to Pediatric Health Care Assessment. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs434vn/health-assessment-foundations-for-effective-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/2.

 

The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne. (2017). Nursing assessment. Retrieved from https://www.rch.org.au/rchcpg/hospital_clinical_guideline_index/Nursing_assessment/

 

NurseChoice. (2020). 5 Tips for Communicating with Pediatric Patients. Retrieved from https://www.nursechoice.com/blog/profiles-and-features/5-tips-for-communicating-with-pediatric-patients/