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NURS 6051 Musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions

NURS 6051 Musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions

NURS 6051 Musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions

  • Question 1

2 out of 2 points

CC: “I have been having terrible chest and arm pain for the past 2 hours and I think I am having a heart attack.”

HPI: Mr. Hammond is a 57-year-old African American male who presents to the Emergency Department with a chief complaint of chest pain that radiates down his left arm. He states that he started having pain several hours ago and says the pain “it feels like an elephant is sitting on my chest”. He rates the pain as 8/10. Nothing has made the pain better or worse. He denies any previous episode of chest pain. Denies nausea, dyspnea, or lightheadedness. He was given 0.4 mg nitroglycerine tablet sublingual x 1 which decreased, but not stopped the pain.

Lipid panel reveals Total Cholesterol 324 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein (HDL) 31 mg/dl, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) 122 mg/dl, Triglycerides 402 mg/dl, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) 54 mg/dl

His diagnosis is an acute inferior wall myocardial infarction.

Musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions represent one of the most challenging health conditions that may have a complex challenge to the affected patient (Beefcroft & Hough, 2016). Symptoms of these conditions may range in severity. Musculoskeletal complications can affect the muscle, bone, tendons and joints. A major symptom that patients encounter is pain. Conditions may range from the ones that are sudden and short-lived to the ones that are lifelong and are associated with disability as well as ongoing pain. Among the notable changes that a patient with this condition may experience include persistent pain as well as mobility limitations. In this, the patients who may suffer from the long-term condition may experience severe pain that may be related to the wearing out of the tendons. For some patients with complex conditions, they may experience joint deformity that may be a long term condition, and it may be relatively challenging to treat it. When these abnormal changes occur, the involved patient may find it hard to handle some of the changes in weight, thus affecting some parts of the body (Black, 2016). Although musculoskeletal conditions may arise in many forms as well as a result of different factors, there are many ways that the situation may represent itself. The identification of specific symptoms of the disorder plays an essential role in the development of an approach to assist in the management of the stated condition.

1 of 2 Questions:

Why is HDL considered the “good” cholesterol?

Selected Answer: HDL carries between 20-25% of the total cholesterol in plasma. It is a good cholesterol since it accumulates the excess cholesterol that exists in body cells for excretion in the liver.
Correct Answer: HDL is considered the good cholesterol because it collects excess cholesterol in the body cells and transports it to the liver where it is excreted in the body cells and transports it to the liver where it is excreted in the body. HDL carries 20-25% of total plasma cholesterol.
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 2

3 out of 3 points

CC: “I have been having terrible chest and arm pain for the past 2 hours and I think I am having a heart attack.”

HPI: Mr. Hammond is a 57-year-old African American male who presents to the Emergency Department with a chief complaint of chest pain that radiates down his left arm. He states that he started having pain several hours ago and says the pain “it feels like an elephant is sitting on my chest”. He rates the pain as 8/10. Nothing has made the pain better or worse. He denies any previous episode of chest pain. Denies nausea, dyspnea, or lightheadedness. He was given 0.4 mg nitroglycerine tablet sublingual x 1 which decreased, but not stopped the pain.

Lipid panel reveals Total Cholesterol 324 mg/dl, high density lipoprotein (HDL) 31 mg/dl, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) 122 mg/dl, Triglycerides 402 mg/dl, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) 54 mg/dl

His diagnosis is an acute inferior wall myocardial infarction.

2 of 2 Questions:

Explain the role inflammation has in the development of atherosclerosis.

Selected Answer: Mitochondrial damage caused by chronic inflammatory processes cause inflammation in the heart muscles. These processes cause an increase in the production of free radicals that activate the continuous cycle of chronic inflammation.
Correct Answer: Inflammation in the heart muscle caused by chronic inflammatory processes leads to mitochondrial damage that results in an increased free radical production that further activates the chronic inflammatory vicious cycle.
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 3

1 out of 1 points

A 45-year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presents to the Emergency Room (ER) with complaints of sharp retrosternal chest pain that worsens with deep breathing or lying down. She reports a 3-day history of low-grade fever, listlessness and says she feels like she had the flu. Physical exam reveals tachycardia and a pleural friction rub. She was diagnosed with acute pericarditis.

Question:

What does the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) recognize as the result of the pleural friction rub?

Selected Answer: The pericardium tends to roughen following inflammation caused by a post-viral syndrome or an underlying autoimmune disease. The roughening is what produces a classic rub that an APRN   can hear at the left sternal border and apex of the heart.
Correct Answer: The inflammation of the pericardium, due to either the underlying autoimmune disease or a post viral syndrome, causes roughening of the pericardium. The roughening of the pericardium causes the classic “rub” which can best be heard at the apex of the heart and left sternal border.
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 4

1 out of 1 points

A 15-year-old adolescent male comes to the clinic with his parents with a chief complaint of fever, nausea, vomiting, poorly localized abdominal pain, arthralgias, and “swollen lymph nodes”. States he has felt “lousy” for a couple weeks. The fevers have been as high as 102 F. His parents thought he had the flu and took him to an Urgent Care Center. He was given Tamiflu® and sent home. He says the Tamiflu didn’t seem to work. States had a slight sore throat a couple weeks ago and attributed it to the flu. Physical exam revealed thin young man who appears to be uncomfortable but not acutely ill. Posterior pharynx reddened and tonsils 3+ without exudate. + anterior and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. Tachycardic and a new onset 2/6 high-pitched, crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur auscultated at the left sternal border. Rapid strep +. The patient was diagnosed with acute rheumatic heart disease (RHD).

Question:

Explain how a positive strep test has caused the patient’s symptoms.

Selected Answer: A pharyngeal infection with GABHs (Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus) often leads to the development of RHD, which is an abnormal response to cell-mediated responses. The inflammatory cascade associated with this process cause exudative and proliferative lesions, and scarring in the valve tissue. Since it is the endocardium which contains valves that is primarily affected, inflammation of the endocardium results to subsequent inflammation of valves.
Correct Answer: Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) only develops after a pharyngeal infection with Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus. It is an abnormal response to humoral and cell-mediated response to M proteins on the microorganisms. The intense inflammation caused by these reactions cause proliferative and exudative lesions in connective tissue. This inflammation causes scarring of the valve tissue. The inflammation usually affects the endocardium which contains the valves. Endocardial inflammation causes swelling of leaflets in the valves.
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 5

1 out of 1 points

The APRN sees a 74-year-old obese female patient who is 2 days post-op after undergoing left total hip replacement. The patient has had severe post op nausea and vomiting and has been unable to go to physical therapy. Her mucus membranes are dry. The patient says she feels like the skin on her left leg is too tight. Exam reveals a swollen, tense, and red colored calf. The patient has a duplex ultrasound which reveals the presence of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT).

Question:

Describe the factors that could have contributed to the development of a DVT in this patient explain how each of the factors could cause DVT.

Selected Answer: When there is injury to a blood vessel, there is platelet adherence to blood vessel walls influenced by antiplatelet substances. When platelets aggregate, they form clots. Therefore, virchow’s triad damaged the blood vessel walls. Since this patient is reportedly obese, inability to engage in physical therapy and an advanced age caused venous stasis,
Correct Answer: Virchow’s Triad caused damage to the walls of the vessels. When there is injury to the intimal layer of the vessel, antiplatelet substances such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin, along with the expression of collagen on the vessel wall, causes adherence of the platelets to the vessel wall. The platelets become activated then aggregate forming clots. Venous stasis as a result of obesity, patient’s advanced age and inability to go to physical therapy.
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 6

1 out of 1 points

A 45-year-old woman is 10 days status post partial small bowel resection for Crohn Disease and has been recuperating at home. She suddenly develops severe shortness of breath, becomes weak, and her blood pressure drops to 80/40 mmHg (previous readings ~130/80s mmHg). The pulse oximetry is 89% on room air. The APRN suspects the patient experienced a massive pulmonary embolus.

Question:

Explain why a large pulmonary embolus interferes with oxygenation.

Selected Answer: The pulmonary embolus lodged itself strategically in pulmonary circulation resulting to a mismatch in ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) reducing the area for the exchange of oxygen.
Correct Answer: The embolus lodges somewhere in the pulmonary circulation and causes a ventilation/perfusion mismatch (V/Q). Ventilation Perfusion mismatch or “V/Q defects” are defects in total lung ventilation perfusion ratio. It is a condition in which one or more areas of the lung receive oxygen but no blood flow, or they receive blood flow but no oxygen due to obstruction somewhere in the pulmonary circulation. This causes a decreased area for oxygen exchange.
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 7

1 out of 1 points

A 45-year-old woman is 10 days status post partial small bowel resection for Crohn Disease and has been recuperating at home. She suddenly develops severe shortness of breath, becomes weak, and her blood pressure drops to 80/40 mmHg (previous readings ~130/80s mmHg). The pulse oximetry is 89% on room air. While waiting for the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) to arrive, the APRN places EKG leads and the EKG demonstrates right ventricular strain.

Question:

Explain why a large pulmonary embolism causes right ventricular strain.

Selected Answer: The ventilation/perfusion mismatch caused the release of inflammatory mediators resulting to vasoconstriction of the pulmonary system obstructing oxygenation and subsequent hypertension. This causes atelectasis and makes pumping of blood by the right ventricle difficult
Correct Answer: The V/Q mismatch causes release of neurohumeral substances and inflammatory mediators that cause vasoconstriction of the pulmonary vasculature further impeding oxygenation. Hemodynamically, this vasoconstriction results in pulmonary hypertension, making it difficult for the right ventricle to pump blood. The V/Q mismatch also causes decreased production of surfactant causing atelectasis that further decreases surface area available for oxygen exchange.
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 8

2 out of 2 points

A 12-year-old girl is brought to the Emergency Room (ER) by her mother with complaints of shortness of breath, wheezing, tachypnea, tachycardia, and a non-productive cough. The mother states they had just come from a fall festival where the entire family enjoyed a hayride. The symptoms began shortly after they left the festival but got better a couple hours after they returned home. The symptoms began again about 6 hours later and seem to be worse. The mother states there is no history of allergies or frequent respiratory infections. The child is up to date on all vaccinations. The child was diagnosed with asthma. The nurse practitioner explained to the mother that her child was exhibiting symptoms of asthma, and probably had an early asthmatic response and a late asthmatic response.

Question 1 of 2:

Explain early asthmatic responses and the cells responsible for the responses.

Selected Answer: There is an adaptive and innate immune response following an initial airway exposure to an antigen. Basophils, T helper cells, eosinophils, dendritic cells, and mast cells can initiate the inflammatory process. This process can peak at thirty minutes and resolve after three hours.
Correct Answer: When there is an initial airway exposure to an antigen, an innate and adaptive immune response is initiated. Cells that can initiate the inflammation of the bronchial mucosa and hyperresonance of the airways include dendritic cells, T helper 2 lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Early asthmatic response is a phase of bronchospasm that peaks at about 30 minutes and usually resolves after about 3 hours.
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 9

1.8 out of 2 points

A 12-year-old girl is brought to the Emergency Room (ER) by her mother with complaints of shortness of breath, wheezing, tachypnea, tachycardia, and a non-productive cough. The mother states they had just come from a fall festival where the entire family enjoyed a hayride. The symptoms began shortly after they left the festival but got better a couple hours after they returned home. The symptoms began again about 6 hours later and seem to be worse. The mother states there is no history of allergies or frequent respiratory infections. The child is up to date on all vaccinations. The child was diagnosed with asthma. The nurse practitioner explained to the mother that her child was exhibiting symptoms of asthma, and probably had an early asthmatic response and a late asthmatic response.

Question 2 of 2:

Explain late asthmatic responses and the cells responsible for the responses.

Selected Answer: Early exposure in the initial phase mediate late asthma responses resulting to the release of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins D  and leukotrienes  with subsequent  edema, bronchospasms, and  secretion of mucus that obstruct the flow of air. With continuous obstruction, resistance sets in and air is trapped hence reduced lung perfusion and ventilation.
Correct Answer: Late asthmatic responses are mediated by earlier exposure in early phase that causes a latent release of inflammatory mediators. These mediators, leukotrienes and prostaglandin D, cause bronchospasm, edema, and mucus secretions that obstruct airflow. Airway obstruction creates resistance to airflow and causes air trapping. Continued air trapping increases intrapleural and alveolar gas pressure, decreases ventilation and perfusion leading to uneven and variable ventilation/perfusion in the lung
Response Feedback: timing of phase
  • Question 10

2 out of 2 points

A 64-year-old man with a 40 pack/year history of cigarette smoking has been diagnosed with emphysema.  He asks the APRN if this means he has COPD.

Question 1 of 2:

Explain the pathophysiology of emphysema and how it relates to COPD.

Selected Answer: Emphysema causes the permanent airway enlargement characterized by damage to alveolar walls. With continuous exposure to irritants, there is an inflammatory oxidative stress involving lymphocytes, neutrophils, and macrophages causing more alveoli damage. This process reduces the surface area required for the exchange of gases with a significant ventilation/perfusion mismatch.
Correct Answer: Emphysema is a disease of the airways that causes permanent enlargement of the gasexchange airways. It is accompanied by destruction of the alveolar walls do not appear to be fibrotic. Chronic exposure to irritants recruit neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes to the lung resulting in progressive damage from inflammatory oxidative stress. Emphysema is characterized by destruction of alveoli leading to decreased surface area for gas exchange that causes significant ventilation/perfusion mismatch.
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 11

2 out of 2 points

A 64-year-old man with a 40 pack/year history of cigarette smoking has been diagnosed with emphysema.  He asks the APRN if this means he has COPD.

Question 2 of 2:

Explain the pathophysiology of chronic bronchitis and how it relates to COPD.

Selected Answer: The bronchi becomes inflamed when an individual inhales irritants. Inflammation increases the number and size of   goblet cells and mucus glands, causes edema of the bronchial, and hypertrophy of the smooth muscles. Over time, the airway undergoes fibrosis and narrows. Since the functioning of the ciliary is also impaired, continuous mucus production hinders the patient’s ability to cough.  In the advanced stages, both the large and small airways get involved, with an obstructed airflow during expiration that can result to a VQ mismatch.
Correct Answer: Chronic bronchitis is caused by inhalation of irritants that promote bronchial inflammation. This inflammation causes bronchial edema, increase in the size and number of mucus glands and goblet cells, smooth muscle hypertrophy with fibrosis and narrowing of the airway. Increased secretions of thick mucus happen, and the patient cannot cough it up due to impairment of ciliary function. As the disease, progresses, the smaller airways are involved as well as the large airways. These airways, due to hypertrophy, cause narrowing of the smooth muscle and obstruct airflow, especially during expiration. The obstruction can lead to VQ mismatches.
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 12

1 out of 1 points

Mr. Jones is a 78-year-old gentleman who presents to the clinic with a chief complaint of fever, chills and cough. He also reports some dyspnea. He has a history of right sided CVA, COPD, dyslipidemia, and HTN. Current medications include atorvastatin 40 mg po qhs, lisinopril, and fluticasone/salmeterol. He reports more use of his albuterol rescue inhaler.

Vital signs Temp 101.8 F, pulse 108, respirations 21. PaO2 on room air 86% and on O2 4 L nasal canula 94%. CMP WNL, WBC 18.4. Physical exam reveals thin, anxious gentleman with mild hemiparesis on left side due to CVA. HEENT WNL except for diminished gag reflex and uneven elevation of the uvula, CV-HR 108 RRR without murmurs, rubs, or click, no bruits. Resp-coarse rhonchi throughout lung fields. CXR reveals consolidation in right lower lobe. He was diagnosed with community acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Question:

Patient was hypoxic as evidenced by the low PaO2. Explain the pathologic processes that caused this patient’s hypoxemia.

Selected Answer: Continuous flow of blood in the pulmonary artery results to lung consolidation with a subsequent V/Q mismatch. This process influences the release of mediators with an inflamed bronchi-alveolar membrane. However, when the surfactant becomes inactivated, the alveoli collapses, and gets filled with exudates which decreases the surface area for the exchange of   gases.
Correct Answer: Arterial hypoxemia early in acute pneumococcal pneumonia is principally caused by persistence of pulmonary artery blood flow to be consolidated lung resulting in an intrapulmonary shunt, and by ventilation-perfusion mismatch later. Release of mediators cause widespread inflammation of the bronchial structures, especially the alveolarcapillary membrane. The alveoli collapse due to inactivation of surfactant and the alveoli fill with exudate, decreasing surface area for gas exchange.
Response Feedback: [None Given]
  • Question 13

1 out of 1 points

A 64-year-old woman with moderately severe COPD comes to the pulmonary clinic for her quarterly checkup. The APRN reviewing the chart notes that the patient has lost 5% of her body weight since her last visit. The APRN questions the patient and patient admits to not having much of an appetite and she also admits to missing some meals because it “takes too much work” to cook and consume dinner.

Question:

The APRN recognizes that COPD has a deleterious effect on patients. Explain why patients with COPD are at risk for malnutrition.

Selected Answer: Most patients diagnosed with COPD are malnourished since they require a diet that is low in carbohydrates to prevent hypercapnia that may occur from the metabolism of CHO.
Correct Answer: Many of the patients with severe COPD are lean, and frequently in a malnourished or undernourished state, which is characterized by loss of fat-free body mass causing muscle wasting. The muscle wasting in COPD not only leads to decreased skeletal muscle function associated with reduced exercise capacity but is also a major determinant of mortality in COPD. Patients with COPD require a low carbohydrate diet as increased CHO can lead to hypercapnia as the end products of CHO metabolism are CO2 and H2O.
Response Feedback: [None Given]

Review Test Submission: Module 2 Knowledge Check

The circulatory system and the respiratory system are powerful partners in health. While they work closely together in good health, a disease or disorder that manifests in one can have a significant impact on both, hampering the pair’s ability to collaborate.NURS 6051 Musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions

Cardiovascular and respiratory disease and disorders are among the most common reasons for hospital visits, and among the leading causes of fatality. Heart disease and pneumonias are among the most familiar, but a wide variety of issues can impact physiological functioning of one or both systems.

This week, you examine fundamental concepts of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. You explore common diseases and disorders that impact these systems, and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS: NURS 6051 Musculoskeletal, metabolic, and multisystem health dysfunctions

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the lifespan

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.

  • Chapter 32: Structure and Function of the Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems; Summary Review
  • Chapter 33: Alterations of Cardiovascular Function (stop at Dysrhythmias); Summary Review
  • Chapter 35: Structure and Function of the Pulmonary System; Summary Review
  • Chapter 36: Alterations of Pulmonary Function (stop at Disorders of the chest wall and pleura); (obstructive pulmonary diseases) (stop at Pulmonary artery  hypertension); Summary Review
Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

Module 2 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris 

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 2 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check and Assignment. (4m)

Cardiovascular Respiratory Disorders – Week 3 (16m)

Pneumonia

MedCram. (2015, September 14). Pneumonia explained clearly by MedCram.com [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nqyPECmkSeo

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 13 minutes.

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 32, 33, 35, and 36 that relate to cardiorespiratory systems and alteration in cardiorespiratory systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/

https://nursingassignmentgurus.com/nurs-6051-knowledge-check-cardiovascular-and-respiratory-disorders/

Knowledge Check: Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-essay type question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

  • myocardial infarction
  • endocarditis
  • myocarditis
  • valvular disorders
  • lipid panels
  • coagulation
  • clotting cascade
  • deep vein thrombosis
  • hypertension
  • heart failure
  • COPD
  • asthma
  • pneumonias

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Science Photo Library RF

Complete the Knowledge Check by Day 7 of Week 3

To complete this Knowledge Check:

Module 2 Knowledge Check


What’s Coming Up in Week 4?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will examine the alterations in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and the resultant disease processes through case study analysis. You will also consider patient characteristics, including racial and ethnic variables, which may impact altered physiology.

Next Week

Week 4

Question 1

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Sympathetic stimulation causes airways to:
Selected Answer:
Correct

dilate
Answers:
Correct

dilate

constrict

collapse

trap air
Question 2

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Sympathetic nerves to the heart releases what the neurotransmitter?
Selected Answer:
Correct

norepinephrine
Answers:

serotonin

epinephrine

Correct

norepinephrine

acetylcholine
Question 3

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Norepinephrine action on a1-adrenergic receptors causes ________________________.
Selected Answer:
Correct

vasoconstriction
Answers:
Correct

vasoconstriction

vasodilation

bradycardia

hypotension
Question 4

1 out of 1 points

Correct

A patient that is hyperventilating will have a decreased:
Selected Answer:
Correct

PaCO2
Answers:

saturation

Pa02

Correct

PaCO2

minute volume
Question 5

1 out of 1 points

Correct

A person who has pulmonary edema will exhibit which symptoms?
Selected Answer:
Correct

dullness to percussion over the lung bases, inspiratory crackles, and pink frothy sputum
Answers:

resonance to percussion over the lung bases, inspiratory wheezing, foul smelling sputum

Correct

dullness to percussion over the lung bases, inspiratory crackles, and pink frothy sputum

resonance to percussion over the lung bases, inspiratory wheezing, and pink frothy sputum

dullness to percussion over the lung bases, inspiratory wheezing, foul smelling sputum
Question 6

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Stimulation of the carina often causes:
Selected Answer:
Correct

coughing
Answers:

inhalation

Correct

coughing

gagging

swallowing
Question 7

1 out of 1 points

Correct

As a person ages, what type of changes occur in the myocardium and arterial walls?
Selected Answer:
Correct

stiffening
Answers:

dilation

Correct

stiffening

atrophy

shrink
Question 8

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Parasympathetic stimulation causes airways to:
Selected Answer:
Correct

constrict
Answers:

dilate

Correct

constrict

collapse

trap air
Question 9

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Parasympathetic nerves to the heart releases what the neurotransmitter?
Selected Answer:
Correct

acetylcholine
Answers:

serotonin

epinephrine

norepinephrine

Correct

acetylcholine
Question 10

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Inflammatory mediators released during an acute asthma episode cause:
Selected Answer:
Correct

inflammation, hypersecretion of mucous, and bronchial smooth muscle constriction
Answers:
Correct

inflammation, hypersecretion of mucous, and bronchial smooth muscle constriction

inflammation, bleeding, and bronchial smooth muscle constriction

bronchial smooth muscle dilation, alveolar collapse, and retained PaCO2

bronchial smooth muscle dilation, inflammation, and thick mucous
Question 11

1 out of 1 points

Correct

The presence of pus in the pleural cavity is a(n):
Selected Answer:
Correct

Empyema
Answers:
Correct

Empyema

Atelectasis

Aspiration

Hemoptysis
Question 12

1 out of 1 points

Correct

A person with a respiratory rate of 12 breaths per minute and a minute volume of 6.0 L/minute has a tidal volume of :
Selected Answer:
Correct

500 ml
Answers:

720 ml

600 ml

1000 ml

Correct

500 ml
Question 13

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Ischemic pain in the lower extremities that occurs while walking but disappears when resting is a description of which condition?
Selected Answer:
Correct

Intermittent claudication
Answers:

Pericarditis

Varicose veins

Correct

Intermittent claudication

Thromboangiitis obliterans
Question 14

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Clinical manifestations of bronchiolitis include:
Selected Answer:
Correct

tachypnea, non-productive cough, and low grade fever
Answers:

hypoxia, use of accessory muscles, and high grade fever

tachypnea, use of accessory muscles, and high grade fever

tachypnea, productive cough, and high grade fever

Correct

tachypnea, non-productive cough, and low grade fever
Question 15

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Binding of ATP to myosin that enables myocardial contraction requires which electrolyte?
Selected Answer:
Correct

calcium
Answers:
Correct

calcium

magnesium

sodium

potassium
Question 16

1 out of 1 points

Correct

How much oxygen does the myocardium extract from the coronary arteries?
Selected Answer:
Correct

70%
Answers:

40%

50%

60%

Correct

70%
Question 17

1 out of 1 points

Correct

The right side of the heart is a high-pressure system
Selected Answer:
Correct

False
Answers:

True

Correct

False
Question 18

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Collapse of alveoli is a(n):
Selected Answer:
Correct

Atelectasis
Answers:

Empyema

Aspiration

Correct

Atelectasis

Hemoptysis
Question 19

1 out of 1 points

Correct

The tunica media is the middle layer of blood vessels and is composed of what type of tissue?

Selected Answer:
Correct

smooth muscle and elastic fibers
Answers:

endothelium and elastic fibers

endothelium and connective tissue

Correct

smooth muscle and elastic fibers

smooth muscle and connective tissue
Question 20

1 out of 1 points

Correct

Prinzmetal angina is caused by:
Selected Answer:
Correct

vasospasm of the coronary artery
Answers:

obstruction of a coronary artery

Correct

vasospasm of the coronary artery

thrombus within the coronary artery

dissection of the coronary artery

Scenario 4: Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT)

A 81-year-old obese female patient who 48 hours post-op left total hip replacement. The patient has had severe nausea and vomiting and has been unable to go to physical therapy. Her mucus membranes are dry. The patient says the skin on her left leg is too tight. Exam reveals a swollen, tense, and red colored calf. The patient has a duplex ultrasound which reveals the presence of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT).

Question:

1.     Given the history of the patient explain what contributed to the development of a deep venous thrombosis (DVT)

Selected Answer: given patient history factors that may contribute to her developing deep vein thrombosis, age, surgery, immobility, and dehydration
Correct Answer: Virchow’s Triad caused damage to the walls of the vessels. When there is injury to the intimal layer of the vessel, antiplatelet substances such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin, along with the expression of collagen on the vessel wall, causes adherence of the platelets to the vessel wall. The platelets become activated then aggregate forming clots. Venous stasis because of obesity, patient’s advanced age and inability to go to physical therapy.
Response Feedback: [None Given]

·  Question 5

4 out of 4 points

Scenario 5:  COPD

A 66-year-old female with a 50 pack/year history of cigarette smoking had a CT scan and was diagnosed with emphysema.  He asks if this means he has chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Question:

1.     There is a clear relationship between emphysema and COPD, explain the pathophysiology of emphysema and the relationship to COPD.

Selected Answer: Emphysema is one of the lung conditions included in the term COPD. Normal lung tissue resembles a sponge; however, the lungs of people with emphysema look like an old used sponge, with large holes in them and a limited ability to “spring-back” into shape.

Emphysema is a progressive disease, that usually starts slowly with small holes between the alveoli, which eventually collapse to form larger air spaces. Old air gets trapped in these air spaces, which makes it difficult for people to inhale fresh air. Blood flow through the alveoli is also impaired meaning that people with emphysema not only struggle to breathe but have trouble receiving enough oxygen.

Cigarette smoking is by far the biggest cause of emphysema, but also the most preventable. Emphysema is more common with age and in males, and it tends to run in families. Other causes include air pollution, airway reactivity, and a deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin.

The main difference between emphysema and COPD is that emphysema is a progressive lung disease caused by over-inflation of the alveoli and COPD is an umbrella term used to describe a group of lung conditions emphysema is one of them. A person with emphysema has COPD; however, not everybody with COPD has emphysema.

Correct Answer: Emphysema is a disease of the airways that causes permanent enlargement of the gas exchange airways. It is accompanied by destruction of the alveolar walls do not appear to be fibrotic. Chronic exposure to irritants recruit neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes to the lung resulting in progressive damage from inflammatory oxidative stress. Emphysema is characterized by destruction of alveoli leading to decreased surface area for gas exchange that causes significant ventilation/perfusion mismatch.
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ELIZABETH 

The musculoskeletal system is made up of connective tissues and voluntary muscles including cartilage, joints, ligaments, tendons, and fascia that operates independently allowing body motion (Jull & Hall, 2018). The most experienced pathophysiology alterations and the abnormal developments can be connected with infections, inflammatory illnesses, injury, and non-inflammatory conditions or tumors. Most common musculoskeletal system abnormalities include osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Among symptoms of these musculoskeletal system complications are limited motion, pain, edema, spams of the muscle, warmth, tenderness, and stiffness. Normally, diagnostic tests are run to diagnose and detect the intensity of the condition. For starters, osteoporosis is triggered by the loss of minerals in the bones weakening and thinning bones that can eventually lead to reduced heights, fractures, and the curving of the upper back. 

Rheumatoid arthritis on the other hand refers to a condition acquired when the immune system attacks the healthy tissues leading to inflammation and destruction of connective tissues, loss of function, and deformity (Fautrel, 2018). The symptoms of these musculoskeletal systems greatly impacts the normal function of the patient by messing with pain and mobility. Additionally, patients suffering from musculoskeletal complications undergo depression and stress due to the abnormal changes that comes with the illnesses affecting their day to day lives. Musculoskeletal system problems might affect the career of an individual causing increased financial and emotional stress. It goes without a doubt that musculoskeletal complications affects daily life of an individual calling for medical assistance and an all-rounded for the victims and their loved ones. 

References  

Fautrel, B. (2018). Therapeutic strategy for rheumatoid arthritis patients who have achieved remission. Joint Bone Spine, 85(6), 679-685. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2018.02.002 

Jull, G., & Hall, T. (2018). Cervical musculoskeletal dysfunction in headache: How should it be defined?. Musculoskeletal Science And Practice, 38, 148-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msksp.2018.09.012 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESPOND HERE 

Elizabeth it is true that the musculoskeletal system is made up of connective tissues and voluntary muscles. Both muscles and connective tissues in the musculoskeletal system work together to support metabolic activities in the human body (Gheorghita Puscaselu et al., 2020). Unfortunately, the most experienced pathophysiology alterations and the abnormal developments can be connected with infections.  Infections may affect the entire musculoskeletal system. As a result, the connective tissues and voluntary muscles may not perform their normal routine due to the interference from these infections. Inflammatory illnesses, injury, and non-inflammatory conditions or tumors can as well interfere with the musculoskeletal system. Osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis are common examples of musculoskeletal abnormalities (Aron-Wisnewsky et al., 2020). Some abnormalities may be detected in the infancy stages, especially, among people who partake regular screening. Regrettably, as the advanced stages musculoskeletal abnormalities may be challenging to manage. As a result, both the patients and their loved ones may struggle to manage the complication.  Musculoskeletal health dysfunctions have unique signs and symptoms.  

 

References 

Aron-Wisnewsky, J., Vigliotti, C., Witjes, J., Le, P., Holleboom, A. G., Verheij, J., … & Clément, K. (2020). Gut microbiota and human NAFLD: disentangling microbial signatures from metabolic disorders. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 17(5), 279-297. 

Gheorghita Puscaselu, R., Lobiuc, A., Dimian, M., & Covasa, M. (2020). Alginate: From food industry to biomedical applications and management of metabolic disorders. Polymers, 12(10), 2417. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12102417 

CHIZOBA 

Weakness in the muscles is a common sign of problems with the musculoskeletal system. Muscle wasting, joint discomfort, and stiffness are just some of the problems that might lead to this. Cramps in the muscles are another common sign, and they can be brought on by lack of fluids, an imbalance of electrolytes, or simply from overuse.  

Musculoskeletal dysfunction has been linked to several prevalent causes of joint pain, including tendinitis, bursitis, and osteoarthritis. Tophi, or uric acid, accumulates in the joints, causing gout, a form of arthritis. Symptoms of fibromyalgia include widespread muscle pain and extreme exhaustion. 

The inability of the body to respond normally to the hormone insulin is known as insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are just a few of the complications that can arise from this. Inappropriate blood lipid levels are called dyslipidemia. High levels of cholesterol or triglycerides are examples of this. High blood pressure, often known as hypertension. Heart disease, stroke, and chronic renal disease are just some of the devastating outcomes that might result from any of these disorders. 

 

When the heart or blood arteries are affected, we call it cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular illness, cerebrovascular accident, and chronic kidney disease are all examples. Damage to the liver is known as liver disease.  

It’s possible for fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatitis to fall into this category. Lungs are affected by respiratory illness. Asthma, COPD, and lung cancer are all examples of such conditions. Cancer refers to a collection of disorders that manifest themselves in the body’s cells. When the immune system isn’t working as it should, we call that immune system dysfunction.  

This can set off a chain reaction that results in a host of issues, such as the development of autoimmune illnesses, allergies, and infections. When the endocrine system in the body isn’t working as it should, we call it endocrine dysfunction.  

Diabetes, obesity, and hormone disruptions are just some of the issues that might result. When the neural system in the body isn’t working as it should, we call that a dysfunction. This can cause a wide range of medical issues, such as neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and MS. 

These findings may or may not be linked to a wide range of symptoms, muscle cramps, muscle weakness, joint pain, and fatigue are among the most often reported symptoms. These symptoms may make it harder to get to sleep, which in turn may make it harder to go about your everyday life, both of which can reduce quality of life. Furthermore, there may be insomnia or even to stay asleep. Some patient may get symptoms that are very severe which may prevent s them from engaging in regular activities. 

 

Reference 

 

Falkner, A. & Green, S. (2018). Musculoskeletal, Metabolism, and Multisystem Complexities. Pathophysiology Clinical Applications for Client Health. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/#/chapter/5 

 

Ghosal, S., & Ghosal, A. (2020). Diabetes and musculoskeletal disorders-a review. Journal of Diabetes, Metabolic Disorders & Control, 7(2), 63–71. https://doi.org/10.15406/jdmdc.2020.07.00202 

 

 

RESPOND HERE 

Chizoba I agree with you that weakening of muscles is common among people suffering from musculoskeletal complications. Musculoskeletal system is made up of voluntary muscles and connective tissues. Therefore, any interference in the system either weakens the tissues or the muscles.  Muscle wasting and joint discomfort among patients with musculoskeletal abnormalities may interfere with the mobility and other body functions (Lemmer et al., 2021).  Unfortunately, the affected muscles and voluntary tissues may become stiff or associated complications may cause stiffness. Lack of fluids in the muscles due to musculoskeletal abnormalities may cause cramps in the muscles (Lacroix et al., 2020). Similarly, these abnormalities have been associated with tendinitis, bursitis, and osteoarthritis. Different musculoskeletal complications display different signs and symptoms that attract unique treatment processes. Sadly, some musculoskeletal complications are detected in the advanced stages. As a result, the treatment process becomes challenging and expensive. Therefore, people are encouraged to have regular screening to identify these abnormalities in the infancy stages. Identifying metabolic health dysfunctions in time improves the treatment process.  

 

References 

Lacroix, M., Riscal, R., Arena, G., Linares, L. K., & Le Cam, L. (2020). Metabolic functions of the tumor suppressor p53: Implications in normal physiology, metabolic disorders, and cancer. Molecular metabolism, 33, 2-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2019.10.002 

Lemmer, I. L., Willemsen, N., Hilal, N., & Bartelt, A. (2021). A guide to understanding endoplasmic reticulum stress in metabolic disorders. Molecular metabolism, 47, 101169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2021.101169