NURS 4455 Nursing Leadership and Management Module 3 Discussion
Are there tasks or functions in your work environment that you believe are redundant, unnecessary, or repetitive or that could be done by a lesser-paid employee? Explain.
Nurses encounter different workplace issues that impact their level of response and effectiveness in execution of their roles and responsibilities. As a core component of healthcare delivery systems, nurses play a critical role in attainment of healthy living as captured by different initiatives like the Healthy People 2030 initiative and the “The Future of Nursing Charting the Path to Health Equity,” report by the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicines. However, issues like bullying, nurse turnover and nurse shortage arise due to organizational cultures that do not support nurses (Hampton et al., 2019). As such, leaders and managers should take effective measures to resolve such issues because of their adverse effects on the performance of nurses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issue of bullying in nursing practice and the different steps or approaches that nurse leaders and manager can take to address the problem.
Nursing Issue: Bullying
Nurses experience workplace bullying and this can impact their performance because of its effects. In its update on bullying, The Joint Commission (2023) asserts that workplace civility entails a system value the enhances safety. Incivility expressed through bullying behavior is at epidemic levels. Again, the Bureau of Labor Statistics opine that the nursing profession is the riskiest due to high levels of incivility that nurses experience. Bullying is a core part of workplace violence in health care settings as highlighted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Workplace bullying, also called lateral or horizontal violence involves repeated, health-harming mistreatment of individuals by perpetrators Edmonson et al., 2019). Bullying can take different forms that include verbal abuse, threatening, intimidations and humiliating conduct, and workplace interference or sabotage.
According to the American Nurses Association (ANA) workplace incivility, bullying and violence have serious effects in nursing. The ANA contends that bullying is a widespread phenomenon in nursing. ANA describes bullying as repeated, unwanted and harmful actions aimed at humiliation, offending and creating distress for victims or targets. Nurses can experience bullying from colleagues, other healthcare workers and patients. In their study, Al-Ghabeesh et al. (2019) assert that perpetrators of bullying are past or present employees and exhibit an array of behaviors that include verbal or psychological and in fewer cases, physical abuse. Over 30% of nurses in a 2021 survey asserted that they have suffered and experienced bullying directly in their workplaces. As such, nurses, especially newly hired nurses encounter bullying with devastating effects on their long-term career prospects because of its negative effects.
Impact of Bullying in Nursing
Bullying has serious effects on individuals and even the workplace environment and an organization. Bullying not only affects nurses’ physical being but also their ability to offer quality patient care. At individual level, bullying leads to work-related health issues like depression, stress and anxiety, irritability and even sleep problem. Bullied nurses have increased chances of leaving the organization and even the nursing profession, altogether. Such happenings increase the problems of nurse turnover for the organization as it has to hire and orient new nurses to continue care provision (Sauer et al., 2018). Further, nurses leaving the nursing profession is one of the primary causes of the current nurse shortage for not just organizations but the entire health care sector.
At the organizational level, bullying leads to reduce productivity and performance of nurses. Bullied nurses experiencing the effects of this negative behavior may not come to work leading to absenteeism. Bullying affects the performance of nurses making them susceptible to medication errors which increase the cost of care and affects patient safety (Homayuni et al., 2021). The implication is that organizations have to hire new nurses or pay for overtime to replace those leaving. This leads to increased workload and poor nurse-to-patient ratios that may also compromise the quality of care offered by the organization. As such, bullying has significant negative effects that impact the overall quality of care and patient safety.
Nurses, nurse leaders and nurse managers must demonstrate professional practice standards in addressing bullying and any other negative event in the workplace setting. The core aspect of demonstrating these standards is to improve the workplace environment for nurses to ascertain them of their safety. Professional standards as developed by the ANA implores healthcare organizations and providers to ensure that they contain and adhere to policies which not only protect but also promote nurses’ safety, especially against such behaviors like bullying.
Nurses and nurse leaders should demonstrate professional standards of practice through taking ethical, moral and legal responsibility by developing a workplace and organizational culture that promotes civility and abhors conducts like bullying and any form of violence (Hampton et al., 2019). Professional standards of practice demand that nursing professionals treat colleagues with respect and dignity while applying ethical principles like duty of care to reduce any potential harm on patients. They can also exhibit professional standards by implementing best practices based on evidence to prevent, reduce, and mitigate bullying and any form of workplace violence. Through these approaches, nurses can promote safety, health, wellness of nurses as well as ensuring patients’ best care outcomes.
Differing Roles of Leaders and Managers
Nurse leaders and managers have an obligation to address the issue of bullying in their organizations. Nurse leaders should know the link between bullying and overall effects on the organization. Nurse leaders should communicate nurses the negative effects of bullying and the need to replace it with respect and professional values and practices. Nurse leaders should use transformational leadership model to encourage behavioral change and develop an organizational culture that promotes civility and reprimands negative conduct like bullying (Sonmez et al., 2019). Nurse leaders should develop and use effective communication approaches to eliminate bullying and ensure that they develop relevant policies to create a positive workplace culture. They should also be responsible and accountable to developing teamwork and use of evidence-based approaches to build an environment that celebrates nurses for their achievement and bullying-free. As leaders, they should work closely with nursing staff to develop professional practices to enhance overall care delivery by reducing any form of incivility in the workplace.
Nurse managers play an essential role in preventing and correcting workplace bullying with the aim of retaining nurses. Nurse managers should deploy effective managerial styles and a servant leadership approach so that they transcend the ordinary roles they undertake. They must plan, coordinate, and implement policies that are employee-centric and aimed at improving teamwork, effective communication, and reporting channels for any bullying incident that happens (Homayuni et al., 2021). Managers should address bullying by cultivating teamwork and team building without fearing any criticism. Nurse managers must ensure that all aspects of organizational performance protect nurses with the aim of improving patient safety and delivery of better care.
Nurse leaders and managers can implement effective organizational culture that addresses bullying through encouragement and participation of nurses. For instance, nurse managers and nurse leaders should deploy emotional intelligence aspects like self-awareness training and use of models to encourage civility in the workplace. They should also focus on integrating cognitive simulation and training to enhance self-awareness, especially among newly hired nurses during orientation to improve their interactions with their colleagues (Sonmez et al., 2019). Managers and leaders should develop workplace policies aimed at development of positive attitudes by all nurses as a means of attaining work ethics like respect and teamwork as well as inherent dignity. Cultural competency training will also improve nurses’ ability to deal with diverse views and perspective as well as accept inclusion.
Personal Leadership Style
Leadership style is not the ultimate factor that can address incivility and help eliminate or end bullying and associated behaviors. However, it is essential as it affects the overall behavioral aspects of nurses and other professionals. As such, the most appropriate leadership style in this situation is servant leadership. At the core of servant leadership is service to others and ensuring that their interests take priority. Servant leaders demonstrate critical attributes like active listening, empathy, building team, persuasion, emotional intelligence, healing, coaching and foresight. It also entails stewardship, foresight, and caring and appreciation. In their article, Ahmad et al. (2022) observe that servant leadership can play a critical in helping organizations manage bullying by reducing exposure to bully through improving compassion and empathy. Again, Ma et al. (2021) are emphatic that servant leadership was a critical leadership model that helped during exposure to bullying and other adverse events like burnout among nurses at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. As such, this approach will help leaders not just empathize but also listen to nurses and develop effective reporting channels and a collaborative approach to developing requisite interventions to address the issue.
Nurse leaders and nurse managers need effective approaches to address nursing practice issues like bullying. As demonstrated, bullying is a critical and pervasive issue in nursing with more nurses experiencing the issue than never before leading to serious implications on themselves, healthcare organizations and patient safety. As such, nurse leaders should develop effective approaches to address the issue like through the use of servant leadership model.
Ahmad, S., Islam, T., D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E. (2023). Caring for those in your charge: the role
of servant leadership and compassion in managing bullying in the workplace. International Journal of Conflict Management, 34(1): 125-149. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCMA-05-2022-0098
Al-Ghabeesh, S. H., & Qattom, H. (2019). Workplace bullying and its preventive measures and
productivity among emergency department nurses. Israel journal of health policy research, 8(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4268-x
American Nurses Association (ANA) (2023). Violence, Incivility, & Bullying.
Edmonson, C., & Zelonka, C. (2019). Our own worst enemies: The nurse bullying epidemic.
Nursing administration quarterly, 43(3), 274. DOI: 10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000353
Hampton, D., Tharp-Barrie, K., & Kay Rayens, M. (2019). Experience of nursing leaders with
workplace bullying and how to best cope. Journal of nursing management, 27(3), 517–526. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12706
Homayuni, A., Hosseini, Z., Aghamolaei, T., & Shahini, S. (2021). Which nurses are victims of
bullying: The role of negative affect, core self-evaluations, role conflict and bullying in the nursing staff. BMC nursing, 20(1), 1-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00578-3
Ma, Y., Faraz, N. A., Ahmed, F., Iqbal, M. K., Saeed, U., Mughal, M. F., & Raza, A. (2021).
Curbing nurses’ burnout during COVID‐19: The roles of servant leadership and psychological safety. Journal of nursing management, 29(8), 2383-2391. DOI: 10.1111/jonm.13414
Sauer, P. A., & McCoy, T. P. (2018). Nurse bullying: Impact on nurses’ health. Western journal
of nursing research, 39(12), 1533-1546. DOI: 10.1177/0193945916681278.
Sonmez, C. F., & Adiguzel, Z. (2020). Analysis of Leader Effectiveness in Organization and
Knowledge Sharing Behavior on Employees and Organization. SAGE Open. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244020914634
The Joint Commission (TJC) (2021 June). Quick Safety 24: Bullying has no place in health care.
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.
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